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NO2 pollution, produced largely by diesel vehicles, causes 9,500 early deaths every year in London. Photograph: Nick Ansell/PA

大部分由柴油车尾气排放导致的二氧化氮污染,每年导致伦敦9500人夭折

London has breached its annual air pollution limits just five days into 2017, a “shameful reminder of the severity of London’s air pollution”, according to campaigners.

伦敦在进入2017年仅五天的时间内就突破了其全年空气污染限制。社会人士表示:“这是对伦敦空气污染严重程度发出的一个耻辱的信号”。

By law, hourly levels of toxic nitrogen dioxide must not be more than 200 micrograms per cubic metre more than 18 times in a whole year, but late on Thursday this limit was broken on Brixton Road in Lambeth.

根据法律规定,全年有毒二氧化氮的小时浓度超过200微克每立方米的次数不得超过18次。不过该次数极限已经于周四在伦敦朗伯斯区的布里克斯顿路段被打破。

Many other sites across the capital will go on to break the annual limit and Putney High Street exceeded the hourly limit over 1,100 times in 2016. Oxford Street, Kings Road in Chelsea and the Strand are other known pollution hotspots.

伦敦的许多区域将相继打破这一限制。2016年,帕特尼高路段共超过上限1100次。牛津街、切尔西的国王路和斯特兰也是著名的污染重灾区。

NO2 pollution, which is produced largely by diesel vehicles, causes 9,500 early deaths every year in London. Most air quality zones across the country break legal limits and the crisis was called a “public health emergency” by MPs in April. This week scientists said that one in 10 cases of Alzheimer’s in people living near busy roads could be linked to air pollution.

二氧化氮污染主要由柴油车的尾气排放导致,此类污染每年在伦敦造成9500例夭折。2016年4月,英国全国大部分空气质量区的二氧化氮含量突破法定上限,国会议员将这场危机称为“公共卫生紧急事件”。科学家们本周表示,居住在繁忙路段附近的居民中有十分之一的老年痴呆症可能与空气污染有关。

The new mayor of London Sadiq Khan has pledged new measures and to double funding to £875m over five years to tackle the problem. But the UK government’s plans have twice been ruled illegal in the past two years and it has been sent back to the drawing board to develop a third strategy.

新上任的伦敦市长萨迪克.汗发誓将采取新的措施,在五年时间内将筹措的资金翻倍至8.75亿英镑以解决空气污染问题。不过英国政府提出的方案在过去两年内被法庭两次判为非法,已经被打回重做第三份方案。

Alan Andrews, a lawyer at ClientEarth – the group that successfully sued the government – said: “This is another shameful reminder of the severity of London’s air pollution and shows why the mayor has rightly made tackling it a top priority. It is absolutely essential that he now delivers on his promises and that the national government back him to the hilt.”

ClientEarth,这家曾经成功起诉英国政府的机构的注册律师Alan Andrews表示,“这是对伦敦空气污染严重程度发出的一个耻辱的信号,说明了为什么市长明智的把这事放到了优先级的首位。现在他正在履行自己的承诺,而且政府也最大限度的支持他,这是非常重要的。”

Andrews, who lives in Brixton, said Khan had promised an expanded ultra-low emission zone in 2019, which limits polluting vehicles, and to deploy the cleanest buses on the most polluted roads.

Andrews住在布里克斯顿,表示汗承诺在2019年扩张极低尾气排放区域。这些区域限制排放污染的机动车,并在污染严重的路段部署清洁型公交车。

“While these are vital steps in the right direction, we can’t wait another three years for action,” he said. “We need immediate action to cut pollution in the short-term and protect Londoners’ health during these pollution spikes.” In December, Khan issued air pollution alerts at bus stops, tube stations and roadsides due to high levels.

“虽然这些是正确的道路上的重要步骤,但是我们没办法等三年,”Andrews表示。“我们需要立即在短期内采取行动,在污染高峰期间保卫伦敦人的健康。”由于污染严重,汗在12月发布了关于公交站、地铁站、路边空气污染的警报。

A spokesman for the mayor said: “The Brixton Road [breach] underscores why urgent action is needed to improve air quality across London.” He said Khan would shortly be announcing 10 new low emission bus zones, including one for Brixton Road.

市长的一位发言人表示:“布里克斯顿路段表现很差,说明为什么提高全伦敦的空气质量行动迫在眉睫。”他表示汗将在短期内宣布10个新的低排放公交区域,其中包括了布里克斯顿路段。

“But this is not enough,” said the spokesman. “The government needs to match the Mayor’s commitment to improving air quality as quickly as possible.”

发言人表示“但这样还不够。政府需要配合市长的承诺以便尽快的提高空气质量。”

In December, Paris, Madrid, Athens and Mexico City pledged to ban polluting diesel cars from their centres by 2025 and a number of cities outside the UK have already taken action such as banning cars on specific days or making public transport free.

2016年12月,巴黎、马德里、雅典、以及墨西哥城发誓将在2025年前在市中心全面禁止柴油车。部分城市采取了在特殊日期禁止机动车出行,或实施免费公共交通等措施。

The government must produce a new national plan by April and ClientEarth said this must include clean air zones in many areas to stop the dirtiest diesel cars entering pollution hotspots. ClientEarth also said the “peverse” financial incentives that encourage people to buy diesel cars rather than cleaner ones must be ended.

政府必须在四月份之前做出一个新的方案,ClientEarth表示这必须涵盖许多地区的清洁空气区域以防止肮脏的柴油车进入污染的重灾区。ClientEarth同时表示,鼓励人们买柴油车而不是清洁能源车的“任性”财政激励政策必须被叫停。

Both a national network of clean air zones and tax changes were proposed within government as part of its last plan, but were rejected by the Treasury.

全国联网的清洁空气区域以及相关税收都已在作为政府计划的一部分,在内部递交了提案,不过都被财政部否决了。

This week new data also revealed that modern diesel cars produce 10 times more NO2 pollution than heavy trucks and buses per litre of fuel, which experts say is due to the much tougher testing faced by heavy vehicles.

本周数据显示,每消耗一升燃料,现代化的柴油车就比重型卡车和公交多排出10倍的二氧化氮。