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As crisppackets are found in the countryside looking nearly new after 33 years... Howlong does litter take to rot? 

乡下发现33年前的薯片包装袋,看起来几乎跟新的一样…垃圾降解究竟需要多长时间

· Anti-litter campaigners recently found     33-year-old discarded crisp packets

 · 环保人士最近发现一些33年前的薯片包装袋

· Plastic bags & bottles could last     hundreds, thousands or millions of years

· 塑料袋和塑料瓶或许能保存几百年、几千年甚至上百万年

· Not just man made problem - banana     skins can hang around for a month

· 即使不是人类产物——香蕉皮能放置近一个月

By GUY WALTERS FOR THE DAILY MAIL
PUBLISHED: 22:57 GMT, 16 May2016 | UPDATED: 00:34 GMT, 17 May 2016

We allknow a stretch of road that is festooned with litter. Perhaps it’s next to a lay-by, an unsightlysprawl of drinks cans, coffee cups, burger cartons and cigarette packets.

大家都只知道有那么一段垃圾满地的路,其次就算停车带了,这里四处散落着空饮料罐,一次性咖啡杯,汉堡包装盒、烟盒等。

We livein hope that by the next time we go past, the local council will have tidied itup — but no, it will still be therethe following week, and in all likelihood the week after that.

我们真心希望下次再路过的时候,当地市政能把那里打扫干净。可是,一周过去之后再去那些垃圾仍在那儿,所以只能再过一周去碰碰运气了。

In fact,as anti-litter campaigners in the Forest of Dean havejust discovered, litter can stick around for a lot longer than just a fewweeks. 

事实上,正如迪恩森林(迪恩森林:英格兰橡树原始森林公园)环保者所发现的那样,那里的垃圾都能留到好几个星期。



Duringa clean-up along the A48 in the Forest of Dean, campaigners found these crisppackets (pictured) that were 33 years old, which meant they had been thrown outof car windows some 1,716 weeks ago

一些活动人士沿着迪安森林里的A48公路进行清理时,发现了这些33年前的薯片包装袋,这意味着它们是在33年前透过车窗扔出来的。

Disturbingly,even though the crisps would have been eaten when Margaret Thatcher was inpower, the packets looked no more than a few days old.

令人不安的是,这些薯片被吃掉的时候可能还是在撒切尔夫人当政时期,可这些包装袋看起来就像几天前扔的一样。

You mighthave thought this litter could constitute some sort of rubbish record, but youwould be wrong. 

你可能认为这些垃圾可能创下某方面的垃圾记录,但你错了。

Plasticbags and bottles could potentially last hundreds, thousands or even millions ofyears without decomposing, according to scientists.

据专家们说,塑料袋和塑料瓶可能会坚持几百年,几千年甚至数百万年而不消失。

And it’s not just man-made items — even banana skins can hang aroundfor more than a month, while orange peel can take up to two years to fullydisintegrate.

对于一些非人造的东西,即使是香蕉皮也能搁到一个多月。而橘子皮完全分解则需要两年的时间。

Here, ina list of junk shame, is your guide to how long litter lasts. Generally, thesetimes will apply to litter thrown at the side of a road or dropped on a countrywalk, where it will be affected by animals and the elements...

这里列着一份垃圾黑名单,向你指明垃圾完全消失究竟需要多长时间。一般来说这些垃圾指的农村小路旁被扔掉的垃圾,它们可能会受到动物和化学成分的影响…



It’s not just man-made items — even banana skins can hang aroundfor more than a month, while orange peel can take up to two years to fullydisintegrate

对于一些非人造的东西,即使是香蕉皮也能搁到一个多月。而橘子皮完全分解则需要两年时间。

TWOWEEKS
Applecores. Although this is a rapid decomposition time, throwing away cores andother pieces of fruit encourages scavengers such as rats, which are seldomwelcome anywhere.

两周
苹果核,两周后就能快速分解,但把果核和剩下的水果丢给清道夫比如老鼠,在哪都很少受待见。

AROUNDA MONTH
Papertowels, paper bags, newspapers, tissues. With these items, decomposition timecan vary enormously depending on how they are disposed of.
Toilet paper put into the groundactually takes far longer to decompose than if it is exposed to the elements.

一个月左右
纸巾,纸袋,报纸,绵纸。这些东西分解的时间不尽相同,这取决于他们如何处理。
粘在地面上的厕纸,消失的速度可比它上面的“成分(粪)”可要慢多了。

SIXWEEKS
Cerealboxes, paper bags, banana skins. And banana skins can take far longer than thisto decompose if the weather is cool.
As theskins are designed to protect the fruit inside, they are full of cellulose, thesame material from which cellophane wrappers are made.
Earlierthis year, conservationists warned that Ben Nevis was being blighted bydiscarded fruit peels including banana skins, which were taking months todecompose.
Justbecause it’s natural doesn’t mean it’s not litter.

六周
麦片盒,纸袋,香蕉皮。如果天气凉爽,香蕉皮分解的时间可能还要长一些。
由于果皮是保护水果里面的,它们全是都由纤维素构成的,就跟包装用的玻璃纸材质差不多
年初的时候,环保主义者警告说,本尼维斯山就是被丢掉的烂了几个月的果皮还有香蕉皮所毁掉的。
就是因为它们是自然界的东西,所以没有把它们当垃圾看

TWO TOTHREE MONTHS
Waxedmilk and fruit juice cartons, cardboard. With such items, the decompositiontime will vary enormously depending on the thickness of the carton.
Keengardeners should bear in mind that cardboard can be composted, so don’t necessarily chuck it out.

两到三个月
类似像牛奶、果汁用的涂蜡纸包装盒,涂蜡纸板等这些东西,分解时间的长短主要取决于纸板的厚度。
园艺爱好者注意了,纸板可以做成肥料,可别把它给扔了。



Two tothree months: Waxed milk and fruit juice cartons, cardboard. With such items,the decomposition time will vary enormously depending on the thickness of thecarton

类似像牛奶、果汁用的涂蜡纸包装盒,涂蜡纸板等这样的东西,分解时间的长短主要取决于纸板的厚度。

SIX MONTHS
Cottonclothing such as T-shirts, paperback books.
Of alltextiles, cotton is the most biodegradable — it is, of course, made from a plant. Cottoncan be composted, and if the conditions are damp and warm enough, a piece oflight cotton clothing can biodegrade in as little as a week.

六个月
类似像T恤的这类棉质衣服,平装书等。
棉花是所有纺织品中最容易被生物降解的----因为它是从植物中生成出来的。棉花可以用来堆肥,如果足够潮湿和温暖,一块棉衣一周内就可以被降解 。

ONEYEAR
Lightwoollen clothing such as pullovers and socks. Wool is a natural product andwill rot outside just like the carcass of a sheep.
In fact,when wool decomposes it releases into the soil useful nutrients such as theprotein keratin, so although it may look unsightly as litter, it does nolong-term damage to the environment.

一年
亮毛料衣服,如套头衫和袜子。羊毛是一种天然产物,跟死羊一样它是先从外边开始腐烂的。
事实上,腐烂的羊毛会在土壤里释放出一些有益的营养物质如角蛋白,所以,虽然它可能看起来和垃圾一样不美观,但不会对环境造成长期损害。

TWOYEARS
Orangepeel, plywood, cigarette ends. However, some research indicates that cigaretteends can last well over a decade.
Cigarettescontain more than 600 ingredients, of which the longest lasting is celluloseacetate — a plastic found in 95 per cent of cigarette filters — which takes a very long time tobiodegrade.

两年
橘子皮,胶合板,烟。不过,经研究,香烟的过滤嘴可以挺到十多年。
香烟含有600多种成分,其中醋酸纤维素坚持的时间最长----香烟过滤嘴95%成分是塑料,它需要花很长时间才能完全分解。

UP TOFIVE YEARS
Heavywoollen clothing such as overcoats.

近五年
厚厚的羊毛大衣。

TEN TO20 YEARS
Plasticbags, but a few studies suggest these can sometimes last for around 1,000years. Many newer bags are designed to decompose when exposed to sunlight,though the majority are made from high-density polyethylene.
This ismade with refined petroleum and it is not easily decomposed — the natural micro-organisms insoil don’t recognise the chemicals as food, so don’t break them down.

十到二十年
塑料袋,可一些研究表明,这些东西可能会持续1000年左右。现在不少新式塑料袋被设计成是可以通过光照降解的,虽然它们大多数都是由高密度聚乙烯制成的。
高密度聚乙烯是由石油提炼而成的,相当不容易被分解,土壤中的天然微生物无法把这些化学物质当作食物,所以别破坏它们。



50years: Tin cans, car tyres, trainers, foam coffee cups, leather — but leather that has beenchemically treated, as it is for most fashion items, can last far longer

50年:听装罐头,汽车轮胎,运动鞋,发泡咖啡杯,皮革制品,由于皮革多用于时尚制品,因此都经过了化学处理,所以它消失的时间可能会更长点。

30 TO40 YEARS
Nylonitems such as tights and wind-cheaters, carpet, disposable nappies — although some think these couldlast 500 years, depending on conditions.
Whilethey are immensely convenient, disposable nappies really are pretty toxicitems, even if they haven’t been used. They are treated with manychemicals, such as toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and dipentene, as well as achemical called dioxin, which is a highly toxic carcinogen.

三到四十年
紧身衣、风衣、地毯、一次性尿布等这些尼龙制品,尽管有人认为这些东西可能会放500年的时间,但这取决于环境。
它们虽然为我们带来极大的便利,但一次性尿布是一种毒性很大的东西,即使没用过的也是一样。它们与不少化学制品,如甲苯、乙苯、二甲苯、双戊烯、以及二恶英这些化学物质一样,都是一种剧毒的致癌物质。

50YEARS
Tin cans,car tyres, trainers, foam coffee cups, leather — but leather that has been chemicallytreated, as it is for most fashion items, can last far longer. Thicker leatherfound on shoes can take a similar length of time — perhaps some 80 years.

五十年
听装罐头,汽车轮胎,运动鞋,发泡咖啡杯,皮革制品——由于皮革多用于时尚制品,因而都经过了化学处理,所以它消失的时间可能会更长点。

75 TO80 YEARS
Crisppackets. In fact, the recent finds in the Forest of Dean are relatively youngcompared with that found by Neil Phillips on Saunton Beach in Devon in 2012: apacket of Golden Wonder crispsfrom 1967 that looked as if it had been thrown away only a week before. Withmany packets made from ‘metallised’ plastic film, they last an absurdly longtime considering how quickly their contents are consumed.

七十五到八十年
薯片包装袋。事实上,最近在迪恩森林找到的比在尼尔菲利普斯SAUNTON沙滩上的可能还要早。一个1967年产的Golden Wonder薯片包装袋,看起来就跟一个礼拜前扔的一样。随着许多塑料包装都涂上了“金属镀膜”,相对包装里的食物消耗速度,它们消失的时间近乎荒唐的长。



Withmany packets made from ‘metallised’ plastic film, crisp packets lastan absurdly long time considering how quickly their contents are consumed

随着许多塑料包装都涂上了“金属镀膜”,相对包装里的食物消耗速度,它们消失的时间近乎荒唐的长。

100YEARS
Six-packplastic ring holder — though it may last up to 450 years. These are particularly hazardousto animals, as the rings can get trapped around their necks and choke them, orcut into limbs.

一百年
六包塑料环支架(注:如下图,简易固定包装架,固定瓶装或罐装的装置)尽管它可能保持450多年。这些东西对动物尤其危险,因为环状的东西会卡在它们的脖子上勒住,或切进他们的肢体里。

AROUND200 YEARS
Aluminiumdrinks cans. These could actually stick around for up to half a millennium and,again, are a danger to small animals, which can crawl inside and get stuck.
It is farbetter to recycle aluminium, as this can be done indefinitely and the energycost of recycling cans is far lower than creating new ones.
Twentyrecycled cans can be made using the same amount of energy it takes to make onenew can, and recycling just one can save as much energy as it takes to power atelevision set for three hours.

二百年左右
铝制饮料罐。这东西确实能放个近半个世纪,而且,这东西对小动物也同样很危险,因为小动物爬进去后就可能被卡住出不来了。
能把铝回收就更好了,因为这东西可以无限循环利用,而且回收这种罐的电力成本远低于造个新的。
回收二十次所需的电量跟新造一个包装罐的耗电量基本差不多,仅回收一个包装罐所省下的电,就能供一台电视机连续开个三个小时。

500YEARS
Plasticbottles — though petrochemical products like these never fully biodegrade andthe chemicals just stay in the soil.
Manyplastic bottles are made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which is almostimpossible to break down within any reasonable length of time.
Ittherefore really does need to be recycled, and bottles made from PET areincreasingly being recycled to produce synthetic carpet fibres.

五百年
塑料瓶,虽然类似这样的石化产品完全无法通过生物降解的,这种化学物质只能留存在土壤里。
不少塑料瓶的成分是聚乙烯对苯二酸酯(聚酯),这种物质相当长的时间范围几乎不可能消失。
因此,它确实有必要进行回收,而且回收来的塑料瓶还可用于生产合成纤维地毯。

六包塑料环支架

  

500 years: Plasticbottles —though petrochemical products like these never fully biodegrade and thechemicals just stay in the soil. Plastic bags can take 10 to 20 years todecompose but a few studies suggest these can sometimes last for around 1,000years

五百年:类似像塑料瓶这样的石化产品完全无法通过生物降解的,这种化学物质只能留存在土壤里。塑料袋分解的时间可能需要10到20年,但一些研究表明,某些情况下这些塑料袋可以留存1000年左右

ONE TO TWO MILLIONYEARS
Glass jars andbottles, but these may last indefinitely, as glass formed in lava flowsmillions of years ago is still present today.
Glass is mainlycomposed of silica, which is one of the most stable and enduring minerals onthe planet.
And as well aslooking unsightly, the greatest problem with glass is that it is breakable, andshards do appalling damage to creatures tempted to eat or lick any food ordrink residues.

一到两百万年
玻璃杯和玻璃瓶,这些东西基本不会消失,就像几百万年前熔岩过后形成的玻璃物质一样,它到今天还依然存在。
玻璃主要由石英组成,它是地球上最稳定、最持久的矿物质之一。
此外除了难看之外,玻璃最大的缺陷就是易碎,而且对吃进或舔食或喝进玻璃残渣的动物会造成很大的伤害。

AND EVEN LONGER
Batteries. While thethin metal casings break down eventually, the chemicals inside, such as zincchloride, lead, mercury and cadmium, endure in the ground and are toxic.
This is why theyshould be recycled rather than put in the main bin.

永久
电池。当薄薄的金属外壳破裂后,最终,里面的化学物质,比如氯化锌、铅、汞、镉、这些有毒物质就会永久地暴露在地面上。这就是为什么它们应该被回收,而不是扔进垃圾桶里的主要原因。