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3 Myths About Smartphone Batteries That Need to Die

会让你的智能手机报废3个错误做法



There's nothing like taking a new smartphone out of the box and reveling in how long you can use it between charges. But after a year or so, that battery life starts to dwindle. What's causing it? We debunk some popular myths about prolonging battery life.

把一部新的智能手机刚从盒子里拿出来的时候,有人会开始用它直到快没电,目的是为了检验这款手机最长很可以多久充一次电。但是一年以后,电池就开始变坏了。到底是什么原因造成这个问题的?我们来说说一些常见的错误做法,告诉大家要如何延长手机的寿命。

Myth 1: Plugging Overnight Is Bad for the Battery

错误1:让你的手机充一晚上的电对手机电池非常不好。

You've probably had a friend — or even the smartphone salesperson — tell you it's bad for the battery to leave the device plugged in overnight. But on the other hand, who wants to wake up at 3 a.m. to unplug their phone?

你也许有一个朋友,或者一个智能手机卖家告诉你:如果你给手机充一个晚上的电,这对你的手机电池会非常不好。但是另一方面说,会有谁愿意在凌晨3点钟起来拔掉手机充电器呢?

Relax, my friend. Your phone's battery is smarter than you think. When you plug in your smartphone at night, the lithium-ion battery begins to slowly recharge until it is full or "saturated" at 4.1 volts.

放轻松,我的朋友。你的手机电池比你想象的还要小。当你晚上给你的手机充电时,锂离子电池开始慢慢地给自己充电直到充满电或者电量达到饱和状态的4.1伏特。

"Then it turns off," says Isidor Buchmann, founder and CEO of Cadex Electronics and the creator of the educational website Battery University. "It's as if it were on the shelf and not connected at all."

Cadex Electronics的创始人兼首席执行官,以及教育网站Battery University的创建者埃斯德.巴赫曼说:“然后它就会关闭,就好像是在架子上,根本没有连接一样。”

So, if the charger is functioning correctly, it's impossible to "overcharge" your phone's battery beyond its limit of 4.1 volts. But is it bad for the battery to be fully charged for long periods? That depends on what you expect out of a phone battery.

因此,如果充电器运行良好,很有可能会充电过多,你的手机电池会超过4.1伏特的电压数。但是这样长时间充电充满对你的电池有害处吗?问题其实取决于你对你的手机电池抱有怎样的期待。

"If somebody wants to keep a battery forever, then you could call it 'overcharging,'" says Bachmann. "But with a consumer product like a smartphone, people don't care about battery life. In two to three years the glass breaks and you buy a new one and the old battery still has some life in it."

巴赫曼说:“如果你们当中某人想要永久地让自己的手机电池处于有电的状态,就会让自己的手机过度充电,但是对于像智能手机这样的消费产品,消费者并不关系电池的使用寿命。在两到三年,玻璃破碎了以后,你就得买一个新的,而老的电池还能够用一段时间。”

Technologies with longer lifespans, like satellites and electric cars, are a different story. In that case, engineers must take special precautions to extend the life of lithium-ion batteries. The rechargeable batteries in electric cars, for example, don't charge to 100 percent full capacity or drain all the way to zero.

寿命较长的技术类产品,比如如卫星和电动汽车,则是另一种特点。在这种情况下,工程师必须采取特殊预防措施,以延长锂离子电池的使用寿命。 例如,电动汽车中的可充电电池不会充电至100%的满容量状态或者不会使用到电量为零情况。

"They work in the middle where the battery would have the least amount of stress over time," says Bachmann.

巴赫曼说:“这些电池会在最小负荷的状态下运行。”

So you don't need to wake up at night and unplug your fully charged phone. The whole point of charging a smartphone is to maximize the amount of time you can use it before plugging it back in. You want it at a 100 percent in the morning so that it lasts all (or most of) the day.

因此,你不必晚上起来拔掉已经充满电的手机插头。给手机充电的关键是在你重新开始充电之前尽量满足自己,让自己有足够时间来使用智能手机。只要你让你的手机在早晨的时候显示电量为100%,你的手机就可以使用一天时间了。

Myth 2: Let the Battery Run Down Between Charges

错误2:让你的手机一直使用到没有电之后再充电

Nope, it's better to plug your phone in at intervals throughout the day than to let the battery run completely down before recharging. Forty to 80 percent capacity is the sweet spot. As it says on the Battery University website, "Similar to a mechanical device that wears out faster with heavy use, the depth of discharge (DoD) determines the cycle count of the battery. The smaller the discharge (low DoD), the longer the battery will last. If at all possible, avoid full discharges and charge the battery more often between uses." (The DoD refers to how much energy a battery has delivered. In a fully charged battery, DoD is 0 percent; in a 70 percent charged battery, it's 30 percent).

不是,最好每天不间断地给手机充电,而不是在下一次充电前让电池电量完全耗尽。40%到80%的电量是最佳选择。正如电池大学网站上所说的那样,“类似于在大量使用时磨损得更快的机械设备,手机的放电量(DoD)决定了电池的循环次数。放电量越小(低DoD)越长,电池使用的时间越长。如果可能的话,避免完全放电,并在下一次使用手机之前更频繁地为电池充电。“放电量指的是电池提供多少能量。在完全充满电的电池中,放电量为0%;在70%电量的电池中,放电量为30%)。

However, once every three months, a battery should be calibrated by letting it run down until the "low battery" light appears and recharging fully.

但是,应该每三个月一次通过让电池电量耗尽来校准电池,直到“低电量”灯出现后再充满电。

Myth 3: Don't Worry About Heat

错误3:不担心手机受热

Actually, heat is a much bigger threat to battery longevity than your charging practices. Leaving your phone on a sunny windowsill or the dashboard of your car is a guaranteed way to drain its capacity.

事实上,比起错误的充电方式,手机受热是手机电池长久寿命的更大威胁。如果你让你的手机暴露在充满阳光的窗台上或者你家汽车的仪表盘上,那将是快速耗尽它电量的错误做法。

"It's like a carton of milk," says Bachmann, who literally wrote the book on rechargeable batteries. "If it's kept out of the fridge it doesn't last as long. With a lithium-ion battery, it's corrosion that sets in and deteriorates the battery."

巴赫曼说:“这就像一盒牛奶,如果你把它从冰箱取出来太长时间,那它很快就不新鲜了。使用锂离子电池时,这种做法会破坏掉电池。”布赫曼写了一本关于蓄电池的书。

Interestingly, the combination of excessive heat and a full charge can be problematic if you're storing a lithium-ion battery for a long time between uses. Battery University ran tests on lithium-ion batteries stored for a full year at different temperatures. A battery stored at 100 percent charge at 40 degrees C (104 degrees F) will lose 35 percent of its total capacity over a year. Under the same conditions, a battery stored with only a 40 percent initial charge will lose just 15 percent of its capacity after three months.

有趣的是,如果你长时间储存而不使用锂离子电池,那么过度受热和充满电都是成问题的事情。电池大学对锂离子电池进行了测试,把它储存了一整年,放在不同的温度下。电池在100%充满电的情况下被置于40摄氏度(104华氏度)的环境,它一年会丧失掉35%的蓄电量。在同样的条件下,电量为40%的电池在3个月的时间里会丧失15%的蓄电量。

That's why folks in the battery industry store and ship batteries under controlled temperatures and never at full charge. Again, does that mean you should keep your smartphone in the fridge overnight? No, that would be crazy, unless you don't plan to use it for a year or you just like the feel of a cool iPhone in the morning.

那就是为什么电池产业要在被严格把控的温度下和在不完全充满电的情况下储存和装运电池的原因了。那么,还有一个问题,这是否意味着你可以把你的智能手机防盗冰箱里存放一个晚上呢?不,那是一个疯狂的做法,我想除非你不希望用自己的手机能用上一年的时间或者除非你希望在早上触摸到一个冰冷的iPhone手机,那么请你千万不要那样做。

And Remember ...
A certain degree of capacity loss is inevitable with all lithium-ion batteries, Bachmann explains, and no single factor — fully charging, fully depleting, too many cycles, too much heat — will run your battery into the ground. But all of these together will definitely take their toll. The good news is that your kid will drop the phone in the toilet long before the battery burns out.

此外请记住:
巴赫曼解释说:所有的锂离子电池的一定程度的电量损耗都是不可避免的。并且没有任何一个因素比如充电太满,电量耗尽,充电间隔太长,受热过多等会使电池报废。但所有这些问题加在一起肯定会造成手机电池的受损。好消息是,你的孩子会在电池烧坏之前将手机丢入马桶里。