每人一小段,翻译我也行!
每日新素材,等你来认领! http://www.ltaaa.com/translation/

-------------译者:龙腾翻译总管-审核者:龙腾翻译总管------------

视频本身有字幕,所以专注英文评论翻译。感兴趣的链接在此:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aHC3i6N9Wvk

Quziz time! Are the following words Chinese or Japanese?

小测试:以下的词语是中文还是日语?









(答案是:日语、中文、皆是、皆不是)

Today's topic is: How similar are Chinese and Japanese?

今日主题:中文与日语有多相似?

A lot of people look at a map of Asia and see how close Japan and China are, or they might looked at a sample of Chinese and Japanese writing, and think something looks similar, and they might concluded that the two languages are similar. But are they really similar? Well, the short answer is no. They are completely different languages. But Japanese has been highly influenced by Chinese in Vocabulary and writing system. Chinese and Japanese don't share a common origion, and they don't belong to the same language family. The Chinese language belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language family and Japanese, as far as we know, belongs to the Japonic language family.

很多人看着亚洲地图会发现,中国与日本有多近,或者他们看着中文与日文的书写,觉得有些东西类似,然后他们就有可能推断两种语言很相似。但是这两种语言真的相似吗?简单地说,不对,它们是完全不同的两门语言。但是日语在其词汇与书写系统方面深深地受到了中文的影响。中文与日文没有任何共同起源,并且不在同样的语系。中文属于汉藏语系,而日语,就我们所知,属于日语系。

1) Fonology:

音系学

First of all, the fonology of the languages is very different. With the basic difference is been that Chinese is a tonal language while Japanese is not. A tonal language is one or which their tones are pitches that help determine the meaning of the words you use. If you use the wrong tone, then the meaning of the word changes. Here's an example for teacher:(见下图)So I'm sure that the Chinese teacher get called naive or old-fashioned all the time by mistake. Or maybe not by mistake?

首先,两种语言的音系学截然不同。其最基本的差异为汉语是声调语言,而日语不是。在声调语言中存在声调或音高来帮助确定词语的意思;如果你用了错误的声调,词句的意思改变。下面是一个例子:(见下图)。所以我确定汉语老师们总是被错误地叫成“老实”和“老式”。或者可能是故意的?



In Japanese there are basically no tones that determine the meaning of the words. In Japanese, there is something called "pitch accent" which means that the syllables of a word have either a higher pitch or a lower pitch. But they're not like the tones in Chinese, because they typically don't determine the meaning of the word. They're more like stress in English.

在日语里基本上没有这种声调来取决词句的意义。日语里有“重音”,意思是一个词语的音节或是发高音,或是发低音。但是它们不像中文里的声调,因为他们一般不被用来决定词语的意思。它们更像英语里的重读。

2)Structure:

结构

The structure and grammar of the two languages are completely different. And the most basic level, Chinese is a SVO language while Japanese is a SOV language. Here's an example in Chinese(见下图)This means he speaks Chinese. And as you can see S, V, O. And here's that sentence translated in Japanese. Here we can see S O V. And you can see some extra little words in Japanese that don't exist in the Chinese sentence. For example, Japanese has the topic marker "wa" which doesn'r exist in Chinese and Japanese also the object marker "wo" which doesn't exist in Chinese.

两种语言的结构与语法完全不同。从最简单的层面来看,中文是一门SVO(主谓宾)语言,而日语是SOV(主宾谓)语言。下面是汉语的一则例子:他说中文。SVO:主语、动词、宾语。下面是这句句子的日文翻译;这里你看到SOV:主语、宾语、动词。你可以看到日语中有有些多余的小词不存在于中文句子里。比如,日语里的一个话题标记“は(wa)”在中文中是不存在的。日语还有个宾语标记“を(wo)”在中文句中也不存在。



Chinese is an analytic language which basically means that you create a sentence by placing independent elements side by side. And analytic language like Chinese do not use inflection. Inflection means modifying words to indicate grammatical meaning like plural, gender, tense, case, etc.. You don't change any part of the word in order to change its meaning. Instead you can add to the meaning of the word by adding an extra word next to it. Japanese, on the other hand, is an agglutinative language that uses inflection. An agglutinative language uses a lot of affixes rather than just placing independent words side by side, you attach additional pieces to words to add or modify meaning. This kind of inflection in Japanese means that Japanese words are often longer than Chinese words. And that may take a few words in Chinese to translate one Japanese word.

汉语是分析语(孤立语),意思是你可以把独立的元素放在一起来组成一句句子。像汉语一样的分析语不发生曲折变化:曲折的意思是修改单词来表达一些语法含义比如复数、词性、时态或格。你不改变一个字的任一部分来改变它的含义。反之你可以在这个字旁边加上一个字来给它附加含义。日语反而言之是一门实用曲折变化的黏着语。黏着语使用很多的词缀,与将独立的字并排放置在一起不同,你附加几个字块来增加或修饰含义。日语的这种曲折性意味着日语单词比中文长,而翻译一个日语单词可能要用到几个汉字。

In these Chinese sentences, we can see there are no inflection. This sentence means I go to School. This sentence means I went to School. So no part of the verb is changed to indicate past tense. We can show the past tense by just adding a time expression. Now These similar sentences in Japanese show inflection. This sentence means I go to School. I went to school. And the polite form of "I go to school". I want to go to school.

在这些中文句子中没有曲折变化。动词没有改变以显示过去时态。我们加上一个时间短语来表示过去。这里类似的日语句子体现了曲折变化。(我去学校)、我去(了)学校还有“我去学校”的敬语形态。





In the Japanese example, we use inflection changing the word "iku" to the "iki" form and then we use an agglutination to attach a form that shows intention "tai". In Chinese though, there is no inflection or agglutination. You just add an extra word like this. That's just a brief sample of how different the grammar is in Japan and Chinese. Basically, they are completely different languages when it comes to the grammatical structure.

在这个例子里我们用了曲折变化把“行く(iku)”变成“行き(iki)”,然后黏合上表示意向的形式“たい(tai)”。然而在中文里没有曲折或黏合,而是加上一个额外的字。以上只是体现汉日语法区别的一个简单范例。总而言之它们在语法结构上是完全不同的语言。



3)Vocabulary and Chinese characters:

词汇与汉字



And it's also important to point out that mandarin was not the standard form of Chinese back in those days when those vocabulary words were borrowed into Japanese. So even at that time they were borrowed, the pronunciation was different from standard Chinese today. From what I understand, the modern Japanese pronunciation of those long words is often more similar to modern Cantonese than it is to mandarin. These examples show how the same words pronounced very differently in Japanese and mandarin. The word for family in Japanese is "katei". And actually in Japanese, the meaning is more like "household" or "home". And in mandarin (the pronunciation) is "jiating"....So you can see those words look the same and they have basically the same meaning, but they sound very different.

另一个需要强调的重点是,普通话在日语大量借词时并不是标准汉语。甚至当时的发音与现在的标准汉语有别。而且我认为现代日语中借词的发音通常与现代广东话更相近而不是普通话。这些例子告诉你日语与普通话中同一词语如何有不同的发音。比如家庭这个词,日语发音为“katei”日语里这个词语表达的意思其实更像是家人群体。中文发音为“家庭”。(之后例子略)你看这些词看起来一样,意思基本上一样,但听起来很不一样。



So Chinese vocabulary words represented by Chinese characters were borrowed into Japanese, but those Chinese characters were also then applied to native Japanese vocabulary that had related meanings to those Chinese loaned words. That means a Chinese speaker can often look at a native Japanese word and undertstand its core meaning without knowing that Japanese word,because the Chinese character is used to represent it. So Chinese people can often read a text in Japanese and they can make sense of the basic meaning of it based on the Chinese characters, but they won't understand all the details.

用中国汉字书写的中文词汇被借入日语,但那些汉字同样被使用于日语中,意思与中文借词有关的本土词汇。这代表着一个汉语使用者通常可以看着一个本土日语词并理解其主要意思,即使不认识这个日语词。因为一个汉字被用来代表它,所以中国人经常可以读懂一段日语中用中文汉字写出来词语的基本意思,但却不能理解所有的细节。



And the same is true in reverse, Japanese people can look at a Chinese text and kind of make sense of the meaning of it based on the Chinese character that they know. But it is easy to misunderstand the details of what was written,esepically they have zero knowledge of the other language. Here are some Japanese example sentences that have the same Chinese characters, but the meaning is very different because of the inflection that's used. The cat eats fish. The cat doesn't eat fish. The cat ate fish. In the past tense. The cat plans to eat fish. The cat was eaten by a fish.

反过来也一样:日本人可以看一段中文文本并凭借着他们所认识的汉字了解其基本意思。但是对细节的误解经常发生,特别是在对另一语言没有任何基础的情况下。在这些例子中用到的汉字在两种语言中意思一样,但在句子中的意义非常不同,因为这里使用了曲折变化(见下图)。猫吃鱼。猫不吃鱼。猫吃了鱼(过去式)。猫计划吃鱼。猫被鱼吃了。



So a Chinese speaker reading these sentences would get the core meaning of the Chinese characters, but they would miss some meaning in the inflection. For example, the negative or the past tense, or the intention or the passive form. Especially the last example could be highly misunderstood. So imagining you are a English speaker reading something with English loan words, it might look something like this: Cat bla fish bla food bla bla.

如果一个中国人读了这些句子,他会理解其中汉字的主要含义却会忽视曲折变化所表达的意思。比方说否定、过去式、意愿或被动语态。最后一个例子特别容易被误解。想象你自己作为一位英语使用者来读英语的借词,感觉会是这样:(见下图)猫…鱼…吃的…



Of course, even after just a little bit of studying in Japanese, the Chinese speaker could probably learn enough to understand basic Japanese sentences like that. For me, as someone who study Japanese to a relatively advanced level, the same is true in reverse. When I was in Taiwan last year, on the subway for example, I could read a lot of the advertisements and I would get most of the meaning, I wouldn't understand all of the Chinese characters, but I could usually get 3 out of 4 of them. And the fourth one would be new to me, because in Chinese there are a lot of characters that actually aren't used in Japanese at all. But just getting 3 out of 4 of them was often enough to understand the basic meaning of that advertisement. But of course I have no idea how to pronounce those Chinese characters. And if I try to read them out loud like Japanese, I would hear laughter both from my girlfriend and local bystanders.

当然通过一点点的日语学习,中国人也许就足够理解这样的基础日语句子。对像我这样学至高级日语的人来说,反过来也说得通:比如说我去年在台湾的地铁上就可以读懂很多的广告,并且可以看出大部分的意思。我不会理解所有的汉字,但通常可以猜出4个里面的3个字,而第4个字对我来讲很陌生,因为中文有很多日文里根本没有的汉字,但4个字里面看得懂3个通常足够让我看懂广告基本的含义。但是当然咯,我不知道怎么读出那些中国字,当我像日语中的那样读出来,我会被我女朋友和当地人笑话。



4)Japanese "returned loan words" in Chinese:

日语给中文还借词

So as we have discussed already, lots of Chinese vocabulary was borrowed into Japanese, but some Japanese vocabulary has also been borrowed into Chinese. A moment ago I mentioned "wasei kango", Japanese vocabulary created from Chinese roots, vocabulary that doesn't exist in Chinese. But some of those "wasei kango" have actually been borrowed from Japanese into Chinese. Some sources say that such vocabulary counts for around 30% of modern Chinese vocabulary. Of coures the way those "returned loan words" are pronounced based on the modern Chinese pronunciation of the Chinese characters. Here're some examples:(见下图)

我们前面已经提到过,很多中文词汇被借入日语,但是有些日语词汇也被借入中文。我前面提到了“和制汉语”——日语中用中文造的而中文里不存在的词。但有些和制汉语事实上被借入中文。一些资料称这些词汇组成大约30%的现代汉语词汇。当然这些“回归的借词”的发音取决于现代汉语中的发音。这里有些例子:历史、工业、电子、注射、哲学、系统等。





And most Chinese people these days are probably not even aware of those words were borrwed from Japanese. It's also to point out that in mainland China, simplified Chinese characters are now used as opposed to the traditional Chinese characters used in Taiwan and Hongkong. That means someone from mainland China may have more trouble recognizing Japanese kanji than someone from Taiwan for example. So in short, Chinese and Japanese are very different languages, especially the spoken languages. Even though there was a lot of vocabulary borrowed from Chinese into Japanese and a little bit from Japanese into Chinese. Only in writing are those two languages somewhat intelligible because of the Chinese characters that are used.

今天大部分的中国人有可能都不清楚这些词其实是从日语里借来的。还要注意的是,在中国大陆简体字代替繁体字使用,繁体字用于台湾与香港,意味着一位中国大陆人可能会比一位台湾人更难理解日语汉字。简而言之,中文与日文非常不同。特别是口语,尽管有很多词汇从中文借入日文和一些从日语借入中文,只有在书面语中,由于中国汉字的缘故,这两种语言才某种程度上互通。