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Sperm counts in the West plunge by 60% in 40 years as 'modern life' damages men's health

西方国家40年来精子数量下降了60%,由于“现代生活”损害了男性健康



Pesticides, hormone-disrupting chemicals, diet, stress, smoking and obesity have all been suggested as possible reasons behind the dramatic declines but experts say more research is urgently needed

农药,使荷尔蒙紊乱的化学物质,饮食,压力,吸烟和肥胖都被认为是这个戏剧性下降背后的可能原因,但专家说现在迫切需要更多的研究。

The Independent Online > News > Science
Ian Johnston Science Correspondent @montaukian Tuesday 25 July 2017 17:00 BST

英国独立报>新闻>科学
伊恩·约翰斯顿(科学记者)@montaukian 2017年7月25日 星期二 17:00 英国夏令时

Medically accurate illustration of human sperm cells [Getty]

人类精子细胞医学上的准确图解

Sperm counts have plunged by nearly 60 per cent in just 40 years among men living in the West, according to a major review of scientific studies that suggests the modern world is causing serious damage to men's health.

根据一项对众多科研的总结回顾研究,现代世界正在给男性健康造成严重的损害,在西方国家生活的男性中,精子数量下降了近60%。

Pesticides, hormone-disrupting chemicals, diet, stress, smoking and obesity have all been “plausibly associated” with the problem, which is associated with a range of other illnesses such as testicular cancer and a generally increased mortality rate.

农药、使荷尔蒙紊乱的化学物质、饮食、压力、吸烟和肥胖都与这个问题有“易于让人相信的关系”,这与其他一系列疾病有关,如睾丸癌和普遍提高的死亡率。

The researchers who carried out the review said the rate of decline had showed no sign of “levelling off” in recent years.

进行回顾研究的研究员说,下降速度表明近年来并没有“趋于平稳”的迹象。

The same trend was not seen in other parts of the world such as South America, Africa and Asia, although the scientists said fewer studies had been carried out there.
同样的趋势没有在世界其他地区,如南美、非洲和亚洲中出现,尽管科学家说那里进行的研究较少。

One expert commenting on the study said it was the “most comprehensive to date”, and described the figures as “shocking” and a “wake-up call” for urgent research into the reasons driving the fall.

一位专家评论这项研究时说,这是“迄今为止最全面的”,并将这些数据描述为“令人震惊的”,以及对导致数量下跌的原因进行紧急研究的“警钟”。

Writing in the journal Human Reproduction Update, the researchers – from Israel, the US, Denmark, Brazil and Spain – said total sperm count had fallen by 59.3 per cent between 1971 and 2011 in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. Sperm concentration fell by 52.4 per cent.

来自以色列、美国、丹麦、巴西和西班牙的研究人员在《人类生殖更新》杂志上写道,1971年至2011年间,欧洲、北美、澳大利亚和新西兰的精子总数下降了59.3%,精子浓度下降了52.4%。

“Sperm count and other semen parameters have been plausibly associated with multiple environmental influences, including endocrine disrupting chemicals, pesticides, heat and lifestyle factors, including diet, stress, smoking and body-mass index,” the paper said.

“精子数量和其他精液成分显然与多种环境影响有关,包括干扰内分泌的化学物质、农药、热量,以及生活方式因素,这些生活因素包括饮食、压力、吸烟和身体质量指数(体重与身高比)等。”杂志说。

“Therefore, sperm count may sensitively reflect the impacts of the modern environment on male health throughout the life course.”

“因此,精子数可能会敏感地反映出,现代环境在整个生命过程中对男性健康的影响。”

Chemicals linked to lowering sperm count include some used to make plastics more flexible and flame retardants used in furniture. These can enter the food chain after they are taken in by plants or eaten by animals. 

与降低精子数量有关的化学物质包括一些用来使塑料更柔软的化合物和用于家具的阻燃剂。在被植物吸收或被动物吃掉后,它们可能进入食物链中。

A diet high in alcohol, caffeine, processed meat, soy and potatoes may also have an adverse effect on male fertility.

对于男性的生育能力,高含酒精,咖啡因,以及加工过的肉类、大豆和土豆的饮食习惯,可能也会有不利的影响。

Aside from the obvious implications for reproduction, the researchers said the declines were consistent with reported trends in testicular cancer, the number of children born with one or both testicles missing, the onset of male puberty and total testosterone levels. 

除了对生殖的明显影响外,研究人员还说,这种下降与睾丸癌、出生时睾丸缺失的儿童数量、男性青春期的开始年龄、总体睾酮(睾丸素)水平的报告趋势一致。

“The public health implications are even wider. Recent studies have shown that poor sperm count is associated with overall morbidity and mortality,” they added.

公共卫生的影响甚至更大。最近的研究表明,贫乏的精子数与整体发病率和死亡率有关。

They called for urgent work to find out the reasons behind the decline, noting a few possible candidates.

他们呼吁紧急行动,找出衰减背后的原因,标注一些可能的候选原因。

“While the current study is not designed to provide direct information on the causes of the observed declines, sperm count has been plausibly associated with multiple environmental and lifestyle influences, both prenatally and in adult life,” the scientists said.

科学家们说:“虽然目前的研究并不是为了给下降的原因提供直接的信息,但在产前和成年生活中,精子数量与多种环境和生活方式的影响有明显关系。”

“In particular, endocrine disruption from chemical exposures or maternal smoking during critical windows of male reproductive development may play a role in prenatal life, while lifestyle changes and exposure to pesticides may play a role in adult life.

“特别是,在男性生殖发育的关键窗口期间,源于化学物质暴露或母亲吸烟所造成的内分泌干扰,可能在产前生活中起着作用,而生活方式的改变和农药的暴露接触可能在成年生活中起作用。”

“Thus, a decline in sperm count might be considered as a ‘canary in the coal mine' for male health across the lifespan. Our report of a continuing and robust decline should, therefore, trigger research into its causes, aiming for prevention.”

因此,对于整个预期寿命中的男性健康,精子数的下降可能被认为是的“煤矿里的金丝雀”。因此,我们的(关于精子数)持续和强劲下降的报告应该,触发深入其原因的研究,并致力于阻止它。

One of the team, Professor Shanna Swan, of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, said falling sperm counts had been “of great concern” since they were first noticed about 25 years ago.

其中一个小组,位于纽约Mount Sinai的Icahn医学院的Shanna Swan教授表示,自从25年前首次被人注意到,精子数量的下降已变得“非常令人担忧”。

She added: “This definitive study shows, for the first time, that this decline is strong and continuing. 

她补充说:“这项权威研究首次表明,这种下降势头强劲而且持续。

“The fact that the decline is seen in Western countries strongly suggests that chemicals in commerce are playing a causal role in this trend.”

“在西方国家,这种下降趋势表明,商业中的化学物质在这一趋势中起着因果性的作用。”

Professor Daniel Brison, an expert in clinical embryology at Manchester University who was not involved in the review, said the study's large size meant any debate about whether the decline was happening was probably over.

没有参与这项研究的曼彻斯特大学临床胚胎学专家丹尼尔·布里森说,这项研究的规模很大,意味着任何关于下降是否发生的争论都可能终结了。

He said by including a large number of studies from around the world the researchers had been able to “confirm that the decline in sperm counts is likely to be 'real'”.

他说,通过涵盖来自世界各地的大量研究,研究人员已经能够“确认精子数量的下降很可能是‘真的’”。

And Professor Brison added: “The extent of the decline in sperm counts in the Western world revealed in this study is shocking.

布里森教授补充道:“在这项研究中,西方世界精子数量下降的程度令人震惊。”

“As the authors point out, this has major implications not just for fertility but for male health and wider public health.  

正如作者所指出的,这不仅对生育,而且对男性健康和更广泛的公共卫生都有重大影响。

“An unanswered question is whether the impact of whatever is causing declining sperm counts will be seen in future generations of children via epigenetic or other mechanisms operating in sperm. 

“一个未解的问题是:无论导致精子数量下降的原因是什么,在未来几代儿童中,通过表观遗传或其他精子内的运作机制,是否能看到它们的影响。”

“This study should act as a wake-up call to prompt active research in this area.” 

“这项研究应该作为一个警钟激励这个领域的积极研究。”

Professor Richard Sharpe, of Edinburgh University, said the “well-designed and statistically rigorous study” appeared to show that the decrease was “real beyond any reasonable doubt”.
 
爱丁堡大学的理查德·夏普教授说,“精心设计和统计严谨的研究”似乎表明,这种减少是“排除了任何合理性怀疑的真实存在”。

“As the authors point out, the continuous nature of the decline is of as much concern as the decline itself, given that we still do not know what lifestyle, dietary or chemical exposures might have caused this decrease,” he said.

他说:“正如作者所指出的,下降的持续性质和下降本身一样令人担忧,因为我们仍然不知道是生活方式、饮食还是化学物质暴露导致了这种减少。”

“Research efforts to identify these causes need to be redoubled and to be non-presumptive as to cause.”

“需要加倍努力研究查明这些原因,而且不是那种假定的原因。”

Professor Sharpe said that across Northern Europe today more than 15 per cent of young men had a sperm count low enough to “impair their fertility”.

夏普教授说,如今在整个北欧,超过15%的年轻人的精子数都很低,低到足以“减弱他们的生育能力”。

“And, as the present study indicates, this is likely to get worse rather than better as we move forwards in time,” he warned.

他警告说:“正如目前的研究表明的那样,随着时间的推移,这可能会变得更糟糕,而不是更好。”

He added that this effect, when combined with the trend for women to have a baby in their thirties, created a “double whammy for couple fertility in modern Western societies”. 

他补充说,当这个效应与女性倾向于在30多岁生育的趋势相结合时,造成了“现代西方社会中的夫妻生育的双重打击”。

“Therefore, looking ahead, I can only conclude that couple infertility is set to increase. Hopefully, this new study will serve as a wake-up call for health and research authorities as well as for the public, and for young people in particular,” Professor Sharpe said.

因此,展望未来,我只能得出这样的结论:夫妻不孕不育症将会增加。希望这项新研究能作为警钟敲醒卫生和研究部门以及公众,尤其是年轻人。”夏普教授说。