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Threats, bullying, lawsuits: tobacco industry's dirty war for the African market

威胁、恐吓、诉讼:烟草行业对非洲市场的肮脏战争



‘Exporting death and harm’ ... Photograph by David Levene. Photograph: Guardian Design Team

“输出死亡和伤害……”
 
British American Tobacco (BAT) and other multinational tobacco firms have threatened governments in at least eight countries in Africa demanding they axe or dilute the kind of protections that have saved millions of lives in the west, a Guardian investigation has found.

英美烟草(BAT)和其他跨国烟草公司已经威胁了至少八个非洲国家的政府,要求他们削减或者放松已经在西方拯救了数百万人生命的保护形式。一篇卫报调查已经建立。
 
BAT, one of the world’s leading cigarette manufacturers, is fighting through the courts to try to block the Kenyan and Ugandan governments’ attempts to bring in regulations to limit the harm caused by smoking. The giant tobacco firms hope to boost their markets in Africa, which has a fast-growing young and increasingly prosperous population.

BAT,世界上领先的烟草制造商之一,正在拼命通过法院阻挡肯尼亚和乌干达政府通过条例限制吸烟危害的尝试。这家烟草巨头希望促进其在非洲的市场份额,那里有飞涨的青壮年人口和与日俱增的富裕人群。
 
In one undisclosed court document in Kenya, seen by the Guardian, BAT’s lawyers demand the country’s high court “quash in its entirety” a package of anti-smoking regulations and rails against what it calls a “capricious” tax plan. The case is now before the supreme court after BAT Kenya lost in the high court and the appeal court. A ruling is expected as early as next month.

在卫报看过的一篇未公开的肯尼亚法院文件中显示,BAT的律师要求这个国家的高级法院“完全废除”一揽子禁烟条例,而且抱怨所谓的“任性无常”的税收计划。BAT输掉高等法院和上诉法院的官司后,这个案子移交给最高法院。宣判预计最早在下个月。
 
BAT in Uganda asserts in another document that the government’s Tobacco Control Act is “inconsistent with and in contravention of the constitution”.

在乌干达BAT在另一份文件中断言政府的烟草控制行动是“前后矛盾的而且违反宪法”。
 
The Guardian has also seen letters, including three by BAT, sent to the governments of Uganda, Namibia, Togo, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia and Burkina Faso revealing the intimidatory tactics that tobacco companies are using, accusing governments of breaching their own laws and international trade agreements and warning of damage to the economy.

卫报还看过几封信,包括三件来自BAT的写给乌干达、纳米比亚、多哥、加蓬、民主刚果、埃塞俄比亚和布基纳法索的政府,揭示了烟草公司正在使用的恐吓战术的信,控告这些政府破坏法律和国家贸易协定,以及伤害经济的警告。
 
Extract - court document
“The Regulations are unlawful in their entirety as a result of procedural impropriety … The warning requirements [on cigarette packets] constitute an unjustifiable barrier to international trade.”

摘要——法院文件
“这些条例是完全是非法的因为它们是程序非法的结果……警告[在香烟包装上]前提条件构成不容辩护的国际贸易屏障。”

A petition by British American Tobacco Kenya to the country’s high court against aspects of the Kenyan government’s proposed tobacco regulations, 16 April 2015

一份英美烟草肯尼亚向国家高等法院提交的反对肯尼亚政府推行烟草条例的诉讼,2015年4月16日
 
BAT denies it is opposed to all tobacco regulation, but says it reserves the right to ask the courts to intervene where it believes regulations may not comply with the law.

BAT否认反对所有烟草条例,但是说保留请求法院干预他们认为是违法的条例的权利。
 
Later this month, BAT is expected to become the world’s biggest listed tobacco firm as it completes its acquisition of the large US tobacco company Reynolds in a $49bn deal, and there are fears over the extent to which big tobacco can financially outmuscle health ministries in poorer nations. A vote on the deal by shareholders of both firms is due to take place next Wednesday, simultaneously in London at BAT and North Carolina at Reynolds.

这个月晚些时候,BAT预计会成为世界上最大的烟草公司,一旦它以490亿美元收购美国烟草公司雷诺兹,但存在如此大规模的烟草公司能玩弄穷国卫生部的担忧。一次关于此交易的投票将在下周三由两家公司的股东进行。
 
Professor Peter Odhiambo, a former heart surgeon who is head of the government’s Tobacco Control Board in Kenya, told the Guardian: “BAT has done as much as they can to block us.”

Peter Odhiambo教授,前心外科医师,现在是肯尼亚政府烟草控制委员会的头,告诉卫报说:“BAT尽一切可能妨碍我们。”
 
Experts say Africa and southern Asia are urgent new battlegrounds in the global fight against smoking because of demographics and rising prosperity. Despite declining smoking and more controls in some richer countries, it still kills more than seven million people globally every year, according to the WHO, and there are fears the tactics of big tobacco will effectively succeed in “exporting the death and harm” to poorer nations.

专家说非洲和东南亚是情况紧迫的全球抗击吸烟行动的新战场,因为这里的人口结构和日渐繁荣(导致年轻烟民的增多)。尽管在更富裕的国家吸烟率降低而且管控更加严格,根据WTO全球每年仍有超过700万人死于吸烟。而且有这样的担忧,大型烟草公司的战术成功地向更穷的国家“出口死亡和伤害”。
 
There are an estimated 77 million smokers in Africa and those numbers are predicted to rise by nearly 40% from 2010 levels by 2030, which is the largest projected such increase in the world.

非洲目前有7700万烟民,而且预计从2010年到2030年这个数字将会增加40%,全球最快。
 
In Kenya, BAT has succeeded in delaying regulations to restrict the promotion and sale of cigarettes for 15 years, fighting through every level of the legal system. In February it launched a case in the supreme court that has already halted the imposition of tobacco controls until probably after the country’s general election in August, which are being contested by parliamentarians who have been linked to payments by the multinational company.

在肯尼亚,BAT利用法律系统的每一层级,已经成功地把限制推销和出售香烟的条例推迟15年了。在2月它在最高法院启动了一场诉讼。最高法院已经停止了烟草控制的实行直到8月全国大选结束后,接受跨国烟草公司捐款的议员将会在此竞争。
 
Extract - court document
"[A proposal for a new 2% tax on the industry in Kenya] ... is arbitrary, capricious and inaccessible … it will have a significant effect on cigarette manufacturers and importers putting at risk further investment and direct and indirect employment opportunities in Kenya.”

摘要——法院文件
[一个向烟草行业征收2%新税的提案]……是武断的、任性的、不实际的……这给烟草制造商和进口商带来威胁长远投资而且直接间接威胁肯尼亚工作机会的深厚影响。

A petition by British American Tobacco Kenya to the country’s high court against aspects of the Kenyan government’s proposed tobacco regulations, April 16th 2015

一份英美烟草肯尼亚向国家高等法院提交的反对肯尼亚政府推行烟草条例的诉讼,2015年4月16日
 
In Uganda, BAT launched legal action against the government in November, arguing that the Tobacco Control Act, which became law in 2015, contravenes the constitution. It is fighting restrictions that are now commonplace in richer countries, including the expansion of health warnings on packets and point-of-sale displays, arguing that they unfairly restrict its trade.

在乌干达,BAT在11月启动了对抗政府于2015年通过的烟草控制法令的法律行动,主张其违反宪法和不公平地限制自身贸易。它在与当前在更富裕国家中相当普遍的限制作斗争,包括烟草包装以及销售点展示上健康警告的扩大。

The court actions are brought by BAT’s local affiliates, BAT Kenya and BAT Uganda, but approved at Globe House, the London headquarters of the multinational, which receives most of the profits from the African trade. In its 2016 annual report, BAT outlined the “risk” that “unreasonable litigation” would be brought in to control tobacco around the world. Its response was an “engagement and litigation strategy coordinated and aligned across the Group”.

这些法院行动由BAT的当地子公司进行,BAT肯尼亚和BAT乌干达,但由伦敦总部批准。总部获得非洲贸易的绝大部分收益。2016年度报告中,BAT将“风险”概括为世界上导致烟草控制的“没道理的诉讼”。它的回应是“整个集团协调一致的雇佣和法律战略”。
 
“Focus on emerging markets”

聚焦新兴市场




British packets of cigarettes, with stark warnings, beside packs from Africa. Photograph: Linda Nylind for the Guardian

英国的烟草包装,上边有刺眼的警告,旁边是非洲的烟草包装。
 
At its annual meeting in March, chairman Richard Burrows toasted a “vintage year” for BAT, as profits rose 4% to £5.2bn after investors took their cut – their dividend had increased by 10%. When asked about the legal actions in Africa, he said tobacco was an industry that “should be regulated ... but we want to see that regulation is serving the correct interests of the health mission and human mission which should lie behind it”.

3月,在它的年度会议上,主席Richard Burrows庆祝BAT的“黄金年”,此年在投资者拿走他们的一份后利润增加了4%,达到52亿英镑,投资者的股息也增加了10%。当被问及非洲的法律行动,他说烟草行业”需要被规范……但是我们想看到条例为正确的关于其背后健康使命和人类使命的利益服务“。
 
Extract - court document
“Your Petitioner alleges and shall demonstrate that the Tobacco Control Act, read as a whole, has the effect of unjustifiably singling out the tobacco industry for discriminative treatment.”

摘要——法院文件:
“原告声称而且应该论证烟草控制法令,在将其全部读完后,有不容辩护地将烟草行业歧视对待的效果。”

A petition of British American Tobacco Uganda in the constitutional court against the Ugandan government’s Tobacco Control Act

一份英美烟草肯尼亚向国家高等法院提交的反对肯尼亚政府推行烟草条例的诉讼,2015年4月16日

So, “from time to time it’s necessary for us to take legal action to challenge new regulation” which he said was led by “the local board”.

所以,“对我们来讲偶尔有必要采取法律行动挑战新的条例”,他说的行动由“当地董事会”领导。
 
BAT says it is “simply not true that we oppose all tobacco regulation, particularly in developing countries”. Tobacco should be appropriately regulated as a product that has risks to health, it said, but “where there are different interpretations of whether regulations comply with the law, we think it is entirely reasonable to ask the courts to assist in resolving it”. It was opposed to only a handful of the issues in Kenya’s regulations, not the entirety, it said in a statement.

BAT说“我们不是反对所有烟草条例,特别是在发展中国家”。作为一种对健康由风险的产品烟草应该被合适地规范,它说。但是“对于条例是否遵循法律那里有不同的解读,我们认为让法院帮助解决它完全是理智的”。在肯尼亚的条例中我们反对的只是一小部分,而不是作为声明的整体。
 
Although most countries in Africa have signed the World Health Organization (WHO) treaty on tobacco control, none has yet fully implemented the smoking restrictions it endorses.

虽然大部分非洲国家已经世界卫生组织(World Health Organization,WTO)的烟草控制协议上签字,没有一个已经完全履行承诺的烟草限制。
 
The WHO predicts that by 2025, smoking rates will go up in 17 of the 30 Africa-region countries from their 2010 level. In some countries a massive hike is expected – in Congo-Brazzaville, from 13.9% to nearly half the population (47.1%) and in Cameroon from 13.7% to 42.7%. In Sierra Leone it will be 41.2% (74% among men) and in Lesotho 36.9%.

WHO预测到了2025年,相比2010年,30个非洲国家的吸烟率将上升17%。在某些国家跳跃式增长是预计的——刚果(布),从13.9%到近乎一半人口(47.1%),以及喀麦隆,从13.7%到42.7%。在塞拉利昂将变成41.2%(男人中是74%),在莱索托则是36.9%。
 
In contrast, research showed last year that just 16.9% of adults smoke in the UK; and last month new figures showed UK heart disease deaths had fallen 20% since that country’s indoor smoking ban.

相反,研究表明上一年英国仅16.9的成年人吸烟;上个月新数据表明英国心脏疾病导致的死亡下降了20%,归因于国家的室内吸烟禁令。
 
“The tobacco industry is now turning its focus toward emerging markets in sub-Saharan Africa, seeking to exploit the continent’s patchwork tobacco control regulations and limited resources to combat industry marketing advances,” said Dr Emmanuela Gakidou and colleagues at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington in Seattle, publishing an analysis of smoking prence around the world in the Lancet in April.

“烟草行业现在转向撒哈拉沙漠南部非洲国家的新兴市场,寻求利用这个大洲千疮百孔的烟草控制条例以及有限的用于阻挡烟草产业销售前进的资源,” 西雅图华盛顿大学健康测量和教育协会的Emmanuela Gakidou博士和他的同事们在一篇《柳叶刀》四月发表的关于吸烟的世界性流行的分析文章中说道。

Extract - letter
Uganda’s economy has “benefitted… significantly” from BAT’s tobacco business, employing 200 Ugandans and 1500 extra in the tobacco buying season. “This has helped to alleviate poverty and improve welfare in urban and rural areas ...”

摘要——信
乌干达的经济“受益于……相当地”从BAT的烟草业务,雇佣了200名乌干达人和额外的1500名在烟草购买季期间。“这有利于减少贫困和改善城乡福利……”

Extracts of a letter from Jonathan D’Souza, managing director of BAT Uganda to the chairperson of the Uganda Parliamentary committee on health, 14 April 2014

一封信的摘要,来自BAT乌干达的总经理Jonathan D’Souza,写给乌干达的卫生议员委员会主席,2014年4月14日
 
Africa’s growing numbers of children and young people, and its increasing wealth, represent a huge future market for the tobacco industry. The companies deny targeting children and cannot sell packs smaller than 10, but a new study carried out in Nairobi by the Johns Hopkins school of public health in the US and the Kenya-based Consumer Information Network found vendors selling cigarettes along the routes children take to walk to primary schools.

非洲不断增加的孩童和青年人口以及财富,在烟草行业看来形成了一个潜在的庞大市场。尽管这些公司否认瞄准儿童以及不许出售小于10支的香烟包,但美国约翰霍普金斯大学和肯尼亚消费者信息网络发现小贩们沿着小孩的上学路出售香烟。
 
The World Health Organisation predicts nearly half the population of Congo-Brazzaville will smoke by 2025 and smoking rates will increase in 17 other African countries

世卫组织预测2025年刚果(布)近一半人口将成为烟民而且其他非洲国家吸烟率将增加17%

 
Stalls sell single Dunhill, Embassy, Safari and other BAT cigarette sticks, costing around 4p (5 cents) each, alongside sweets, biscuits and fizzy drinks. The vendors split the packets of 20 manufactured by BAT. “They are targeting children,” said Samuel Ochieng, chief executive of the Consumer Information Network. “They mix cigarettes with candies and sell along the school paths.”

货摊沿街出售单根的登喜路、大使馆、游猎以及其他的BAT香烟,每根大约4便士,还出售糖果、饼干和发泡饮料。小贩将20支整包的香烟包拆散。“他们的目标是儿童,”消费者信息网络的主管Samuel Ochieng说。“他们沿着上学路搭配出售香烟和糖。”
 
BAT said that its products were for adult smokers only and that it would much prefer that stalls sold whole packets rather than single sticks, “given our investment in the brands and the fact there are clear health warnings on the packs.

BAT说它的产品仅仅提供给成人而且更乐意整包地而不是逐根地出售香烟。“考虑到我们在品牌上的投资以及包装上有清晰的健康警告。”
 
“Across the world, we have very strict rules regarding not selling our products to retailers located near schools. BAT Kenya provides support to many of these independent vendors, including providing stalls painted in non-corporate colours, and providing youth smoking prevention and health warnings messages. We also educate vendors to ensure they do not sell tobacco products near schools.”

“世界范围内,我们有严格的不向学校附近的零售商提供产品的章程。BAT肯尼亚向独立小贩提供支持,包括非公司颜色的涂刷、年轻人吸烟预防和健康警告留言。我们也教育他们确保不要在学校附近售烟。”

Links with politicians

和政客的关联




Cigarettes on sale (alongside sweets) in Nairobi, Kenya. Photograph: David Levene for the Guardian

在肯尼亚内罗毕出售的香烟(混杂在糖果中)。
 
The Kenya case, expected to be heard after the elections on 8 August, is seen as critical for the continent. If the government loses, other countries will have less appetite for the long and expensive fight against the wealthy tobacco industry.

这次在肯尼亚的被认为对非洲至关重要的诉讼预计在8月全国大选结束后审理。如果政府败诉,其他国家将对既漫长又昂贵的对抗财大气粗烟草行业的斗争热情降低。
 
BAT has around 70% of the Kenyan market; its Kenyan competitor, Mastermind, has joined in the legal action against the government.

BAT占有肯尼亚烟草市场约70%的份额;它在肯尼亚的商业竞争者Mastermind也加入了对抗政府的法律行动。
 
Extract – letter

摘要——信

"If these measures are brought into effect, the economic and social impact will be extremely negative. They could even threaten the continuation of our factory which has operated in Bobo Dioulasso for more than fifty years with more than 210 salaried employees.”

“如果这些措施被实行,带来的经济和社会影响是非常负面的。它们甚至会威胁我们在博博迪乌拉索的工厂,这家工厂已经连续运行15多年了,雇员超过210名。”

Excerpt from letter from Imperial Tobacco to the prime minister of Burkina Faso, 25 January 2016, concerning new regulations on plain cigarette packaging and large graphic health warnings.

来自帝国烟草写给布基纳法索总理的信,2016年1月25日,总理参与关于警示意义不足的烟草包装和健康警告图片的新条例的制定。
 
Concerns have been raised about links between politicians and the tobacco companies. “There are allegations of some of them having been bribed in the past,” said Joel Gitali, chief executive of the Kenya Tobacco Control Alliance.

关于政客和烟草公司狼狈为奸的担忧已经升级。“有传言说有几名政客过去接受过贿赂,” Joel Gitali,肯尼亚烟草控制联盟的主管说。
 
BAT whistleblower Paul Hopkins, who worked in Africa for BAT for 13 years, told a British newspaper he paid bribes on the company’s behalf to the Kenya Revenue Authority for access to information BAT could use against its Kenyan competitor, Mastermind. Hopkins has also alleged links between certain prominent opposition Kenyan politicians and two tobacco companies, BAT Kenya and Mastermind. Hopkins, who says he alerted BAT to the documents before the company made him redundant, claimed BAT Kenya paid bribes to government officials in Burundi, Rwanda and the Comoros Islands to undermine tobacco control regulations. Gitali is concerned about the outcome of the election: “If the opposition takes over government we shall be deeply in the hands of the tobacco companies.”

BAT发言人Paul Hopkins,已经在非洲为BAT工作13年了,曾告诉一家英国报纸说他过去代表公司向肯尼亚税务局行贿以获取有用的关于公司在肯尼亚的竞争对手Mastermind的信息。他也声称BAT和Mastermind与数名重要的反对党政客有关系。他说,他曾经被解雇前警告公司小心这些文件,声称BAT肯尼亚向布隆迪、卢旺达和科摩罗的政府官员行贿以暗中破坏烟草控制条例。Gitali担忧大选结果:“如果反对党当选了烟草公司就能想怎么玩就怎么玩了。”
 
BAT denies any wrongdoing. A spokesperson said: “We will not tolerate improper conduct in our business anywhere in the world and take any allegations of misconduct extremely seriously. We are investigating, through external legal advisors, allegations of misconduct and are liaising with the Serious Fraud Office and other relevant authorities.”

BAT否认任何不正当行为。一名发言人说:“我们不会容忍在世界各地的商业活动中出现任何不正当行为,我们也严肃对待任何与此相关的说法。我们正在通过外部的法律顾问调查这个问题,而且联系了欺诈重案办公室和相关部门。”。

“We grow up dreaming we can be one of them”

“我们梦想着能成为他们中的一员长大”


 
The headquarters and factory of British American Tobacco in Nairobi, Kenya. Photograph: David Levene for the Guardian

位于肯尼亚内罗毕的英美烟草总部和工厂。
 
Tih Ntiabang, regional coordinator for Africa of the Framework Convention Alliance – NGOs that support the WHO treaty – said the tobacco companies had become bolder. “In the past it used to be invisible interference, but today it is so shameful that it is so visible and they are openly opposing public health treaties like the case in Kenya at the moment … Today they boldly go to court to oppose public health policy. Every single government is highly interested in economic growth. They [the tobacco companies] know they have this economic power. The budget of tobacco companies like BAT could be as much as the whole budget of the Africa region.

Tih Ntiabang,框架协议联盟(多家NGO,致力于协助WHO协议)的非洲地区协调人说烟草公司已经变得更大胆了。“过去它们只在暗中行事,但今日它们竟然像肯尼亚的诉讼这样,公开反对公共卫生政策,这太无耻了……今日他们大胆地诉诸法律反对公共卫生政策。任何政府都对发展经济感兴趣,他们(烟草公司)知道他们有这个经济力量。像BAT这样的烟草公司,它的预算能与非洲部分地区的总预算一样多。”
 
“Our health systems are not really well organised. Our policy makers can’t see clearly what are the health costs of inaction on tobacco control because our health system is not very good. It puts the tobacco industry at an advantage on public health.”

”我们的卫生系统不够完善。我们的政策制定者不明白对烟草控制的不作为将给公众健康带来多么大的危害,因为我们的卫生系统还不是非常好。这让烟草行业在公众健康领域占据优势。“
 
The sale across the whole of Africa of single cigarette sticks was a serious problem because it enabled children to buy them. “They are extremely affordable. Young teenagers are able to purchase a cigarette. You don’t need £1 for a pack of 20,” he said.

遍及非洲的单根香烟售卖现象是一个非常严重的问题,因为这让儿童能够买得起香烟。”任何人都买得起它们。青少年就有消费香烟的能力了。你不必为买整包20支烟不得不花1英镑。“他说道。



2010年非洲在WHO成员中烟草相关死亡人数最低(从上到下,西太平洋(中印)、欧洲、东南亚、美洲、地中海东部、非洲)
 
BAT has a reputation in Africa as an employer offering steady and well-paid jobs, said Ntiabang, based in Cameroon. “When I was about 10, I was always dreaming I could work for BAT. They have always painted themselves as a responsible company – a dream company to work for. All the staff are well-off. The young people think ‘I want to work for BAT’. They promote a lot of events and make their name appear to young people. We grow up dreaming we can be one of them.”

在非洲BAT有一个工作稳定多金的好名声。Ntiabang根据他在科摩罗的经历说。”我10岁的时候,我总是想着我能在BAT工作。他们总把自己包装成一个让人梦想为其工作的理想公司。所有员工都有丰厚的报酬。年轻人想着‘我要为BAT工作’,他们促进了很多项目而且让他们的名字在年轻人中流传。我们梦想着能成为他们中的一员长大。“
 
In Uganda in 2014, BAT managing director, Jonathan D’Souza, sent a 13-page detailed attack on the tobacco control bill, then going through parliament, to the chair of the government’s health committee.

2014年在乌干达,BAT经理Jonathan D’Souza发给政府的卫生委员会主席一份13页的信,里面事无巨细地抨击议会即将通过的烟草控制法案。
 
BAT was contracting with 18,000 farmers and paid them 61bn Ugandan shillings for 16.8m kg of tobacco in 2013, said the letter. The economy has “benefited significantly” from BAT Uganda’s investments, it said. “This has helped to alleviate poverty and improve welfare in urban and rural areas,” it says.

2013年BAT支付了610亿乌干达先令从18000名农民手中收购了16.8吨烟叶,信中说。乌干达经济因为BAT乌干达的投资“明显地受益”,信中也说。“这有利于减少贫困和改善城乡福利。”
 
Extract - letter
"The draft regulations which you have published deal with a wide range of issues which will have a massive impact not only on the tobacco industry but also on a wider scale on the Namibian economy at large.”

摘要——信
“你公布的起草的打算解决一大堆问题的条例将产生巨大的冲击,不仅是烟草行业,还大量牵连纳米比亚经济的其他成分。”

Excerpt from a letter from the general manager of BAT in Namibia to the minister of health and social services, 17 November 2011‘

来自BAT纳米比亚总经理写给纳米比亚卫生和社会服务部长的信,2011年11月17日。
 
BAT Uganda (BATU) agreed tobacco should be regulated while “respecting the informed choices and rights of adults who choose to smoke and the legal rights of a legal industry”. But it cited 11 “areas of concern”, claiming there is no evidence to support a ban on tobacco displays in shops, that large graphic health warnings on packs are ineffective, that proposals on bans on smoking in public places were too broad and that prohibiting smoking under the age of 21 was unreasonable, since at 18 young people are adults and can make up their own mind.

BAT乌干达同意烟草应该被规范,在“尊重吸烟成年人的自主选择和权利以及一个合法产业的法律权利”的前提下。但它提到11个“关心的方面”,主张商店的烟草展示禁令没有根据,烟草包装上大幅图片健康警告是没效果的,禁止在公共场合吸烟的提议范围太大了以及21岁前禁止吸烟是不合理的,因为18岁已经成年能够自己作选择了。
 
 
Documents made public by the University of Bath show that BATU had another concern: the ban on the sale of cheap single cigarettes. Adults should be “free to purchase what they can afford”, says an internal leaked paper. BATU also took action against the MP who sponsored the bill. A letter informed him that the company would no longer be contracting with the 709 tobacco farmers in his region. There is evidence that the company also lobbied other MPs with tobacco farmers in their constituencies.

英国巴斯大学公布的文件显示BAT乌干达还有另外的担忧:出售便宜的单根香烟的禁令。成年人应该“自由购买他们买得起的东西”,一份泄露的内部文件说。BAT乌干达也曾采取行动反对支持这项法案的国会议员。写给他的一封信说公司将不再从他的选区的709名烟草种植农民那里收购烟叶。还有公司用选区烟草种植农民游说其他国会议员的证据。
 
The Tobacco Control Act became law in 2015, and in November last year, BAT sued. Many people choose to smoke, said an affidavit to the court from managing director Dadson Mwaura and it was important to ensure regulation did not lead to “unintended consequences that risk an untaxed and unrestrained illegitimate trade in tobacco products”. BATU’s legal product contributed to the Ugandan economy “in many dimensions”.

烟草控制法案在2015年成为法律,而且在下一年的11月,BAT起诉了。许多人自己选择去吸烟,经理Dadson Mwaura在法院作书面证词时说,他还说要确保条例不会导致“意料之外的后果,有可能催生一个无法收税不受限制的地下烟草贸易。”BATU乌干达的合法产品对乌干达经济的“许多方面”作出了贡献。
 


A vendor in Nairobi’s Uhuru Park sells single stick cigarettes. Photograph: David Levene for the Guardian

一名出售单根香烟的小贩。
 
The Guardian has seen letters showing that at least six other African governments have faced challenges from the multinational tobacco companies over their attempts to control smoking.

卫报已经看到的信件显示至少6个非洲国家的政府已经面临跨国烟草公司阻止吸烟控制的挑战。

●Democratic Republic of Congo: Letter to the president sent in April 2017 by the Fédération des Entreprises du Congo (chamber of commerce) on behalf of the tobacco industry, listing 29 concerns with the proposed tobacco control regulations, which they claim violate the constitution, international agreements and domestic law.

刚果民主共和国:由Fédération des Entreprises du Congo(商会)代表烟草行业在2017年4月发给总统的信,列出了29处关于提交的烟草控制条例的担忧,他们声称这违反宪法、国际协定和国内法。

●Burkina Faso: Letter sent in January 2016 to the minister of health from Imperial Tobacco, warning that restrictions on labeling and packaging cigarettes risks economic and social damage to the country. Previous letter sent to the prime minister from the US Chambers of Commerce in December 2013 warning that large health warnings and plain packaging could put Burkina Faso in breach of its obligations to the World Trade Organisation.

布基纳法索:由帝国烟草在2016年1月发给卫生部长的信,警告关于标识和包装香烟的限制会给国家带来经济和社会上的伤害。先前美国商会在2013年12月发给总理的信警告醒目的健康警告和朴素的包装将让布基纳法索违反其对WTO的义务。

●Ethiopia: Letter sent in February 2015 to the ministers of health and science and technology by Philip Morris International, claiming that the government’s tobacco directive banning trademarks, brands and added ingredients to tobacco breached existing laws and would penalise all consumer retailers.

埃塞俄比亚:由菲利普莫里斯国际在2015年2月发给卫生科学技术部长的信,主张政府禁止商标以及向香烟中加料的烟草指示违反现存法律而且将处罚所有终端零售商。

●Togo: Letter to the minister of commerce in June 2012 from Philip Morris International opposing plain packaging, which “risks having damaging consequences on Togo’s economy and business environment”.

多哥:菲利普莫里斯国际在2012年6月写给贸易部长的信反对朴素的包装,这“可能伤害多哥的经济和商业环境”。

●Gabon: Letter from BAT arguing that there is no evidence that plain packaging reduces smoking, citing the Deloitte report of 2011, alleging its introduction would put Gabon in breach of trade agreements and promote smuggling.

加蓬:来自BAT的信主张没有证据表明朴素的包装能降低吸烟率,引用了2011年的Deloitte报告,声称这会让加蓬违反贸易协定和助长走私。

●Namibia: Letter to the minister of health from BAT, warning that planned tobacco controls will have “a massive impact … on the Namibian economy at large”.

纳米比亚:由BAT发给卫生部长的信警告计划中的烟草控制将”严重冲击……纳米比亚经济“。

Extract - memo
"As a country whose economy heavily relies on exports, Togo can ill afford to anger its international partners by introducing plain packaging.”

摘要——备忘录
”作为一个经济严重依赖出口的国家,多哥承担不起采用朴素包装激怒其国际贸易伙伴的后果。“

Excerpt from memo on plain packaging from chief executive of Philip Morris West Africa to the minister of commerce of Togo, to reiterate its concerns following a meeting, 21 June 2013

来自菲利普莫里斯西非首席执行官写给多哥贸易部长的备忘录,在一次会议后重申它的担心,2013年6月21日。

Bintou Camara, director of Africa programs at Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, said: “British American Tobacco, Philip Morris International and other multinational tobacco companies have set their sights on Africa as a ‘growth market’ for their deadly products”. Throughout Africa, tobacco companies have tried to intimidate countries from taking effective action to reduce tobacco use, the world’s leading cause of preventable death, he added.

Bintou Camara,致力于儿童无烟的非洲项目主管,说:“英美烟草、菲利普莫里斯国际和其他跨国烟草公司视非洲为它们致命产品的‘成长市场’”。整个非洲,烟草公司试着恐吓想采取有效行动减少吸烟的政府,吸烟是世界上首屈一指的可预防死亡的诱因,他接着说。

“Governments in Africa should know that they can and should move forward with measures aimed at preventing and reducing tobacco use – and that they do so with the support of the many governments and leaders around the world that have taken strong action to protect public health.”

“非洲的政府应该知道它们能也应该推进预防和减少吸烟的措施——在世界上许多已经采取强有力的行动保护公众健康的政府和领导人的支持下。”

Cloe Franko, senior international organizer at Corporate Accountability International, said: “In Kenya, as in other parts of the world, the industry has resorted to frivolous litigation, aggressive interference ... to thwart, block, and delay lifesaving policies. BAT’s actions are emblematic of a desperate industry grasping to maintain its hold over countries and continue to peddle its deadly product.”

Cloe Franko,企业责任国际组织的高级国际组织者,说“在肯尼亚,同世界上其它地方一样,烟草行业付诸无用的诉讼,积极的干涉……来挫败、阻挡和推迟救命的政策。BAT的行动是一个典型,一个不顾一切的行业死命维持对国家的影响去继续贩卖它致命的产品,”

Philip Morris said it is regularly engaged in discussions with governments. “We are approached by or approach public authorities to discuss a range of issues that are important for them and for us, such as taxation, international trade, and tobacco control policies. Participating in discussions and sharing points of view is a basic principle of public policy making and does not stop governments from taking decisions and enacting the laws they deem best.” It said that it supports effective regulation, “including laws banning sales to minors, mandatory health warnings, and advertising restrictions”.

菲利普莫里斯说它定期与政府讨论。“政府来找我们或者我们去找政府,讨论一系列对双方都很重要的问题,比如税收、国际贸易和烟草控制政策。参与讨论而且分享意见的要点是制定公共政策的基本法则而且不会阻止政府决策和颁布认为是最好的法律。”它说它支持有效的条例,“包括禁止向低龄人群售烟、强制的健康警告和广告限制。”

Imperial Tobacco said it sold its brands “where there’s a legitimate and existing demand for tobacco and take the same responsible approach in Africa as we do in any Western territory”. A spokesman said it supported “reasonable, proportionate and evidence-based regulation of tobacco”, including “health warnings that are consistent with global public health messages”. But, it said, Imperial would “continue to make our views known on excessive, unnecessary and often counter-productive regulatory proposals”.

帝国烟草说它会在“任何烟草合法而且存在烟草需求的地方”出售商品,而且使用我们在西方国家也使用的合理手段。”。一名发言人说它支持“合理的、相称的而且基于证据的烟草条例”,包括“与全球公共卫生信息一致的健康警告。”但是,它说,帝国烟草“继续关注过度的、不必要的而且经常是南辕北辙的管理提案。”