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Inside the murky world of Nairobi's smoking zones

进入内罗毕吸烟区的黑暗世界

The Kenyan government has cracked down on cigarettes with a ban onadvertising and smoking in public, driving the habit into the shadows

肯尼亚政府已经通过一道禁止在公共场合广告和吸烟的法令严控香烟,将这个爱好驱至阴影里



There is a wooden shed in the middle of Nairobi city centre, dark, full of fumes, crowded and deliberately built beside the public toilets. It feels like a place of shame.

内罗毕城市中心中部有一座木制棚屋,既黑暗又拥挤,乌烟瘴气,而且故意修在公厕旁边。感觉像是一个偷偷摸摸做坏事的地方。

Jairus Masumba, Nairobi County’s deputy director of public health, calls it in jest the gazebo. It’s the public smoking place, created by his department. It is claustrophobic and filled with smoke, some of which drifts out through slats, but most of which hangs heavily in the fugged air inside.

Jairus Masumba,内罗毕郡的公共卫生副主管,以玩笑的口吻叫它凉亭。这是他的部门修建的公共吸烟处。这里能让人患上幽闭恐惧症而且充斥着烟气,有些从木板间的缝隙逸出,但大部分浓厚地飘浮在室内浑浊的空气中。

Those who enter have to be desperate – and they’re usually men. A 27-year-old woman, who comes from the south of Kenya, is a rarity. She is heavily made-up and stands in the doorway. She smokes seven to 10 cigarettes a day. “It’s bad for you, no?” she says several times, though she knows the answer.

进这里的人一定是为了吸上一口不顾一切了,而且通常是男人。此时有一个27岁来自肯尼亚南部的女人,非常少见。她化着浓妆站在门口。她每天吸7~10支烟。“这对你有害,不是吗?”她反复说了数次,即使她知道答案。

The men inside, barely visible as you enter because of the darkness and the fug, are smoking hard, standing up like a football crowd, all facing the same way though there is nothing to look at except the wooden slats of the far side of the shed. Music blares but nobody is dancing. They are grim faced, doing what they have to do. A young man, high probably on khat and cigarette in hand, chases some of the butts and the ash out with a broom, seeking money from the other smokers for cleaning up. He says he has a diploma in business marketing and another diploma in substance abuse counselling.

当你进去的时候很难看到里面的男人,因为黑暗和污浊的空气妨碍视线。他们正在使劲地吸烟,像个足球队一样站着,所有人一齐看着某个方向,即使那里除了棚屋的木板外别无他物。音乐声刺耳但没有人跳舞。他们表情严肃,做着该做的事。一个年轻男人,很可能恰特草和香烟成瘾,用扫帚驱离烟屁股和烟灰,从其他吸烟者那里收取清理费。他说他有市场营销和物质成瘾咨询的证书。

At the door are two cigarette sellers, doing a busy trade. It’s rare for anyone to buy whole packets. Packs of cigarettes in Kenya are broken up and sold by vendors as single sticks. That makes them cheap for women, children and the poor, despite manufacturers being banned from producing packets of less than 10. One of the two sellers sitting passively inhaling smoke is a woman who taps a packet of 20 and shakes them deftly out, one at a time, exchanging them for small coins. Men buy one, sometimes a couple, sometimes three. They will not all be smoked here. The sellers sit at the large red wooden boxes, with open lids that become the display cabinet. Most popular and cheapest is Sportsman at 100 shillings a pack (75p, 97 cents) or 5 shillings (less than 4p, 5 cents) for a single. Smokers buy sweets too, to take away the smell of tobacco when the worker goes back to the office.

门口有两名烟草商人,生意兴隆。很少有人买整包的烟。在肯尼亚小贩将整包香烟拆散一根一根地卖。这让妇女、小孩和穷人买得起,尽管烟草制造商已经被禁止生产支数少于10的香烟包。两名消极地坐着吸烟的小贩里,其中一位是妇女,她拍打一个20支的香烟包,熟练地摇出香烟,每次一根,将它们换成硬币。男人每次买一根、两根或者三根。他们不会在这里全部吸完。小贩坐在一个红色大木箱旁边,木箱有一个盖子,能变成一个展示柜。最流行也最便宜的烟是运动员,100先令一包或者5先令一支。吸烟者也买糖,为了返回工作时消除口中烟草的气味。



A woman stands at a smoking zone in Nairobi, Kenya. Smoking openly on the street can incur a hefty fine. Photograph: David Levene for the Guardian

一名站在吸烟区的妇女,在肯尼亚内罗毕。在街道上吸烟将导致严厉的罚款。

The shed is vile, but few dare smoke even on the pavement outside in the cleaner air in the knowledge that the plain clothed official public health enforcers will be circling, ready to impose fines on anyone they catch. Nairobi city has got tough on smoking. The Kenyan government has banned advertising and marketing and smoking in public places, but it is up to the individual counties to interpret and enforce that and they all do it differently. Nairobi County has cracked down hard. Lighting up on the open street in the city centre can result in a stiff fine of 50,000 shillings (£374, $485) or even arrest. But it’s not so everywhere, or even outside of the city centre. 

棚屋是令人不适的,但几乎没人敢在外面人行道的更清洁的空气中吸烟,因为知道外面有便衣的公共卫生政策实行人员在巡逻,随时向抓到的任何人罚款。内罗毕市已经对吸烟变得强硬。肯尼亚政府已经禁止在公共场合广告和吸烟,但是具体的解读和实施由各个郡自行决定。内罗毕郡坚决严格管控。在城市中心的街道上吸烟将导致高达50000先令(374英镑,485美元)的严厉罚款甚至被逮捕。但这并不是普遍的,即使是在市中心的外围




2010年非洲在WHO成员中烟草相关死亡人数最低(从上到下,西太平洋(中印)、欧洲、东南亚、美洲、地中海东部、非洲)

Yusef, 58 and from Kenya’s second city, Mombasa, on the Indian Ocean coast, says people smoke openly in Mombasa. He has been smoking since the 1970s. His 28-year-old daughter died recently from colon cancer. That gives him a different perspective. “I’m more worried about GM foods,” he says.

Yusef,58岁来自位于印度洋沿岸的肯尼亚第二大城市蒙巴萨,说道蒙巴萨的人们能在公共场合吸烟。他从1970年就开始吸烟了。他28岁的女儿最近死于结肠癌。这让他有了不同的视角。“我更担心转基因食品了。”

Nairobi’s Uhuru Park is just under the nose of the ministry of health and has two small designated open-air smoking areas. On a Saturday, young women who are not smoking are there laughing and chatting with the young men who are. It’s somewhere to hang out. Elsewhere in the park, the same snack stalls proliferate. After 5pm, when the official public health enforcement officers go home, vendors and smokers relax. Cigarettes are sold and smoked openly.

内罗毕的民族独立公园就在卫生部长的监管下,有两间小的露天吸烟场所。星期六,不吸烟的年轻妇女正在和吸烟的年轻男人调笑。这里是闲逛的好去处。公园的其他地方到处是小吃摊。下午5点以后,政府的政策实行人员下班回家,小贩和吸烟者放松下来,随意贩卖和吸食香烟。

Outside of the city centre, the restrictions do not appear to be enforced at all. In the High Ridge residential area, a predominantly Indian community, stall holders are grilling corn and frying cassava crisps on the street. Others run the small stalls selling sweets, biscuits, fizzy drinks and cigarettes, openly smoking themselves. People wander along the road with a cigarette between their fingers. A large lorry stops and a man jumps down to buy two sticks, lighting both and passing one to his fellow labourer before they unload.

市中心外围,禁令好像没被彻底履行。在高脊居民区,一个印度裔主导的社区,摊主们正在街上烤玉米和炒木薯脆片。其他摊贩则在售卖糖果、饼干、泡沫饮料和香烟,他们能公开吸烟。人们两指间夹着烟沿着街道漫步。一辆大货车停下,一名男子跳下来买了两根烟,在卸货之前全部点上并拿了一根给他的一名同事。

These stalls are common near schools. A recent report compiled by the Consumer Information Network, a campaigning Kenyan anti-tobacco organisation, with Johns Hopkins University in the US, found such stalls selling sweets and single cigarettes within yards of primary schools across the country。

这些货摊普遍临近学校。最近由消费者信息网络,一家肯尼亚反烟草组织和美国约翰霍普金斯大学联合编纂的报告发现整个国家在小学操场售卖糖果和香烟的货摊俯拾皆是。

You won’t see an advert for Dunhill or Rothmans in Kenya. At least, nothing that looks like an advert. Advertising and promoting cigarettes has been banned. But everybody knows what the large red wooden boxes and red wooden display trays at stalls at the side of roads contain. Red is the colour of British American Tobacco (BAT). The words have been stripped off the red umbrellas that protect street vendors from the sun or patched over, but the colour is a tacit reminder of what they used to say and what is still sold there.

你不会再肯尼亚看到任何登喜路或者乐富门的广告。至少,任何看起来像是广告的东西。广告和推销香烟被禁止了。但是所有人都知道路边货摊的红色大箱子和红色木托盘里放的是什么。红色是英美烟草公司(British American Tobacco,BAT)的颜色。广告标语从正为小贩遮荫或被修补的红伞上清除掉了,但红色作为心照不宣的留存,代表着它们曾经宣传的话语以及现在仍然在售的东西。

BAT said its products were for adult smokers only and that it would much prefer that stalls sold whole packets rather than single sticks, “given our investment in the brands and the fact there are clear health warnings on the packs.

BAT说它的产品仅仅提供给成人而且更乐意整包地而不是逐根地出售香烟。“考虑到我们在品牌上的投资以及包装上有清晰的健康警告。”

“Across the world, we have very strict rules regarding not selling our products to retailers located near schools. BAT Kenya provides support to many of these independent vendors, including providing stalls painted in non-corporate colours, and providing youth smoking prevention and health warnings messages. We also educate vendors to ensure they do not sell tobacco products near schools.

“世界范围内,我们有严格的不向学校附近的零售商提供产品的章程。BAT肯尼亚向独立小贩提供支持,包括非公司颜色的涂刷、年轻人吸烟预防和健康警告留言。我们也教育他们确保不要在学校附近售烟。”

“We are a company that takes its responsibilities very seriously, and we are naturally keen to look further into any instances that are brought to our attention, so we can take action if necessary.”

“我们是一家重视责任的公司,我们自然而然深入调查任何让我们注意到的事情,因此我们能在必要时候采取行动。