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The world's worst traffic: can Jakarta findan alternative to the car?

世界上最差的交通:雅加达还能否找到一种能代替车辆的交通工具?

Attracted by the air-conditioning and thestatus, many of the 3.5 million people who commute into the hot and humidIndonesian capital come by car. With four hours in traffic not unusual, Jakartais searching for solutions

炎热潮湿的印尼首都,约有350万人喜欢乘车开着空调通勤出行。在雅加达堵四个小时车是常事,寻找解决方案迫在眉头。


  
Motionless in macet ... (left to right)construction on Jakarta’s new metro; a dedicated bus lane; and gridlock.Photograph: Bloomberg/Getty

雅加达地铁施工现场右侧,在专用通道的公交和车辆寸步难行,彭博社。

The average Jakartanspends 10 years of their life in traffic, wrote novelist Seno Gumira Ajidarma,and you don’t have to spend long in the Indonesian capital to believe it.

作家Seno Gumira Ajidarma表示,在印尼首都不用呆多长时间你就会知道,能有10年的生命浪费在雅加达路的路上。

Three and a half million people a daycommute into this hot and humid city from the wider metropolitan area ofGreater Jakarta and many come by car, attracted by the status and theair-conditioning. Their cars, though, are motionless in macet (gridlock) duringmost of the 5am to 8am and 5pm to 8pm rush hours, and for much of the day.

在大雅加达的广阔地域里,有350万人乘着车开着空调穿梭在这个炎热潮湿的城市。即使是白天堵车或是到5到8点的下班时候也空调还开着。

Jakarta was named the worldcity with the worst traffic in one index last year based on satellitenavigation data, which found the average driver starting and stopping more than33,000 times in a year. An estimated 70% of the city’s air pollution comes fromvehicles.

以卫星图数据为参考,雅加达的交通被评为世界最为糟糕。司机平均每年启动关闭发动机的次数有超过三万三千次。据估算,70%的城市空气污染来自于汽车。

It typically takes two hours to drive 25miles to the centre from Bogor, the largest of the satellite cities, where manyoffice workers live. A bad journey can take three hours. As cars idle inendless queues, scooters slalom past, missing by inches. It seems there areoften more passengers on the bikes than in the cars.

从市中心驱车至博果尔(博果尔,印尼爪哇西部城市)上班居住的地方,近25公里的路通常要花2小时。要是路况不好的话可能需要3个小时。汽车摩托车堵在路上排成了长龙、寸步难行。感觉好像骑自行车的比车上的人都多。

Efforts to reduce car use are limited to anodd/even scheme on the main thoroughfare of Sudirmanand few other key routes during rush hour: vehicles with odd numbered platesare allowed on odd dates, with even plates on even dates. Odd/even came inafter a three-in-onecar-pooling rulewas scrapped in April after years of abuse. “Jockeys” would stand at the sideof the road, offering themselves for rent so the driver could get the requiredtwo passengers; many were children, who took huge risks getting into thevehicles of strangers.

在苏迪尔曼的主干道上或是在几条在高峰时段的核心道路,曾经对车辆采取单双号限行措施:既日期单号日子可以通行(车尾号为)单号的车辆,双日子通行尾号为双号的车辆。可这项“three-in-one car-pooling(注:翻译不能   )”规定,被多年的陋习折磨的,竟在(注:2016年)4月把单双号规定给取消了。马路‘骑士’就在道边等着(注:骑士,摩的,摩托出租),直到等来两个乘客、钱够赚才走。有不少孩子上车的时还毫不顾忌。

With the population of Greater Jakartaexpected to increase from about 30 million today to more than 40 million by2040 , wasting hours trapped in traffic looks set to become even more of adaily frustration for residents. Is Jakarta destined to be jammed forever, ordoes the city have an alternative?

现在的大雅加达人口有三千万,预计到2040年能有到四千万以上,届时每天将有越来越多的居民陷入糟糕的交通中白费时间。


 
A motorcycle taxi for smartphone app Go-Jekpicks up a customer. Photograph: Bloomberg via Getty Images

摩的司机通过手机中的打车软件接客户。彭博社。

Scooter city: ‘You can get anythingdelivered by bike here’

摩托城:“有路就有摩托车”

“Motorbikes are twice the speed of a car in Jakarta, they use a 10thof the fuel, are a 10th of the cost and use far less space,” says NadiemMakarim, founder and chiefexecutive of Go-Jek, the city’s two-wheeled version of Uber. “Motorbikes aremuch more efficient. There’s no reason for cars to exist in this city at all.”

“你在雅加达开摩托车的效率可以是汽车的两倍,它们用的是10号(柴)油,性价比高、还灵巧。”GO-JEK Uber摩托版创始人兼CEO Nadiem Makarim说道。“摩托相当方便,汽车在这个城市根本不管用”

Since Makarim’s company revolutionised themotorcycle taxi – or ojek – industry with the launch of a smartphone app lastyear, numbers have risen dramatically. Along with Malaysian rivalGrab, and Uber’s Motor service, they have driven down fares – to the angerof some drivers.

随着去年智能手机的兴起,Makarim的公司推出了摩的或Ojek(APP)打车软件,而且应用这种软件的人大幅攀升。由于马来西亚的Grab和 Uber摩的打车软件竞相降价竞争,还惹怒了不少了出租车司机。

The app has been downloaded 25 milliontimes. As well as getting around, customers can get a massage therapist or acleaner delivered to their door within 90 minutes. His food delivery businessis now Asia’s largest outside China, and the Go-Jek also offers makeovers, theatretickets, flowers, prescription medicines …

(目前)这种打车软件已被下载了有2500万次,顾客可以在附近发信息找疗养师或保洁员,用不到90分钟他们就能上门来了。该公司是除中国以外最大的外卖配送企业,(除了送外卖)GO-JEK还能送化妆品、影票、鲜花、药物等…



“It’s pretty hard to find something you can’t get by motorbikedelivery,” says Makarim. “You don’t need to wastetime in traffic to get what you want. We bring everything to you. If you didn’twant to you wouldn’t have to leave your apartment.”

Makarim 说道:“你很难找到送东西不骑摩托车的,还有你肯定不希望把等送来东西的时间浪费在交通上,什么东西我们都能给你送到。如果你不想(亲自)动手去取,你就无需离开家”

Some in the city, though, are concerned therise of motorbike taxi apps could tempt people away from buses and trains.“Motorcycle taxis kill public transport,” says Yoga Adiwinarto,country director of ITDP-Indonesia, the local branchof the non-profit Institute for Transportation and Development Policy.

然而,在某些城市中人们开始担心,如果摩的打车软件流行起来人们就会远离公交和火车。西亚国家交通与发展政策,非营利运输发展政策地方研究所,Yoga Adiwinarto表示“摩的淘汰了公交系统。”

Makarim doesn’t see it that way. “Our customers are smartphone users,” he says.“They are middle class people switching from private cars. They wouldn’t havetravelled on buses anyway.”

Makarim却表示无须担心。他说“我们的客户都是智能手机用户。”他们都是开私家车的中产阶级,他们根本不需要乘公车出行。


 
A commuter train in East Jakarta in 2012. Arecent crackdown means excess passengers no longer ride on the roof, or hangout of the doors, but inside the carriages the rush hour crush is as bad asever. Photograph: Ulet Ifansasti/Getty Images

2012年雅加达东部的通勤列车。最近的一次专门针对一些车厢外挂客进行治理,但在交通高峰时段,车厢内外和以往一样糟。摄影:Ulet Ifansasti

The largest south-east Asian city without ametro

东南亚最大的城市里没有地铁

Regional rivals Manila (1984), Singapore(1987), Kuala Lumpur (1995) and Bangkok (2004), all got there first. But fourdecades after it was first mooted, construction has at last begun on Jakarta’s$1.7bn (£1.4bn) metro line, known as Mass Rapid Transit (MRT).

马尼拉(1984),新加坡(1987),吉隆坡(1995)和曼谷(2004),这些区域竞争对手都先有了地铁。但在四年前兴建地铁计划才被首次提出,目前雅加达的终于开始地铁建设,作为大众捷运(MRT)的一部分地铁一号线,造价为17亿美元。

Difficulties acquiring land rights in thesouth of the city have delayed the overground section of the project but,when the first stage opens in 2019, it is set to halve the hour it takes totravel 12 miles from Lebak Bulus to BunderanHotel Indonesia in the centre by car.

城市南部土地开发较为困难,土地征收延迟阻碍了地上项目的开发。2019年为开发的第一阶段,驱车从Lebak Bulus到市中心的Bunderan印尼酒店,12里的路程仅需一小时。

A northern extension to Kampung Bandan near the waterfront is set to open in 2020. A second line runningeast-west, where many journeys are made, is under consideration.

从北部延伸至海湾边的Kampung Bandan路线将于2020年开建。第二条横贯东西附近有不少旅游地的路线,目前正在酝酿中。

A long-awaited link from the airport is setto start operating next year and the first phase of a light rail system is dueto open in 2018, in time for the Asian Games. The new network should boost railcapacity from 800,000 to 1.2 million passengers a day.

令人翘首以盼的至机场路线将于明年开启,且轻轨系统首段线路在2018年亚运会期间开放。新的轻轨网有望从一天输送80万名乘客上升到120万。

Jakarta’s ageing Commuter Line trains makethe journey from Bogor to the city centre in 55 minutes – twice as fast as thecar. Excess passengers no longer ride on the roof or hang out of the doorsafter a recent crackdown, but inside the carriages the rush hour crush is asbad as ever.

雅加达老旧的通勤列车从茂物到市中心需55分钟,耗费时间是开车的两倍。在经最近一次整顿之后,乘客们在也不当挂客了,可在交通高峰时段,车厢内外和以往一样糟。

The metro, light rail, airport link – and aplanned bullet train from Bandung 100 miles to the east – will centre on a newhub at Dukuh Atas. The inevitable swanky shopping mall is beingplanned.

地铁、轻轨、机场路线–还有一项从万隆至东部地区160公里(100英里),以杜沽阿达斯中心为焦点的动车链接计划。豪华购物圈正已在设计当中。

But is there a faster way to transformpublic transport in the city? Yoga says Jakarta’s Bus RapidTransit (BRT) system, which the ITDP helped promote and design, took just twoyears to set up and the bill to the city was a fraction of the cost of themetro.

但是,在这座城市里还有一个更快的方式来改造公共交通?Yoga表示,雅加达的快速公交(BRT)系统有助于与国际接轨,作为建设地铁成本的一部分,改造这个城市只需花两年的时间。


 
Passengers on a bus in Jakarta. Photograph:Beawiharta/Reuters (注:图中车上的标牌指的是,女士专区…)

Bus Rapid Transit: ‘It’s quicker than carsfor sure’

快速公交:真的比开车还快

Twelve years ago Jakarta became the firstsouth-east Asian city to open a BRT, inspired by visits from former Bogotámayor Enrique Peñalosa.

12年前,受到前波哥大市长EnriquePeñalosa的启发,雅加达成为了第一个在东南亚运营快速公交的城市。

The 120-mile Transjakarta network givesgood coverage, within the city at least, and carries 350,000 people a day.Buses are air conditioned, with a separate section for women at the front, and10 pink women-only buses have recently started operation.

有着120公里的雅加达交通网有着良好的覆盖率,至少在城区里是,日客流量达35万人。现已开始运营的公车里设有空调、女士专区、还有10个女士专座。

“Within Jakarta itself the BRT is quite good,” says Yoga. “It’squicker than cars for sure – and sometimes it’s quicker than motorcycle – butonly within the city of Jakarta.”

Yoga说道,“雅加达的快速公交很不错,它比开车快多了,有时甚至比骑摩托车还快——但这只有在雅加达市区里。”

Commuters trying to get to and from theouter cities of Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi find the dedicated lanesstop as soon as they leave the city limits. A rush-hour BRT from Bogor to thecentre takes two or three hours, and in Jakarta itself police officers turn ablind eye to cars and motorbikes using bus lanes when gridlock strikes.

乘客若是去茂物、德波郊外,唐格朗和勿加泗会就会很麻烦,因为离开市区就没有公车专用道了。交通高峰期乘快速公交从茂物到(市)中心得需要两或三个小时,而雅加达的警察基本对挤在公交专线里的小车和摩托车视而不见,公交专用路线俨然成了摆设。

Better links to the wider Great Jakartaarea are vital to get more people on BRT, says Yoga. “Getting links to theouter city is problematic, with businesses pushing back and the governmentlacking political will. The city government is much more progressive in termsof mobility – they’re bringing in MRT, pushing public transport, charging forparking – but the national government never takes any action.”

Yoga说道,完善大雅加达交通网,对增加人们乘坐快速公交至关重要。


 
Jakarta’s weekly car-free mornings are hugelypopular. Photograph: Romeo Gacad/AFP/Getty Images

每周一次的无(汽)车日很受大众欢迎。(PS:上图敬礼的人像是谁啊?)

Cycling: ‘Cars are usually stopped sothey’re ok’

骑自行车:开车走不了的地方自行车都能走

Every Sunday morning thousands of peopletake to the main drags of Sudirman and Thamrin totake advantage of Jakarta’s car-free day.

每个周日日早上,有成千上万的人骑车去苏迪尔曼大街和坦林响应雅加达无(汽)车日。

Spotting cyclists on other days is harder. One is Gandrie Ramadhan, whorides 10 miles a day to work as a transport associate at the ITDP.He uses smaller side streets where he can but says major roads are unavoidable.

其他时间再这么骑自行车就尴尬了,有位在ITDT(运输发展策略协会)任职,名叫Gandrie Ramadhan的人,每天要骑16公里的车上班。他有时专走小路,因为大路很堵。

He takes me on a cycle around the expensiveembassy district of Menteng, where light traffic and shady tree-lined streetsmake for a pleasant ride, but as soon as we get on the main thoroughfare ofSudirman it quickly gets more serious. Worst are the unpredictable, batteredgreen Kopaja and orange/blue MetroMini buses which belch blacksmoke from poorly maintained diesel engines.

他骑自行车带我到蒙塔纳大使馆转了一圈,在行人稀少绿荫环绕的大街上骑行,着实令人心情舒畅。可一会走到苏迪曼大路上很快就让人担忧起来。不可预测是最让人担心的,一些破旧的中巴,还有一堆橙色、蓝色小巴里的破发动机烧着低劣的柴油冒着黑烟。

“Cars are usually stopped so they’re ok but it is motorbikes whichmake it most dangerous,” says Gandrie. “Cycling has low status, and because weare seen as slow, the motorbikes always want to overtake us and get to thefront. The Kopaja and MetroMinis are the worst, though. They make it horrible.”

“一般车停了还好,可摩托车就危险了,”Gandrie说。“骑摩托车的水平很渣,因为速度慢我们都看见了,摩托车总是想超过我们跑到前面去。虽然大巴小巴就已经吓人了,可摩托车更吓人。

Jakarta’s existing three cycle lanes arepainted a foot or two wide – and ignored by motorists. Gandrie believesinstalling protected bike infrastructure is the only way to get more peoplecycling in the city. “And more offices with showers,” he adds.

雅加达现在有的三环形路线刷了半米左右标示线,但没把骑摩托车的(体积)算在内。Gandrie认为,安装保护骑车的基础设施(开辟骑行专用道),是让更多的城市人去骑自行车的唯一途径。“(当然)还要有更多的澡堂,”他补充道。

Can Jakarta escape its nightmare traffic?

雅加能够摆脱它噩梦般的交通吗?

Instead of providing showers, mostcompanies are more concerned with subsidising parking for their employees, saysYoga. Meanwhile, the government has approved plans for six new elevated tollhighways crisscrossing the centre of the city, and its Low Cost Green Carinitiative encourages car use by offering zero deposit and low interest onsmall-engined vehicles.
“Jakarta’s moving in the right direction but it’s not enough,” Yogasays. “The government is allowing low-density development outside the city, andthe wider metro area is spreading. That makes it difficult for public transportbecause there isn’t the coverage. We need high density development where yourfirst option is walking or cycling, and for longer journeys you can use the busor metro.”

大多数公司关心的才不是澡堂,而是员工的停车补贴,Yoga说道。与此同时,政府已批准六条新的纵横市中心的收费高速公路,并向面积更广的地下区域拓展。公共交通很紧张是因为(地铁)覆盖的不广。要想进行高密集发展,首要的就是可以步行或骑车。或是乘巴士或地铁可以走的更远。”

That may seem a long way from the currentreality in Jakarta, but the government has a target to increase the share oftrips on public transport from 23% to 60% by 2030 – and there is an incentive.As Yoga says: “Four hours every day wasted in a car is really not thatpleasant.”

目前来看,雅加达要想实现目标似乎要有很长的路要走,但政府有一个公交份额从23%到2030年的60%的目标,令人振奋鼓舞。正如Yoga所说:“每天在车上浪费的四个小时。可真令人沮丧”。

What are your experiences of transport inJakarta and what do you think would make it better? Share your ideas, thoughts,stories and pictures here. You can also contribute on Twitter and Instagramusing the hashtag #GuardianJakarta

在雅加达你有什么经验么,你认为怎样做会更好?说说你的想法…