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VLADIVOSTOK, Russia — From this Pacific port to a Siberian training range 900 miles away, China and Russia sent an unambiguous message to Washington on Tuesday: Under American pressure, these historical rivals are becoming allies.

俄罗斯符拉迪沃斯托克---从这个太平港口到距离900英里外的西伯利亚训练场,中国和俄罗斯向华盛顿传达了一个明显的信号:在美国的压力之下,这两个历史上的对手正在成为盟友。

In Vladivostok, Russian President Vladimir Putin welcomed Chinese President Xi Jinping as the headline guest at an annual conference focused on Russia’s Far East. They made pancakes together on the waterfront.

在符拉迪沃斯托克,俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔·普京欢迎中国作为致力于探讨俄罗斯远东问题年度会议中的头号嘉宾。

Meanwhile in Siberia, more than 3,000 Chinese troops joined Russian soldiers for the country’s biggest military drills since the Soviet era.

与此同时,在西伯利亚 ,超过3000名中国士兵参见了俄罗斯自苏联时代以来最大规模的军事演习。

China and Russia regularly cooperate in bilateral exercises. But this is the first time that Moscow has integrated Chinese forces into its annual strategic exercises typically reserved for Russia’s closest allies: drones, paratroopers, artillery and warplanes deployed in mock battles.

中国和俄罗斯经常在双边演习中进行合作。但是这是莫斯科方面
第一次将在中国军事力量纳入它的年度战略演习之中,(这种资格)通常为俄罗斯最亲密的盟友保留:无人机、空降兵、火炮和战斗机在模拟战中部署。

This year’s Vostok (“east”) drills have been billed by the Russian military as the biggest since 1981, involving about 300,000 Russian service members, more than 1,000 aircraft, 36,000 tanks and scores of ships over the next week.

今年的“东方”演戏被俄罗斯方面宣布为自1981年以来规模最大的一次,接下来的一周有约30万名俄罗斯现役部队、超过1000多架飞机、3600辆坦克和大量的舰船涉及其中。

The addition of the Chinese units underscores a potentially major shift: Two countries that had long considered each other potential military adversaries are now partners in confronting the United States.

中国部队的增加显示了一个重大的转变:连个长期认为对方是军事威胁的对手现在成为对抗美国的伙伴。



In this photo taken from video provided by Russian Defense Ministry Press Service on Sept. 11, tanks roll during the military exercises in country’s east. (AP)

这张照片事9月11日由俄罗斯国防部新闻社提供的视频中截取的,坦克在该国东部军事演习中行进(美联社)

“Both countries are trying to signal: If the United States pushes too far, we are going to move closer to each other,” said Alexander Gabuev, chairman of the Russia in the Asia-Pacific Program at the Carnegie Moscow Center think tank.

俄罗斯卡内基智囊团莫斯科中心亚太事物主席亚历山大·加布耶夫说:“两国正在试图发出这样的信号:如果美国逼迫的太紧,我们就会向对方走得更近。”

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Russia in recent years started selling China some of its most advanced weapons, including the S-400 surface-to-air missile system and Su-35 fourth-generation fighter jet. Such sales had been hindered in the past by Moscow’s worries that China was a potential adversary and that it would steal the technology.
But amid Russia’s conflict with the West, those worries have mostly dissipated.

近年来,俄罗斯开始向中国出售一些最先进的武器,包括S-400地对空导弹系统和苏-35第四代战斗机。在过去,这种销售受到了阻碍。 莫斯科担心中国是一个潜在的对手,而且会窃取技术。
但在俄罗斯与西方的冲突中,这些担忧已基本消散。

“There’s no question that international tensions have contributed to the tightening of Russian-Chinese bonds,” Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu said in July.

俄罗斯国防部长谢尔盖·邵伊古在7月份表示:“毫无疑问,国际紧张局势促成了俄中关系的靠近。”

Few expect Russia and China to enter a formal alliance akin to NATO. But the two countries are sending a signal that they could partner up in a military entente in the event of a confrontation with Washington in which their interests align.

很少有人预计俄罗斯和中国会加入类似于北约的正式联盟。但这两个国家发出的信号是,如果与华盛顿对抗,他们可以在军事协约中结成伙伴关系。 在这方便他们的利益一致。

The relationship, independent Moscow foreign policy analyst Vladimir Frolov said, now represents a “de facto military alliance, purposefully not codified to maintain ambiguity.”

独立的莫斯科外交政策分析家弗拉罗夫说,这种关系现在代表了一个“实质上的军事同盟,同时刻意保持模糊以避免写入明文。

Chinese officials generally shy away from open talk of joining forces with Russia against the United States. But in the lead-up to Xi’s trip to Vladivostok, China’s state-run media was full of effusive commentary lauding the relationship between Moscow and Beijing.

中国通常不愿公开谈论与俄罗斯联手对抗美国的问题。但是在中国访问符拉迪沃斯托克之前,中国的官方媒体热情的赞扬莫斯科和北京之间的关系。

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Feng Yujun, director of the Center for Russian and Central Asian Studies at Fudan University in Shanghai, said the geopolitical aims of the two countries do not coincide. China is trying to integrate itself into the established international order and promote globalization, he said, while Russia is not willing to obey the established order.

上海复旦大学俄罗斯和中亚研究中心主任冯玉军表示,两国的地缘政治目标并不一致。他说,中国正在努力融入既定的国际秩序,促进全球化,而俄罗斯则不愿意遵守既定的秩序。

“Russia is facing many difficulties. Its relationship with Western countries is deteriorating, and its economy is under heavy sanctions,” he said in a phone interview. “So Russia hopes to ease the pressure on it with the help of China, to gain political and economic benefits on the other hand.”

“俄罗斯面临许多困难。与西方国家的关系不断恶化,其经济受到严厉制裁,”他在接受电话采访时说。“因此,俄罗斯希望与中国的帮助缓解其压力,另一方面希望获得的政治和经济利益。”

In Vladivostok on Tuesday, Xi gave Putin a boost by bringing a delegation of nearly 1,000 Chinese businesspeople and officials to the Eastern Economic Forum, a Putin-led effort to lure foreign investment to Russia’s remote Asian reaches.

周二,在符拉迪沃斯托克,中国为普京提供了一个助力,他率领一个由近1000名中国商人和官员组成的代表团参加了东部经济论坛,这是一个由普京领导的旨在吸引外国投资进入俄罗斯偏远亚洲地区的倡议。

After hours of talks, Putin took Xi to the Sea of Japan (East Sea) waterfront, where the presidents cooked blini: thin Russian pancakes.

经过几个小时的会谈后,普京把**带到日本海(东海)岸边,两位领导人在那里烹制了薄薄的俄罗斯煎饼。

“You and I work together most closely,” Xi told Putin at the start of their meeting. “I’m prepared to further deepen our exchange of views and our tight coordination, both today and in the future.”

“你和我的合作最紧密,”中国在会议开始时对普京说。“从今往后,我准备进一步深化我们合作的紧密协调和意见交流。

[Opinion: China and Russia’s game of distortion]

观点:中国和俄罗斯的扭曲游戏

China is also seeing benefits from the deepening relationship.

中国也看到了两国关系深化带来的利益。

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Kofman, the CNA researcher, cautioned that lingering tensions between Russia and China shouldn’t lead to conclusions that they won’t cooperate militarily in the future. He noted that they could act together against the United States in an arrangement that falls short of a formal, on-paper alliance.

CNA研究员科夫曼警告称,俄罗斯和中国之间长期存在的紧张关系不一定得出两国今后不会进行军事合作的结论。他指出,他们可以不正式结盟,同时一起采取行动对抗美国的行为。

“Throughout history, great powers have allied with one another against common threats out of necessity, not necessarily because they share values or ultimate aims,” Kofman said.

科夫曼说:“纵观历史,大国因必要而联合对抗共同的威胁,并不是因为它们有共同的价值观或终极目标。”