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The Tanzanian government is putting foreign safari companies ahead of Maasai herding communities as environmental tensions grow on the fringes of the Serengeti national park, according to a new investigation.

根据一项新的调查,在塞伦盖蒂国家公园周边地区的环境紧张局势正在加剧,坦桑尼亚政府将外国狩猎公司置于马赛牧业社区之前。

Hundreds of homes have been burned and tens of thousands of people driven from ancestral land in Loliondo in the Ngorongoro district in recent years to benefit high-end tourists and a Middle Eastern royal family, says the report by the California-based thinktank the Oakland Institute.

数以百计的房屋被烧毁,成千上万的人被从恩格隆戈地区的洛利翁多祖地上赶走,以帮助高端游客和中东王室们来此旅游,这是加利福尼亚一家智库研究所的报告。

Although carried out in the name of conservation, these measures enable wealthy foreigners to watch or hunt lions, zebra, wildebeest, giraffes and other wildlife, while the authorities exclude local people and their cattle from watering holes and arable land, the institute says.

研究机构称,虽然这些措施是以保护的名义进行的,但这些措施使富有的外国人能够观看或猎捕狮子、斑马、角马、长颈鹿和其他野生动物,而当局让当地人和他们的牛从水源地和耕地中离开。

The report, released on Thursday highlights the famine and fearcaused by biodiversity loss, climate change, inequality and discrimination towards indigenous groups.

星期四发布的报告突出了生物多样性丧失、气候变化、对土著群体的不平等和歧视造成的饥荒和恐惧。

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The report says villagers have been driven off, assaulted or arrested by local police, park rangers or security guards.

报道称,村民被当地警察、公园护林员或警卫驱赶、袭击以及逮捕。

The restricted access to land has made the Maasai more vulnerable to famine during drought years, the report says, noting appeals that locals have made for the government to change policies because of growing numbers of malnourished children.

报告指出,受限制的土地使用使得马赛人在干旱年份期间更容易遭受饥荒。当地居民呼吁政府改变政策,因为越来越多的儿童营养不良。

A Maasai villager contacted by the Guardian said access remained blocked and that uniformed agents had beaten, threatened or tied-up and driven off pastoralists, as recently as December.

《卫报》联系的一位马赛村民说,通道仍然被封锁,在十二月份,穿制服的工作人员最近殴打威胁并驱逐了牧民。

Thomson strongly denies these accusations. It says Tanzania Conservation Limited employs 100% Maasai staff, allows cattle on the property to access seasonal water, and works with local communities and the government to conserve the savannah, improve access to water and formulate a sustainable grazing policy.

汤姆森强烈否认这些指控。它说,坦桑尼亚保护有限公司的员工100%都是当地的马赛人,并且允许当地的牛在干旱季节获得水源,公司还与当地社区和政府合作,保护草原,改善用水,制定可持续的放牧政策。

The company blames past conflicts on NGO activists who they say stirred up villagers and led to staff being assaulted by young warriors armed with clubs, spears, knives and poison arrows.

该公司将过去的冲突归咎于非政府组织的激进分子,他们煽动村民,并导致工作人员受到年轻人的攻击,袭击者手持棍棒、长矛、匕首和毒箭。

“These interventions have been played out to attract attention, provide stories, and to disrupt the working relationship between company and communities on the ground,” Rick Thomson, a director of TanzaniaConservation, wrote in an email to the Guardian. “In these events the endangered staff have a protocol of disengaging any way they can to avoid escalation, and reporting to the authorities any situation where any people and property, are physically threatened. These situations have been rare and no such events have occurred for the last four years.”

坦桑尼亚服务部主任里克.汤姆森在给卫报的一封电子邮件中写道:“这些人这么做是为了吸引人们的注意力,以及破坏公司和社区之间的工作关系,一般在这样的事情中,任何人或者财产受到威胁的情况下,受害人都可以采取任何措施来让使自己免受伤害,也可以向当局报告。这些情况都很少见,已经有四年没有发生过这样的事情了。”

He said the company was not connected to government evictions of illegal residents in the national park, which is reserved for wildlife.

他说,汤姆森公司与政府驱逐国家公园的非法居民无关,这是为野生动物保留的。

The report also claims Maasai have been driven off land as a result of government ties with Otterlo Business Corporation, which organises hunting trips for the royal family of the United Arab Emirates and their guests who fly into a custom-built landing strip in Loliondo.

报告同时声称,马赛人被赶出土地,也是由于政府与欧特罗商业公司的关系,该公司负责为阿拉伯联合酋长国王室成员在洛利翁多地带组织狩猎旅行。

Since Otterlo was first granted 400,000 hectares of land for hunting, the government has mounted successive eviction operations.

自从欧特罗公司第一次获得400000公顷土地用于狩猎以来,政府就开始了驱逐行动。

The company has warned the area needs greater ecological protection because herds are increasing while water sources are drying up due to climate change.

该公司警告说,该地区需要更大的生态保护,因为牧群正在增加,同时气候变化导致水源正在枯竭。

Despite past government promises that the Maasai would never be evicted from their land, the report notes Serengeti national park rangers burned 114 bomas (traditional homes) in 2015 and another 185 in August of last year. Along with other demolitions, local media report more than 20,000 Maasai were left homeless.

尽管政府过去承诺马赛人永远不会被从他们的土地上驱逐,但报告指出,塞伦盖蒂国家公园的工作人员在2015年烧毁了114座传统住宅,去年8月又烧毁了185座。据当地媒体报道,还有20000多名马赛人无家可归。

Maasai protests, an international outcry and domestic allegations of corruption have forced a reconsideration of this policy. In November 2017, the tourism minister revoked the hunting licence of Otterlo, suspended the state director of wildlife, and ordered investigations into the links between foreign firms and former officials.

马赛人的抗议、国际抗议和国内腐败指控迫使人们重新考虑这一政策。2017年11月,旅游部长撤销了欧特罗的狩猎许可证,暂停了野生动物部门的领导人职务,并下令调查外国公司与前官员之间的联系。

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“Without access to grazing lands and watering holes, and without the ability to grow food for their communities, the Maasai are at risk of a new 21st-century period of emutai (eradication),” said Anuradha Mittal, the director of the Oakland Institute. “But it does not have to be this way. Unlike the emutai of the 19th century, the hardships and abuses currently faced by the Maasai can be halted.”

奥克兰研究所所长阿努拉达米塔尔说:“进入不了牧场和水源,没有种植食物的能力,马赛人在二十一世纪面临着新的被根除的风险。“但事情是有转机的,与十九世纪面临的境况不同的是,马赛人目前面临的情况是可以避免的。