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Which Country Has The Most Nukes? Putin, Trump Talk Nuclear Arsenals

哪个国家核武器最多?普京和特朗普相继发表关于核武库的谈话

BY TOM O'CONNOR @SHAOLINTOM ON 12/23/16 AT 2:43 PM



President-elect Donald Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin both expressed their support for expanding their respective nations' nuclear capabilities in separate statements on Thursday.

当选总统川普和俄罗斯总统普京,周四在两个不同的场合不约而同的表达了他们对于扩充各自国家核武库的支持。

The Russian leader told an annual meeting with his chiefs of defense that the Russian arsenal was already capable of overcoming any potential aggressors, but that nuclear expansion should be a goal for the upcoming year. Later that same day, Trump tweeted his desire to "greatly strengthen and expand" the U.S.' nuclear capability until "the world came to its sense" on nuclear warfare.

俄罗斯领导人在与军队首脑的年度会议上说,俄国的现有的武力足以战胜潜在的侵略者,但增强核武库仍应是来年的目标。当天晚些时候,川普在推特上表示了“强化及扩张”美国的核打击能力的愿望,直到“世界对于核大战有所认识”。

Both Washington and Moscow control two of the largest nuclear arsenals in the world. The United Nation's 1968 Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty recognizes only five countries as being nuclear-weapon states, which represent the five permanent members of the National Security Council - the United States, Russia, China, the U.K. and France. Other countries, such as Pakistan, India and North Korea, have openly developed and detonated nuclear weapons despite not signing the treaty. Israel has intentionally hidden its nuclear program, maintaining a policy known as "nuclear ambiguity" or "nuclear opacity" through which it neither confirms nor denies its nuclear capabilities.

美国和俄罗斯控制着世界上最大的两只核力量。联合国1968年防止核武器扩散条约认定只有5个国家是拥核国家,也是安理会的5个常任理事国:美国,俄罗斯,中国,英国和法国。其他国家,如巴基斯坦印度和北朝鲜,在没有签署该条约的情况下公开研发并试爆了核武器。以色列有意隐瞒了自己的核计划,保持着一种“核可能性”“核不透明”的政策,即既不承认也不否认其核武能力。

Nine countries in total were believed to possess nuclear weapons. Nations often keep the precise number of nuclear armaments they possess confidential, but leading experts have compiled figures estimating just how many nuclear weapons there are out there and who has them. As the two largest nuclear-capable countries consider expanding their arsenals, here's a look at the existing state of affairs:

总共有9个国家据信拥有核武器。这些国家通常会对其拥有核武的精确数字保密,但是顶尖专家收集的数据可以估算出总共有多少核武器,以及谁持有他们。既然最大的两个核国家要扩充武器库,让我们看看现在的具体情况:

#1 Russia

1. 俄罗斯

Putin was not lying when he said Russia's nuclear arsenal overshadowed its opponents. Russia is believed to possess 7,300 weapons in total. Moscow detonated its first nuclear weapon in 1949, soon after the end of World War II and during the early stages of the Cold War with the U.S. The nuclear arms race was a primary area of competition between the two countries and partially responsible for the vast size of their nuclear arsenals today.

普京说俄罗斯的核武库傲视群雄,这一点他没有撒谎。俄罗斯据信总共拥有7300枚核武。苏联在1949年第二次世界大战刚刚结束、与美国的冷战刚刚开始时爆炸了第一颗核弹,核军备竞赛是两国竞争的主要领域,也是形成两国今天巨大核武库的部分成因。

#2 United States 

2. 美国

With an estimated 6,970 nuclear weapons, the U.S. is not far behind Russia. The country's modernized military, which easily dominates in number and quality of aircraft carriers, also gives the U.S. a distinct tactical advantage. The U.S. was the first nation to develop nuclear weapons and the only nation to have ever conducted nuclear warfare, launching two atomic weapons on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 during World War Two, killing an estimated 225,000 people and injuring many more.

拥有约6970枚核武器,美国并不明显落后于俄罗斯。而美国现代化的军队,在数量上和质量上都处于绝对优势的航空母舰,也使得美国实际上有明显的战术优势。美国是第一个研发核武器的国家,也是唯一一个使用过核武器的国家,在二战中的1945年向日本广岛和长期投掷了原子弹,杀死约22万5千人并且杀伤了更多的人。

#3 France

3. 法国

France hasn't let the end of the Cold War keep it from stockpiling up to 300 nuclear weapons, the largest stockpile in Western Europe. France conducted its first nuclear test in 1960 and, despite eliminating about half of its nuclear arsenal since the late 1980s, the country has pushed for more nuclear deterrent cooperation with the U.K.

冷战虽然已经结束,法国现在却依然保持着300枚核武器,为西欧最多。法国在1960年进行了第一次核试验,尽管在上世纪80年代末已经削减了一半核武器,该国现在正在推动与英国进行更多核威慑方面的合作。

#4 China

4. 中国

China boasts the largest nuclear arsenal in Eastern Asia, with around 260 warheads. Beijing's communist government began pursuing nuclear technology soon after taking over in 1949 and conducted its first nuclear test in 1964. Since then, China has advocated for disarmament and expressed Friday that it was "paying close attention" to Trump's rhetoric on the matter.

中国自夸拥有东亚最大的核武库,有约260枚核弹头。北京的共产党政府在1949年夺取政权后很快就开始追求核武装,并在1964年进行了第一次核试验。从拥有核弹起,中国又开始在世界上主张核裁军。周五中国对川普核扩军的豪言表示“密切关注”。

#5 United Kingdom

5. 英国

The U.K.'s political players have questioned the future of the nation's estimated 215 nuclear weapons. The country's close relationship with the U.S. and popular support for non-proliferation have led some to speculate as to whether the country's nuclear arsenal was necessary to maintain. Hawks, however, say that Russia's military expansion mean the possession of nuclear weapons is as relevant as ever.

英国的政界人士对该国拥有的215枚核武器的未来表达了质疑。英国与美国密切的关系以及支持核不扩散的态度,引起一些人的思索,是否需要维持这样大一个核武库。然而鹰派表示俄罗斯的军事扩张使得保有核武器是永远需要的。

#6 Pakistan 

6. 巴基斯坦

Pakistan is thought to maintain around 130 nuclear weapons. The nation's nuclear history began in 1972 when then Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto urged politicians to support such a program to defend against its southern rival, India, which had also pursued nuclear weapons. The Pakistani-Indian conflict has been widely considered a flashpoint for nuclear warfare and border skirmishes between the new countries often raise fears of all-out war. Pakistan has rejected to adopt the "no first-use" policy, allowing it to respond to Indian aggression with nuclear warheads. However, analysts have said the dire consequences and close proximity of the nations make this an unlikely outcome.

巴基斯坦被认为拥有130枚核武器。该国的核历史起始于1972年,当时布托总理要求官员们支持这样一个计划来对抗南方之敌印度,因为印度也在寻求核武。印巴冲突被广泛认为是一个核战争可能爆发的地点,新国家之间的边境冲突往往会演变成全面战争。巴基斯坦拒绝接受“不首先使用核武器”的原则,使得巴国能对印度的进攻还以核打击。然而分析师认为这样做的恐怖后果和两国过于接近的距离让这种事情实际发生的可能性不大。

#7 India

7. 印度

India possesses about 120 nuclear weapons, according to experts. India conducted its first nuclear test in 1974 and did not detonate another until 1998. Unlike its rival Pakistan, India has adopted a "no first-use" policy, meaning it would not launch nuclear strikes unless it was clear that the other side would attack first. Still, Foreign Secretary Aizaz Chaudhary said last year that nuclear warfare against Pakistan was not off the table. Some analysts say that, despite the tense situation between India and Pakistan, their nuclear arsenals actually deter war. Others have argued that they allow the possibility of mass destruction.

专家认为印度拥有120枚核武器。印度在1974年进行了第一次核实验,直到1998年才进行了第二次试爆。与对手巴基斯坦不同,印度接受了“不首先使用核武器”的原则,这意味着除非对方首先进攻,否则印度不能使用核武。然而,外交部长Aizaz Chaudhary去年说,与巴基斯坦核战的危险并没有消除。一些分析师说,虽然印巴关系紧张,但双方拥有的核武器实际上避免了战争。另一些分析师则认为使用核武器的可能性犹存。

#8 Israel

8. 以色列

Israel deliberately maintains a shroud of secrecy over what's believed to be an arsenal of about 80 nuclear warheads. In the 1950s, Tel Aviv pursued a top secret campaign to acquire parts necessary for nuclear development with confidential help from France. Not even Israel's greatest ally, the U.S., was fully made aware of Tel Aviv's nuclear aspirations. Israel has rejected inspections of its Dimona facilities from the International Atomic Energy Agency and only allows limited access to Washington. Israel's nuclear capabilities have angered its Arab neighbors, some of which faced significant international criticism for pursuing nuclear warheads in the past and have threatened to walk out on current treaties if Israel maintains its arsenal.

以色列对于其被认为拥有80枚核弹头一事仍然有意保持着一层神秘的面纱。在上世纪50年代,以色列展开了一次最高机密的行动,为在法国的秘密帮助下研发核武而去获取必须的部件。甚至连以色列最大的盟友美国,也没有被完全告知。以色列拒绝国际原子能机构对位于迪摩纳的设施进行检查,只允许与美国进行有限的接触。以色列的核能力激怒了它的阿拉伯邻国,其中一些国家过去因为试图获取核弹头而受到了全世界范围的严厉谴责,其中一些国家威胁如果以色列如果继续保持核武装将退出核不扩散条约。

#9 North Korea

9. 北朝鲜

Unlike Israel, North Korea has been eager to show off its nuclear arsenal, estimated at fewer than 10 warheads. The reclusive, authoritarian state carried out its first nuclear explosion in 2006 and has conducted four more tests since. Pyongyang's aggressive nuclear rhetoric has concerned its rivals, especially its southern neighbor South Korea, which North Korea routinely threatens. The nation's nuclear program has also made it a target of severe international sanctions, which even its greatest ally China has signed on to. 

与以色列相反,北朝鲜非常渴望展示他们的核武器,估计少于10枚核弹头。这个与世隔绝的集权国家在2006年实施了第一次核爆炸,此后又进行了4次核试验。平壤的核武雄心引发了对手们的关注,尤其是一直在北朝鲜威胁下的南方邻国南朝鲜。该国的核计划也成为了国际制裁的对象,甚至其最大的盟友中国也加入其中。