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Japan activates first marines since WW2 to bolster defenses against China

日本自二战后组建首支海军陆战队,加强对中国的防御

 

Soldiers of Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF)'s Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade, Japan's first marine unit since World War Two, gather at a ceremony activating the brigade at JGSDF's Camp Ainoura in Sasebo, on the southwest island of Kyushu, Japan April 7, 2018.

2018年4月7日,日本九州西南部岛上,日本陆上自卫队佐世保市相浦基地,二战后日本组建的首支海军陆战队(日本陆上自卫队的两栖快速部署旅)(译注:即水陆机动团)聚集在启动仪式上。

SASEBO/TOKYO, Japan (Reuters) - Japan on Saturday activated its first marine unit since World War Two trained to counter invaders occupying Japanese islands along the edge of the East China Sea that Tokyo fears are vulnerable to attack by China.

日本,东京/佐世保(路透社)-日本在周六正式成立了其在二战后的首支海军陆战队单位,其训练的目的是反击侵略者对东海边缘的岛屿的占领,东京认为这些岛屿易于受到中国的攻击。

In a ceremony held at a military base near Sasebo on thesouthwest island of Kyushu, about 1,500 members of the Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade (ARDB) wearing camouflage lined up outside amid cold, windy weather.

在九州西南的日本岛,佐世保附近的军事基地举行的仪式上,大约1500名两栖快速部署旅士兵带着迷彩迎着寒风排着整齐的队列。

"Given the increasingly difficult defense and security situation surrounding Japan, defense of our islands has become a critical mandate," Tomohiro Yamamoto, vice defense minister, said in a speech.

“鉴于日本周边安全局势和防卫的困难,守卫我们的岛屿将成为一个主要任务,”防卫副大臣山本朋广在演讲中说道。

The troops conducted a 20-minute mock public exercise recapturing a remote island from invaders.

部队进行了20分钟的从侵略者手中夺回岛屿的演练。

The formation of the Japanese marine brigade is controversial because amphibious units can project military force and could, critics warn, be used to threaten Japan’s neighbors. In its post World War Two constitution Japan renounced the right to wage war.

日本海军陆战队的组建是具有争议的,因为两栖部队可用于投射军力,批评家警告称,这可能会被用于威胁日本的邻国。在日本二战后的宪法里,日本放弃了宣战权。

The brigade is the latest component of a growing marine force that includes helicopter carriers, amphibious ships, Osprey tilt-rotor troop carriers and amphibious assault vehicles, meant to deter China as it pushes for easier access to the Western Pacific.

这个水陆机动团是增长的海军力量的最新的部分,其他的还有直升机航母,两栖登陆舰,鱼鹰运输机和两栖突击车,这些都意在阻止中国,因为中国现在更容易地进入西太平洋了。

China, which dominates the South China Sea, is outpacing Japan in defense spending. In 2018, Beijing which claims a group of uninhabited islets in the East China Sea controlled by Tokyo, will spend 1.11 trillion yuan ($176.56 billion) on its armed forces, more than three times as much as Japan.

中国,在南海占据了主导地位,在防务支出上超过了日本。2018年,北京宣称了在东海的一些无人岛的主权,这些岛被日本控制。中国将花费1765.6亿美元国防预算,超过日本的3倍。

The activation of the 2,100 strong ARDB takes Japan a step closer to creating a force similar to a U.S. Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) able to plan and execute operations at sea far from its home base.

建制2100人的水陆机动团的组建使日本向创造一直类似美国海军陆战队的部队的目标更进一步,这将使他可以在远离本土的地方计划和实施行动。

"They've already demonstrated the ability to put together an ad hoc MEU. But to have a solid, standing MEU capability requires concerted effort," Grant Newsham, a research fellow at the Japan Forum for Strategic Studies.

“他们已经展示了组建一只海军陆战队的能力。但想拥有一只可靠的海军陆战队还需要努力”日本战略研究论坛研究员格兰特·纽斯安说到。

"If Japan put its mind to it, within a year or year and a half it could have a reasonable capability."

“如果日本认真去做,在一年或一年半内就可以拥有相当的能力”

Newsham, who helped train Japan's first amphibious troops as a U.S. Marine Corps colonel liaison officer assigned to the Ground Self Defense Force (GSDF), said Japan still needs a joint navy-army amphibious headquarters to coordinate operations as well as more amphibious ships to carry troops and equipment.

指派给日本帮助训练日本首支海军陆战队的美军陆战队上校联络官Newsham表示,在使用更多的两栖舰船运输部队和装备时,日本还需要一个海军两栖指挥部来协调行动。

Japanese military planners are already mulling some of those additions. Its Air Self Defense Force (ASDF) wants to acquire F-35Bs to operate from its Izumo and Ise helicopter carriers, or from islands along the East China Sea, sources have told Reuters.

路透社消息,日本军事计划者已经认真考虑增加军备。他的空中自卫队想要装备更多的F35B战机,从出云和伊势直升机航母上行动,或者在东海上的岛屿上部署。

The United States last month deployed its F-35Bs for their first at-sea operations aboard the USS Wasp amphibious assault ship, which is based in Sasebo. The Kyushu port is also home to Japan's Ise and close to the ARDB's base.

美军的F35B战机上个月首次在黄蜂级两栖攻击舰上降落。而它的基地就在佐世保。九州港也是日本伊势号的母港,这里离水陆机动团的基地也不远。

Separately the GSDF may acquire small amphibious ships up to a 100 meters (328.08 ft) long to transport troops and equipment between islands and from ship to shore, two sources familiar with the discussion said. Japanese ground forces have not operated their own ships since World War Two.

熟悉讨论的两名消息人士说,日本的陆上自卫队将另外获得一些小型的百米长的两栖舰船用于在岛屿间和登陆时运送兵员和装备。日本的陆军自二战后还没拥有过自己的船。

"The idea is to bring forces and gear on large ships to the main Okinawa island and then disperse them to other islands on smaller vessels," said one of the sources, who asked not to be identified because they are not authorized to talk to the media.

据其中一位消息人士(他不愿透露姓名,因为他们不被允许和媒体交谈)说“这样主意是先将部队和装备用大船运送到冲绳主岛,然后用更小的船只向其他岛屿散开”。