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U.S. Military World’s Largest Polluter – Hundreds Of Bases Gravely Contaminated

美军是世界上最大的污染者 - 数百个基地严重污染

MINNEAPOLIS– Last week, mainstream media outlets gave minimal attention to  the news that the U.S. Naval station in Virginia Beach had spilled an  estimated 94,000 gallons of jet fuel into a nearby waterway, less than a mile  from the Atlantic Ocean. While the incident was by no means as catastrophic  as some other pipeline spills, it underscores an important yet little-known  fact – that the U.S. Department of Defense is both the nation’s and the  world’s, largest polluter.

明尼阿波利斯——上周,主流媒体机构对一条美国海军的新闻集体失声——弗吉尼亚海岸的美国海军基地向其驻地附近的排水道倾泻了近94000加仑的航空燃料,距离大西洋不到一英里。其灾难性绝不是一般的输油管道泄漏可以相比的。该事件揭露了一个鲜为人知的重要事实——美国国防部是美国乃至全世界的最大污染者。
  
Producing more hazardous waste than the five largest U.S. chemical companies  combined, the U.S. Department of Defense has left its toxic legacy throughout  the world in the form of depleted uranium, oil, jet fuel, pesticides,  defoliants like Agent Orange and lead, among others.
  
美国国防部遗弃的有毒物质遍布世界,包括贫铀、油污、飞机燃料、农药、脱叶剂如橙剂和铅,等等诸多污染物。其制造的危险废物比全美最大5家化学公司加起来都多。

U.S. military bases, both domestic and foreign, consistently rank among some  of the most polluted places in the world, as perchlorate and other components  of jet and rocket fuel contaminate sources of drinking water, aquifers, and  soil. Hundreds of military bases can be found on the Environmental Protection  Agency’s list of Superfund sites, which qualify for clean-up grants from the  government.
  
美国的军事基地,不管是国内还是国外的,都长期出现在世界污染最严重地区的排名中。高氯酸盐和其他航空航天燃料成分污染了水源、含水层、土壤。你可以在美国环境保护署的超级基金清单网上找到数以百计的军事基地,这些基地都有资格向政府申请净化补助。

Almost 900 of the nearly 1,200 Superfund sites in the U.S. are abandoned  military facilities or sites that otherwise support military needs, not  counting the military bases themselves.
  
总共1200个左右的名单中,将近900个是废弃军事设施或补给站,这还没有算上军事基地本身。

“Almost every military site in this country is seriously contaminated,” John  D. Dingell, a retired Michigan congressman and war veteran, told Newsweek in  2014. Camp Lejeune in Jacksonville, North Carolina is one such base.  Lejeune’s contamination became widespread and even deadly after its  groundwater was polluted with a sizable amount of carcinogens from 1953 to  1987.
 
密歇根州前议员同时也是老兵的John D.  Dingell,在2014年如此对《新闻周刊》说:“国内几乎每个军事用地都污染严重。”北卡罗来纳州杰克逊维尔市的勒琼基地就是例子,在1953到1987年间,该基地的污染日益严重,被大量致癌物污染的地下水甚至是致命的。



Between 1946 and 1958, the US tested 66 nuclear weapons  near Bikini atoll. Populations living nearby in the Marshall Islands were  exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout from these tests. (Map:  National Cancer Institute)
  
1946至1958年间,美国在比基尼环礁附近进行了66次核武试验,附近马绍尔群岛的居民暴露在可测量水平的放射尘下(地图源自:国家癌症研究所)

However, it was not until this February that the government allowed those  exposed to chemicals at Lejeune to make official compensation claims.  Numerous bases abroad have also contaminated local drinking water supplies,  most famously the Kadena Air Force Base in Okinawa.
  
然而,直到今年二月,政府才允许杰克逊维尔市遭受毒害的民众申请官方赔偿。许多海外基地同样污染了当地供水,最著名的要数冲绳县的嘉手纳空军基地。

In addition, the U.S., which has conducted more nuclear weapons tests than  all other nations combined, is also responsible for the massive amount of  radiation that continues to contaminate many islands in the Pacific Ocean.  The Marshall Islands, where the U.S. dropped more than sixty nuclear weapons  between 1946 and 1958, are a particularly notable example. Inhabitants of the  Marshall Islands and nearby Guam continue to experience an exceedingly high  rate of cancer.
  
此外,鉴于美国进行的核武器试验比其他国家加起来都多,美国同时要为许多太平洋岛受到的大量辐射污染负责。马歇尔岛是一个极为显著的例子,1946至1958年间美国在那儿扔下了超过60枚核武器。马歇尔岛和附近的关岛居民依然遭受着极高的癌症发病率。

The American Southwest was also the site of numerous nuclear weapons tests  that contaminated large swaths of land. Navajo Indian reservations have been  polluted by long-abandoned uranium mines where nuclear material was obtained  by U.S. military contractors.
  
美国西南部也有大片土地因为大量核武试验而遭到污染,美国军事承包商遗弃的铀矿污染了纳瓦霍人保留地。

One of the most recent testaments to the U.S. military’s horrendous  environmental record is Iraq. U.S. military action there has resulted in the  desertification of 90 percent of Iraqi territory, crippling the country’s  agricultural industry and forcing it to import more than 80 percent of its food.  The U.S.’ use of depleted uranium in Iraq during the Gulf War also caused a  massive environmental burden for Iraqis. In addition, the U.S. military’s  policy of using open-air burn pits to dispose of waste from the 2003 invasion  has caused a surge in cancer among U.S. servicemen and Iraqi civilians alike.

美军可怕的环境污染记录的最近证明之一就是伊拉克,美军的军事行动导致伊拉克90%的土地荒漠化,严重破坏了该国的农业,伊拉克80%的粮食需求被迫依赖进口。海湾战争期间美国使用的贫铀弹也对伊拉克环境造成了极大危害。此外,2003年侵略战争以来,美国处理废弃物的露天燃烧做法,导致了美国技工和伊拉克平民患癌率激增。



Four-year-old Alla Saleem, who suffers from a tumor in  her eye, lies on her bed as she waits for medication Monday, January 15,  2001, at the Gazwan Children’s Hospital in the southern Iraq town of Basra,  about 60 kilometers (37 miles) from the border with Kuwait. Iraqi authorities  claim that about 300 tons of bombs with depleted uranium were used by the  allied forces during the Gulf War bombing campaign, and this is responsible  for the increase of cancer cases in the area. According to Doctor Jawal  Al-Ali, chief cancer consultant of the Basra teaching hospital and member of  the Royal College of physicians in London, the cases have multiplied by 12  since 1991. (AP/Enric Marti)
  
2001年1月15日,一名罹患眼部眼部肿瘤的4岁女孩躺在Gazwan儿童医院的病床上等待治疗,这家医院位于伊拉克南部的巴士拉,距离科威特边境60公里。伊拉克官方称在海湾战争期间,联军在轰炸过程中使用了超过300吨的贫铀弹,导致该地区癌症发病率增加。据巴士拉教学医院首席癌症顾问和伦敦皇家医学院成员Jawal Al-Ali博士指出,发病数量自1991年以来增加了11倍(美联社/ Enric Marti)

While the U.S. military’s past environmental record suggests that its current  policies are not sustainable, this has by no means dissuaded the U.S.  military from openly planning future contamination of the environment through  misguided waste disposal efforts. Last November, the U.S. Navy announced its  plan to release 20,000 tons of environmental “stressors,” including heavy  metals and explosives, into the coastal waters of the U.S. Pacific Northwest  over the course of this year.

尽管糟糕的环保记录证明美军现行政策是不可持续的,但这丝毫没有阻止美军错误的废弃物处理措施继续公然污染环境。去年11月,美国海军宣布计划用时一年,向美国大西洋西北沿岸水域释放20000吨的环境“压力源”,包括重金属和爆炸物。
  
  The plan, laid out in the Navy’s Northwest Training and Testing Environmental  Impact Statement (EIS), fails to mention that these “stressors” are described  by the EPA as known hazards, many of which are highly toxic at both acute and  chronic levels.
  
这份在“海军西北训练和测试环境影响声明(EIS)”公布的计划没有提到,其所谓的“压力源”,按照美国环保署的说法是“危险物”,其中许多具有高度急性、慢性毒性。

The 20,000 tons of “stressors” mentioned in the EIS do not account for the  additional 4.7 to 14 tons of “metals with potential toxicity” that the Navy  plans to release annually, from now on, into inland waters along the Puget  Sound in Washington state.
 
这20000吨“压力源”,尚不包括另外4.7到14吨的“有潜在毒性的金属”,美国海军计划从今年起,每年朝华盛顿州普吉特海湾的内陆水域排放如此多的废弃物。