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-------------译者:雨天路滑当心-审核者:hht288------------



DUKEM Ethiopia (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – The scenic road from Addis Ababa to the small town of Dukem is peppered with signs of industry: warehouses and factories garages and gas stations newly-built rail tracks and a freshly paved highway.

埃塞俄比亚杜克姆镇(汤森路透基金会)——从亚的斯亚贝巴(埃塞俄比亚首都)到杜克姆镇的景观道路到处都是工业的标志:仓库、工厂车库、加油站、新建的铁路和新铺的高速公路。

Dukem just a short drive south of the capital is home to Ethiopia’s first industrial park the Chinese-owned Eastern Industrial Zone (EIZ) and some of the country’s most fertile land.

杜克姆镇——位于首都南边驾车不远的地方——是埃塞俄比亚的首个工业园区,拥有国家最肥沃的土地,属于中国的“东部工业区”(EIZ)。

For more than a decade it has been on the frontline of a government-led push to turn the still overwhelmingly agricultural country into Africa’s manufacturing hub.

十多年来,它一直是政府主导的,致力于把农业仍占绝对优势的国家变为非洲的制造中心的最前沿。

Chinese companies are constructing five industrial zones while the government plans to have 15 industrial parks nationwide by June 2018.

中国公司正在建设五个工业区,而政府计划在2018年6月前在全国拥有15个工业园区。

Last year the EIZ which hosts companies ranging from shoe manufacturers and steelmakers to leather processors and car assemblers embarked on a new expansion phase.

去年,容纳了从鞋厂、钢铁制造商到皮革加工厂、汽车装配厂这些领域的公司的“东部工业区”踏上了一个新的扩张阶段。

The move which means expropriating an additional 167 hectares of rural land around Dukem and the relocation of around 300 farmers has sparked anger among locals and reopened old wounds.

此举意味着需要在杜克姆周围额外征用167公顷农村土地、重新安置搬迁约300个农民,这在当地群众中引发了愤怒、使旧创复发。

“We were the first” Shewangizaw a middle-aged farmer who lost his fields to an Ethiopian-owned factory back in 2006 told the Thomson Reuters Foundation bitterly.

“我们是第一批”,Shewangizaw,一个在2006年把土地给了属于埃塞俄比亚某工厂的中年农民悲苦地对汤森路透基金会如是说。

He and around 40 other farmers were relocated – without fair compensation they argue – when some of the first factories arrived in the area a decade or so ago.

大约10年前在第一批工厂来到该地区时,他和大约40个农民被重新安置了,但是没有拿到他们主张的合理赔偿金。

“I don’t have any land now” said his 72 year-old neighbor Bashada who lost nearly five hectares of farmland then and now rents one hectare from an older neighbor for 10000 birr ($367) a year.

“我现在没一块儿地了,“他72岁的邻居Bashada说,他当时失去了近五公顷的农田,现在每年花1万比尔(367美元)从一个更老的邻居那儿租一公顷农田种。

The group is campaigning to have its case heard by the federal government.

该群体正在开展运动争取让联邦政府知道他们这样的情况。

“It’s not fair” said Shewangizaw. “Our families were just destroyed. At the time compensation paid to us was so so cheap. And we don’t have any land to farm or live on now.”

“这不公平。”Shewangizaw说。“我们的家园被毁了。当时付给我们的补偿金太少了。我们现在没有可以用来耕种和居住的土地了。”

-------------译者:雨天路滑当心-审核者:roroho------------

ANGRY ONCE MORE

再次愤怒

Muhammed Tilahun vice-head of the Dukem Land Development and Management Office told the Thomson Reuters Foundation the local government was now addressing the concerns of farmers.

杜克姆土地开发管理办公室的副主任穆罕默德·蒂拉洪(Muhammed Tilahun)对汤森路透基金会说,当地政府现在正着手解决农民们所担忧的问题。

That includes 190 farmers and their children who lost their land back in 2007 and are now being given additional land to support them he said.

他说,这包括190名在2007失去土地的农民和其孩子们,他们现在得到了更多的土地来养活自己。

Yet the anger expressed by Shewangizaw and his fellow farmers is echoed across much of central Ethiopia which has experienced rapid urbanization and fledgling industrialization over the past decade.

然而,Shewangizaw和他的农民兄弟们表达的愤怒在埃塞俄比亚中部的大部分区域得到共鸣。埃塞俄比亚中部在过去的十年中经历了快速的城市化和新兴的工业化。

In 2014 a plan to expand Addis Ababa into the surrounding region of Oromia – in effect swallowing up small towns like Dukem – sparked mass protests.

2014年,一个将亚的斯亚贝巴扩大到奥罗米亚(Oromia)周围地区的的计划——将会吞并像杜克姆这样的小镇——引发了大量抗议。

The demonstrations later spread across the country resulting in hundreds of deaths and eventually prompting the government to impose a nine-month state of emergency.

游行示威后来蔓延到全国,导致了几百起死亡,并最终促使政府发布了为期9个月的紧急状态。

Peace has now returned to Dukem’s streets but farmers whose land has been earmarked by the EIZ for future development are frustrated and angry once more.

如今杜克姆的大街小巷重回和平,但是被东部工业区为了未来发展而占了土地的农民们又陷入挫败和愤怒。

“Our land came from our ancestors” said Telahn Chaka a 57- year-old farmer in nearby Goticha village who said he would lose his remaining farmland this year.

Telahn Chaka,附近Goticha村的一个57岁农民说,”我们的土地承自我们的祖先们。“他说他今年就会失去他手上剩余的耕地。

“I was hoping to give it to my children too. Now I have nothing for them to inherit.”

”我希望自己也能够把土地留给我的孩子们。现在我没什么能留给他们继承了。”

He and his neighbors tried to resist the plan he recounted prompting the local police to briefly detain four of them.

他和他的邻居们试图抵制这项导致当地警察暂时拘留他们四个的计划。

Solomon Basha spokesman for the Dukem town administration disputed this account.

杜克姆镇政府发言人所罗门·巴沙(Solomon Basha)否认这样的描述。

“No farmers are protesting the expansion now” he told the Thomson Reuters Foundation. “No farmers were arrested or killed in this process.”

“现在没有哪个农民对扩张提出抗议,”他对汤森路透基金会说,“过程中没有农民被捕或被害。”

The EIZ has promised to build a hospital a school and a market center for farmers in addition to a total of 113 million birr compensation for the latest phase of expansion Basha said.

巴沙说,“东部工业区”承诺,为了最近的一次扩张,不但提供总共1.13亿比尔的补偿金,还会为农民们建一所医院、一所学校和一个购物中心。

-------------译者:雨天路滑当心-审核者:roroho------------

Each farmer will receive 500 square meters of replacement land in addition to compensation he added.

他还说,除了补偿金,每个农民会得到500平方米的置换土地。

But for farmers like Chaka memories of the first phase of expansion still loom large.

但是对于像Chaka这样的农民来说,第一阶段扩张的记忆依然清晰在目。

“This is propaganda” Chaka said. “They promise us a lot of things – new land a school for our children electricity running water – but after they take it nothing happens. So we lose our land and end up in poverty.”

“这只是宣传手段,”Chaka说,“他们向我们承诺了很多东西——新的土地、给我们的孩子建学校、供电供水——但是他们得到土地后,什么也没有兑现。因此我们失去了土地,最后陷入了贫困。”

BETTER COMPENSATION

更好的补偿

However in the decade since the EIZ started the process of land acquisition and compensation in Ethiopia has changed.

然而在“东部工业区”启动计划十年后,埃塞俄比亚的土地征收和补偿政策已发生改变。

Muhammed Tilahun the local official said compensation during the first phase of development was “very low” and did not include replacement agricultural land.

当地官员穆罕默德·蒂拉洪说,第一阶段的发展过程中,补偿金是“非常低”的,其中并不包括农田置换。

“We have set up a committee to identify those who suffered under previous regulations” he said adding the price of compensation had more than doubled from 18 birr then to 54 birr per square meter today.

“我们已经成立了一个委员会来鉴定那些因为之前的规定而受苦的人。”他补充说,补偿的金额翻了不止一倍,从18比尔每平方米到现在的54比尔每平方米。

In Ethiopia all land is formally owned by the state and there is no established price for farmland.

在埃塞俄比亚,所有土地都属于国家,农田没有设定(交易)价格。

Officially households should be paid 10 times the market value of what can be produced on their plot in a single year though this can be tricky to measure and vulnerable to abuse by unscrupulous officials.

依据法规,应该支付每家每户其土地上年产粮食市场价的10倍金额,然而这很难测量,易被无良官员滥用。

“The amount of money they pay for compensation is actually quite high” said Stefan Dercon chief economist of the UK Department for International Development (DfID) and a professor of economic policy at Oxford University.

英国国际发展部(DFID)首席经济学家、牛津大学经济政策学教授斯特凡·德尔康(Stefan Dercon)说,”他们支付的补偿款其实是很高的“。

A 2015 report by Oxford’s Centre for the Study of African Economies found affected households in one part of Ethiopia received compensation payments on average nearly five times higher than their total annual expenditure on consumption and for some households as much as 10 times more.

牛津非洲经济研究中心2015年的报告显示,埃塞俄比亚部分地区受影响家庭的补偿金平均比其年度消费支出总额高出近五倍,有些家庭则高出10倍。

A further revision to the compensation process is expected to lead to a substantial increase in the amount of financial compensation received by farmers when it is introduced by the federal government later this year.

对补偿程序的进一步修订,预计在今年由联邦政府发布后将使农民获得的经济赔偿数额大幅度增加。

But the Oxford report’s author Anthony Harris of Mathematica Policy Research which analyses public wellbeing said providing replacement land remains a challenge.

但是牛津大学该报告的作者、致力于分析大众健康的数字政策研究公司(Mathematica Policy Research)的安东尼·哈瑞斯(Anthony Harris)说,提供置换土地仍然是个挑战。

 -------------译者:雨天路滑当心-审核者:roroho------------

“They are supposed to receive a new plot. But that often doesn’t happen especially in places around Addis Ababa where land is scarce” said Harris.

“他们本应获得一块新土地。但是这通常不会发生,尤其在亚的斯亚贝巴(可农用)的土地很稀少。”哈瑞斯说。

Meanwhile households lose an unmeasured stream of income from their farmland and many individuals struggle to find new employment he added.

他补充说,与此同时,家庭失去了农田提供的无限收入,且很多人要艰难地去寻找新工作。

“It’s sort of an inevitable consequence. It’s going to be very hard to find some sort of alternative livelihood especially for the older generation.”

“这可以说是无法避免的必然后果。找到其他的生计会非常难,尤其是对老年人来说。“

LOW WAGES

低工资

As for Dukem’s farmers the prospect of giving up farming for work in the factories of the EIZ is often unwelcome.

对于杜克姆的农民来说,放弃耕种,在东部工业区的工厂里工作的前景常不受欢迎。

The zone currently employs more than 10500 Ethiopian employees the vast majority of whom come from the Dukem area according to the Ethiopian Investment Commission.

埃塞俄比亚投资委员会说,这个园区目前雇佣了10500多个埃塞俄比亚员工,其中大部分来自杜克姆区。

But locals complain of low wages and poor treatment by employers.

但当地人抱怨工资低且雇主提供的待遇差。

Lemma Teshome the 24 year-old son of a farmer in Goticha whose land is being expropriated this year worked for three years at a soap factory.

24岁的莱马·特肖梅(Lemma Teshome),Goticha村今年被剥夺了土地的某农民的儿子在一家肥皂厂干了有三年。

“Nothing was good” he said. “The pay was low and our hours were long. We were so disappointed.”

”什么都不好,“他说,”工资很低,工时很长。我们都很失望。“

In December last year a strike over overtime hours broke out in a shoe factory which led to some street protests.

去年12月,鞋厂里爆发了一次罢工抗议加班,导致了一些街头示威抗议。

A spokesman for the Ethiopian Investment Commission said that dispute had since been resolved through “mutual understanding.”

埃塞俄比亚投资委员会的一位发言人说,争议已通过“相互理解”得以解决了。

“Some of the workers didn’t want overtime even though they are paid. But they reached an agreement” the spokesman added. “The company said they could decide whether they wanted to do overtime or not.”

“有些工人即便有加班费也不想加班。但他们最后达成了协议。”发言人补充说,“公司表示工人他们可以决定自己是否要加班。”