原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:卡思 转载请注明出处
论坛地址:http://www.ltaaa.com/bbs/thread-459591-1-1.html

The decree stipulated that the move must "apply and adhere to the necessary Sharia standards," without providing details.

法令规定,该举措必须“适用并遵守必要的伊斯兰教法标准”,但没有提供细具体的内容。


 
Despite being barred from driving, a woman drives a car in Saudi Arabia, October 22, 2013.. (photo credit:REUTERS)

沙特阿拉伯的一个妇女在开车,尽管这是被禁止的,2013年10月22日。(图片来源:路透社)

Saudi King Salman on Tuesday ordered that women be allowed to drive cars, ending a conservative tradition seen by rights activists as an emblem of the Islamic kingdom's repression of women.

沙特国王沙尔曼星期二下令允许妇女开车,结束了权利活动分子认为的伊斯兰王国镇压妇女的传统。

The kingdom has been widely criticized for being the only country in the world that bans women from driving, despite gradual improvement on some women's issues in recent years and ambitious government targets to increase their public role, especially in the workforce.

作为世界上唯一禁止妇女开车的国家,沙特被广泛批评,尽管近年来该国一些妇女问题在逐步改善,该政府雄心勃勃的目标是提高她们的公共形象,尤其是在劳动力方面。

The royal decree ordered the formation of a ministerial body to give advice within 30 days and implement the order by June 24, 2018, according to state news agency SPA.

根据国家新闻机构的消息,皇家法令命令成立一个部长级机构,在30天内提供建议,并在2018年6月24日之前实施该命令。

It stipulated that the move must "apply and adhere to the necessary Sharia standards," referring to Islamic law. It gave no details but said a majority of the Council of Senior Religious Scholars, Saudi Arabia's top clerical body, had approved its permissibility.

法令规定,该举措必须“适用并遵守必要的伊斯兰教法标准”,指伊斯兰教的法律。它没有详细说明,但大多数的高级宗教学者委员会称,沙特阿拉伯最高神职机构已经批准其容许性。

Saudi ambassador to Washington Prince Khaled bin Salman said it was "an historic and big day in our kingdom."

沙特驻华盛顿大使哈立德·本·萨尔曼说“这是我们王国历史性的一天。”

"Our leadership thinks that this is the right time to do this change because currently in Saudi Arabia we have a young, dynamic, open society," he told reporters. "There's no wrong time to do the right thing."

他告诉记者:“我们的领导层认为,现在正是进行这种改革的恰当时机,因为目前在沙特阿拉伯,我们拥有一个年轻、充满活力、开放的社会。”“做正确的事情不存在错误的时间。”

Positive reactions quickly poured in from inside the kingdom and around the world, with the US State Department welcoming the move as "a great step in the right direction."

王国内部和世界各地的积极反应迅速涌现,美国国务院欢迎此举为“朝正确方向迈出的一大步”。

For more than 25 years, women activists have campaigned to be allowed to drive, defiantly taking to the road, petitioning the king and posting videos of themselves behind the wheel on social media. The protests brought them arrest and harassment.

25年以来,妇女活动家一直争取女性被允许开车,她们公然在路上驾驶,向国王请愿,在社交媒体上张贴自己开车的视频。抗议活动使她们遭到逮捕和骚扰。

Activist Manal al-Sherif, who was arrested in 2011 after a driving protest, took to Twitter following the king's announcement to express her relief. "Today, the last country on earth to allow women to drive... we did it," she wrote.

在2011年驾驶抗议活动后被捕的活动家马纳尔谢里夫,在国王公布声明后在推特上表达了她的宽慰。她写到:“今天,世界上最后一个国家允许妇女开车了......我们做到了。”

Latifa al-Shaalan, a member of the Shura Council, an advisory body, said the decision would strengthen women's employment in the private sector.

舒拉委员会成员拉提法•沙兰是一名咨询顾问,她表示决定将加强妇女在私营部门的就业。

"This is an historic day and I cannot find the words to express my feelings and the feelings of thousands of Saudi women," she said on Arabiya TV.

“这是历史性的一天,我找不到语言表达我的感受和成千上万沙特妇女的感受”她在Arabiya电视台上说道。

CONSERVATIVE PUSHBACK

保守派的反对

In Saudi Arabia, a top Arab ally of the United States, women are legally subject to a male guardian, who must give approval to basic decisions they make in fields including education, employment, marriage, travel plans and even medical treatment.

在沙特阿拉伯,这个美国最重要的阿拉伯盟友,妇女在法律上受到一名男性监护人的约束,她们在包括教育,就业,婚姻,旅行计划甚至医疗等领域的基本决策都必须要得到这个监护人的批准。

Women in the kingdom are also bound by law to wear long robes and a headscarf and require the consent of a male guardian for most legal actions.

王国的妇女在穿长袍和头巾方面也受法律约束,她们的许多法律行动都需要男性监护人的同意。

Prince Khaled, the ambassador, said women would not need permission from their guardians to get a license or have a guardian in the car and would be allowed to drive anywhere in the kingdom, including the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina.

大使哈立德亲王表示,妇女不需要得到监护人的许可就可以获得执照或驾驶汽车,并允许在包括伊斯兰教圣地麦加和麦地那在内的任何地方开车。

Women with a license from any of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries would be allowed to drive in Saudi Arabia, he added.

他补充说,任何拥有海湾合作委员会国家的执照的妇女都将被允许在沙特阿拉伯开车。

The position of Saudi women gradually improved under late King Abdullah and since King Salman took over in 2015, as the kingdom has been opening more areas for women through the government's modernizing reforms.

沙特妇女的地位在阿卜杜拉国王后期逐渐得到改善,自从萨勒曼国王于2015年接任以来,国家通过政府现代化改革,为妇女开辟了更多的领域。

That has sparked tensions with influential clerics upon whose support the ruling family relies.

这引发了一些具有影响力的神职人员和统治家族支持者之间的紧张关系。

Some reactions to Tuesday's announcement reflected that. Critics took to Twitter to denounce the decision, accusing the government of "bending the verses of Sharia."

对周二公布的一些反应表明了这个现象。评论家们用推特来谴责这一决定,指责政府“歪曲伊斯兰教经文”。

"As far as I remember, Sharia scholars have said it was haram (forbidden) for women to drive. How come it has suddenly become halal (permissible)?" another user wrote.

“据我所知,伊斯兰教法学者曾经表示,妇女驾车是被禁止的,怎么突然间变成允许的了?”另一位用户写道。

Some leading members of the country’s powerful and austere Sunni Muslim clergy have argued against women being allowed to drive, which they say could lead to them mingling with unrelated men, thereby breaching strict gender segregation rules.

沙特强大而严厉的逊尼派穆斯林神职人员的一些领导成员反对允许妇女开车,他们说这可能导致她们与不相关的男子混在一起,从而违反了严格的性别隔离规则。

The decision could also have broad economic impacts, making it possible for women to get to work without a driver but also curbing the popularity of car hailing apps like Uber and Careem.

这一决定也可能带来广泛的经济影响,使得女性不需要驾驶员就能上班,但也可能限制诸如Uber和Careem这样的汽车应用APP的普及。

Prince Khaled, a son of the king, said the decision was as much about economic reform as social change.

国王之子哈勒德王子说,这一决定如同社会变革,与经济改革息息相关。

His older brother, 32-year-old Crown Prince Mohammed, has become the face of reform in the kingdom in the past few years.

他的哥哥,32岁的王储穆罕默德,在过去几年里已经成为这个王国改革的代表。

Many younger Saudis regard his ascent as evidence that their generation is taking a central place in running a country whose patriarchal traditions have for decades made power the province of the old and blocked women’s progress.

许多年轻的沙特人把他的上升看作是一个证明,证明他们这一代人在管理这个国家上占据着中心地位。这个国家几十年来的父权制传统使国家守旧,并阻碍了妇女的进步。

"Oh my God, this is amazing. Ever since Mohammed bin Salman's rise, he has fast-tracked all the changes that are needed for our country," said Marwa Afandi, a 35-year-old event planner in the Red Sea city of Jeddah.

“哦天啊,这真是太棒了,自从穆罕默德·本·萨尔曼崛起以来,他已经快速跟踪了我们国家所需要的所有变化。”35岁的红海城市活动策划人马瓦·阿凡丹吉达如此说道。