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The House of Representatives is expected to pass a resolution with overwhelming bipartisan support Wednesday to declare the violence against Myanmar's Rohingya a genocide, a move the Trump administration still has not made despite mounting evidence and a cavalcade of voices saying so.

预计众议院将在周三通过一项获得两党压倒性支持的决议,宣布针对缅甸罗辛亚人的暴力行为是一场种族灭绝。尽管有越来越多的证据和大量声音表达了这一观点,但特朗普政府仍未采取这一行动。

The resolution's expected passage is particularly striking because it brings Democrats together with House Republicans who rarely break with President Donald Trump on legislation or messaging. Republican House leadership pushed for the vote to come up before the end of the year, a House aide told ABC News, sending a signal to the White House that more should be done to punish Myanmar for the atrocities.

该决议的预期通过尤其引人注目,因为它将民主党人和众议院共和党人团结在一起,他们很少在立法或信息传递上与特朗普总统产生分歧。一位众议院助理告诉ABC新闻,众议院共和党领导层推动在今年年底前进行投票,这向白宫发出了一个信号,即应该做更多的事情来惩罚缅甸的暴行。

(注:罗辛亚危机,2017年8月25日起,数十万罗兴亚穆斯林逃离缅甸若开邦,躲避政府安全部队的大规模暴行和种族清洗,缅甸120万罗兴亚人约有三分之二于近几周内穿越边界到达孟加拉,另有数万人在缅甸境内流徙,当时的军队在村庄屠杀罗兴亚平民,性侵幼女,还有其他反人类的罪行)

The vote was expected to occur Tuesday, but had to be pushed to Wednesday after debate on other legislation.

预计投票将于周二进行,但由于讨论了其他立法不得不推迟到周三。



The resolution also condemns the arrest of two Reuters journalists who helped uncover one of the Myanmar military's mass graves and calls for their immediate release. Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo were arrested nearly a year ago on Dec. 12, 2017 and sentenced in September to seven years in prison for breaching a law on state secrets -- charges that have been roundly criticized and described as trumped up.

决议还谴责了两名路透社记者的逮捕,这两名记者协助揭露了缅甸军方的一个万人坑,并呼吁立即释放他们。将近一年前的2017年12月12日,瓦隆(Wa Lone)和吴觉秀(Kyaw Soe Oo)因违反国家保密法被捕,并于今年9月被判处7年有期徒刑。这一指控遭到了广泛批评,被描述为捏造。

Formerly known as Burma, Myanmar has long oppressed the majority Muslim ethnic minority Rohingya and other ethnic minorities. Starting last August, it began what the United Nations called a systematic campaign to eradicate the Rohingya and drive them from their homes into neighboring Bangladesh. More than 700,000 refugees escaped to make the journey and joined hundreds of thousands who already lived in camps in Cox's Bazaar, Bangladesh. There are now close to 1 million there.

缅甸原名Burma,现称Myanmar,长期以来一直压迫占人口多数的穆斯林少数民族罗兴亚和其他少数民族。从去年8月开始,它开始了联合国所谓的系统性运动,以根除罗兴亚人,并将他们赶出家园,驱赶至邻国孟加拉国。70多万难民逃离家园,加入了已经在孟加拉国考克斯巴扎难民营生活的、数十万难民的行列。现在那里有将近100万难民。

Since then, the United Nations, the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum and others have labeled that campaign a genocide.

从那以后,联合国、美国大屠杀纪念馆和其他机构都将这场运动定性为种族灭绝。

Last November, then-Secretary of State Rex Tillerson called it "ethnic cleansing" and ordered a detailed investigation into what occurred, the scope of which was unprecedented. But after investigators interviewed over a thousand Rohingya and provided their detailed report to the State Department, Secretary Mike Pompeo never made a genocide designation.

去年11月,时任美国国务卿的雷克斯 蒂勒森(Rex Tillerson)称其为“种族清洗”,并下令对发生的事情进行详细调查,其规模是前所未有的。但在调查人员采访了1000多名罗辛亚人,并向国务院提供了详细报告之后,部长迈克·庞贝仍未将其定义为种族灭绝。

Instead, he quietly released the report in September, with its grisly, detailed account of what happened and no legal determination. Even after the law firm that helped conduct the department's investigation made their own genocide determination last week, there was no change in its findings.

相反,他在9月份悄悄发布了这份报告,其中详细描述了可怕的事件,不过没有法律依据。甚至在帮助那家律师事务所(进行过司法部调查)上周做出种族灭绝认定之后,调查结果也没有变化。

While Trump administration officials like Vice President Mike Pence and U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. Nikki Haley have spoken forcefully about the violence, critics say their label of "ethnic cleansing" does not do enough, especially because that term is not defined by international law and is seen as a lesser charge.

尽管副总统迈克·彭斯(Mike Pence)和美国驻联合国大使尼基·黑利(Nikki Haley)等特朗普政府官员,对暴力事件发表了强有力的言论,但批评人士表示,只是贴上“种族清洗”的标签还不够,特别是因为国际法没有对这个词进行定义,而且它被视为一项较轻的指控。

Genocide, on the other hand, is defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, a 1948 treaty signed by the U.S. and other countries after the Holocaust. It defined genocide as killing, harming or seeking measures to prevent the births or transfer children of a national, ethnic, racial or religious group with intent to destroy them entirely or in part -- although the treaty is unclear about what, if any, real legal responsibilities signatories like the U.S. have to act on it outside of their borders.

另一方面,“防止及惩治灭绝种族罪公约”界定了种族灭绝罪,该公约是1948年美国和其他国家在大屠杀后签署的一项条约。它将种族灭绝定义为杀害、伤害或寻求措施防止某一民族、族裔、种族或宗教群体的儿童出生或转移,意图全部或部分消灭他们——尽管该条约尚不清楚像美国这样的签署国,需要在境外履行哪些真正的法律责任(如果有的话)

The last time the U.S. declared a genocide was in March 2016. The Obama administration declared the Islamic State's violence against Iraqi religious minorities a genocide, but determined it did not obligate them to take further action.

美国上一次宣布种族灭绝是在2016年3月。奥巴马政府宣布伊斯兰国(Islamic State)对伊拉克宗教少数派的暴力行为是种族灭绝,决定要求他们不能采取进一步行动。

"It is time we call these atrocities against the Rohingya what they are: genocide," said Rep. Steve Chabot, R-Ohio, in a statement in September when he introduced the bill. He even cited the State Department's own report, saying, "If this determination wasn't obvious before, the recent report ... should leave little doubt in anyone's mind. The perpetrators must be held accountable."

“现在是时候了,我们把这些针对罗辛亚人的暴行称为:种族灭绝,”俄亥俄州共和党众议员史蒂夫·查博特(Steve Chabot)在9月份提出该法案时发表的一份声明中说。他甚至援引国务院自己的报告说,“如果这一决心以前不明显,那么最近的报告…在任何人的心目中都应该是毫无疑问的。必须追究肇事者的责任。”

Chabot introduced the resolution being considered this week with a bipartisan group of cosponsors, including the top Republican and Democrat on the House Foreign Affairs Committee, Rep. Ed Royce of California and Rep. Eliot Engel of New York. While the legislation has faced some stops and starts, including a delay last week because of former President George H.W. Bush's funeral, it finally got its vote at the request of leadership like Royce, a GOP House aide said.

查博特介绍了本周正在考虑的这项决议,该决议由两党共同发起,包括众议院外交事务委员会(House Foreign Affairs Committee)的共和党和民主党领袖、加利福尼亚州众议员埃德罗伊斯(Ed Royce)和纽约州众议员埃利奥特恩格尔(Eliot Engel)。共和党众议院一名助手说,尽管该法案经历了一些起起落落,包括上周因前总统老布什(George H.W. Bush)的葬礼而被推迟,但它最终还是在罗伊斯等领导层的要求下获得了投票。

The State Department did not respond to a request for comment on the vote, but deputy spokesperson Robert Palladino told reporters Tuesday that the ethnic cleansing label "in no way prejudices any potential further analysis on whether mass atrocities have taken place, including genocide or crimes against humanity." He added the U.S. was "open to new information."

美国国务院没有回应就投票发表评论的请求,但是国务院副发言人罗伯特·帕拉迪诺星期二对记者说,“种族清洗”的标签“绝不影响对是否发生了大规模暴行,包括种族灭绝或反人类罪行的进一步分析”。他补充说,美国“对新信息持开放态度”。

It's unclear what more they expect to learn after their already exhaustive report, making a legal analysis and a determination the priority now.

目前还不清楚在他们知晓详尽报告后,还希望了解到什么,他们现在的首要任务是进行法律分析和做出决定。

"Every day the United States stalls and drags its feet to make a legal determination -- despite multiple opportunities -- makes the U.S. complicit in covering up what actually happened," Francisco Bencosme, Amnesty International's Asia Pacific advocacy manager, told ABC News. "It is clear, from what has been reported, that Trump's policy on Myanmar is paralyzed and failing to help alleviate the suffering of the Rohingya."

“尽管有很多机会,但美国每天都在拖延做出法律决定,这在串通一气掩盖事实真相”,大赦国际亚太事务经理弗朗西斯科·本科斯梅(Francisco Bencosme)对美国广播公司新闻网说。 “从报道的情况来看,很明显,特朗普的缅甸政策已经瘫痪,无法帮助减轻罗辛亚人的痛苦。”

The U.S. has provided nearly $300 million in aid for Rohingya refugees. But Myanmar's government has blocked humanitarian access to the northern Rakhine state, where much of the violence took place, in part to prevent international investigators from collecting evidence and accessing Rohingya victims and villages.

美国为罗兴亚难民提供了近3亿美元的援助。但缅甸政府已经封锁了通往北部若开邦的人道主义通道,部分原因是为了阻止国际调查人员收集证据,并进入罗兴亚受害者和村庄。

Still, a genocide determination by the U.S. could galvanize international action to investigate Myanmar's atrocities.

不过,美国的种族灭绝决定可能会促使国际社会采取行动调查缅甸的暴行。

"By passing this bill in the House, Congress is going on the record with the kind of moral clarity and leadership worthy of such an institution," said Bencosme.
While the House takes action, the Senate has yet to hold a similar vote on the Rohingya crisis. That's in part because of the close relationship between Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and Myanmar's top civilian leader Aung San Suu Kyi, a longtime political prisoner and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who was eventually freed from house arrest and allowed to join the new civilian-military, power-sharing government.

虽然众议院采取了行动,但参议院尚未就罗辛亚危机举行类似的投票。这在一定程度上是因为参议院多数党领袖米奇·麦康奈尔(Mitch McConnell)与缅甸最高文职领导人昂山素季(Aung San Suu Kyi)之间的密切关系。昂山素季是一名长期政治犯,也是诺贝尔和平奖得主。昂山素季最终从软禁中获释,获准加入新的军民权力分享政府。

Suu Kyi has dismissed criticism of the Rohingya crisis, in particular telling Pence last month that her government better understands their country than outsiders like the U.S. That's spurred a global outcry and public rebukes by the human rights groups that once lauded her as a democracy icon.

昂山素季对罗辛亚危机的批评不屑一顾,特别是上个月她告诉彭斯,她的政府比美国这样的局外人更了解他们的国家。这引发了全球的强烈抗议,人权组织也公开谴责了她,这些组织曾称赞她是民主的象征。

But McConnell has spurned that criticism, dismissing it as a "pile-in" that "hasn't done any good," in an interview with Reuters in October, "I just don't think joining that and further undercutting the best hope we have for genuine Burmese democracy in the future is good policy."

但是,麦康奈尔拒绝接受这种批评,他在10月接受路透社(Reuters)采访时表示,这是一种“没有任何好处的干预”,“我只是不认为,加入这一行列进一步削弱我们对缅甸未来实现真正民主的最大希望,是一种好的政策。”

McConnell's intransigence has upset some House Republicans, who say amid the administration's silence, a similar resolution from the Senate would be welcomed.

麦康奈尔的不妥协让一些众议院共和党人感到不安。他们说,在奥巴马政府保持沉默的情况下,参议院通过类似的决议将受到欢迎。