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学习中文最好的方法是什么?
2019-06-05 水滴的思绪 10829 0 0  


What is the best way to learn Chinese?

学习中文最好的方法是什么?



评论:

Daniel Tedesco, Recent Fulbrighter in China
When I started learning Chinese, I took a bunch of classes. I took tests, made flash cards, memorized lists of vocab words, wrote thousands of characters. After a year, I realized how slowly I was learning and decided to go my own way. I started using some of the techniques below, but didn't realize the best ways to learn until I was already pretty fluent.

当我开始学中文的时候,我上了很多课,参加了考试,制作了卡片,背诵了单词表,写了成千上万个汉字。但一年后,我意识到自己学得太慢了,于是我决定寻找自己的学习方法。我开始使用下面的一些技巧,但直到我中文已相当流利时才找到了最好的学习方法。

If I had to start over, this is how I would do it:

如果我可以重新开始,我会这样学习中文:

I wouldn't spend a minute in formal classes. Don't pay thousands of dollars to sit silently in a room with 30 other people and listen to a teacher for six hours a day. If you're going to spend that time learning Chinese, then spend it actively.

我不会再花一分钟时间在正式的课堂上。你没有必要花费几千美元,安静地和其他30个人坐在一个教室里,每天听老师讲6个小时的课。如果你想每天花6个小时的时间在教室里上课,你就应该积极主动地利用时间。
From the beginning, I would find 2-3 Chinese students to tutor me every day each day (probably still less expensive than enrolling in a school). I would spend the entire six hours reading dialogues *aloud* from Chinese language textbooks. If I got caught up on a word or sentence, I would ask the tutor to explain and then move on. This teaches you to read, speak, and listen all at once.

一开始,我每天会找2-3个中国学生来辅导我(这可能比上学还便宜)。我会花整整六个小时来朗读中文课本上的对话。如果我遇到了一个不懂的单词或句子,我会向老师请教,然后继续朗读。这可以同时教会你读、说和听。

Skip everything else in the book. No fill-in-the-blanks. No 听写. No lists of vocabulary words. No flash cards. If a word is important, you'll see it again. Most importantly, with this method, every time you see a word will be in context of actual usage and *you* will be using it.

跳过书中的其他内容,不要做填空题,不要听写,不要背词汇表,也不要用抽认卡。如果一个单词很重要,你会再次看到它的。最重要的是,通过这种方法,每当你看到一个单词时,你都能在上下文中理解它的实际用法,通过这种方式,你可以掌握这个单词的实际用法。

When you get through all the dialogues in a book, get a new book. Get a slightly harder one.

当你阅读完一本书中的所有对话时,再新买一本稍微难一点的书。

In your down time, watch TV and use WeChat (China's major messaging app).

在你的休息时间里,可以看看电视,多多使用微信(中国主要的通信app)。

You probably have Chinese friends. Add them on WeChat. They definitely use WeChat. Talk to them all the time. They're probably interested in learning about where you come from and your perspective on the world. Tell them. Force yourself to type in Chinese. It will be incredibly slow at first, and you might need to look up every other word. That's fine. You'll improve quickly, because your brain will want to make communication easier for you. (This assumes you don't need to learn how to *handwrite* Chinese characters. Realistically, unless you're a tattoo artist, you will probably never need to.)

你很可能有中国朋友,他们肯定会用微信,所以加上他们的微信,一直和他们交谈。他们可能有兴趣了解你来自哪里以及你对世界的看法,告诉他们。强迫自己用中文打字。开始的时候会非常慢,你可能需要每隔一个词就查一次,这没关系,因为你的大脑想让你的交流更容易,所以你会进步的很快。(这里假设你不需要学习如何“手写”汉字。实际上,除非你是纹身师,否则你可能永远都不需要。)

Start with children's TV shows online. But spend the entire time listening and reading the subtitles (Chinese TV shows almost always have subtitles). I suggest 喜羊羊与灰太狼. When you get good enough, stop watching cartoons. Watch the news and Chinese movies. Keep reading the subtitles, though.

从网上的儿童电视节目开始。你要把所有的时间都花在听和阅读字幕上(中国的电视节目几乎都有字幕)。我建议看《喜羊羊与灰太狼》。当你水平足够高的时候,就不要再看卡通片了,尝试看一些新闻和中国电影。当然了,还是要继续阅读字幕。

It will be hard. You will think there is no light at the end of the tunnel. There will be weeks when you wish you never started learning Chinese. But, if you do these things every day (no cheating), you will become fluent in 6 months or less.

这将会很艰难,你会认为隧道的尽头没有光。有些时候,你会希望自己从来没有开始学中文。但是,如果你每天都坚持做这些事情(不作弊),你的中文将在6个月甚至更短的时间内变得流利。

Kevin Dewalt, Startup founder (5), Investor (25+), and mentor (a lot). Now working on SaaS.
Short Answer: Find a Westerners in a similar life situation as yours who learned Chinese to the level of proficiency you desire and ask their advice.  Most likely you'll discover that they best (and perhaps only) way to learn a language is to use it.

简短的答案:找一个和你生活处境相似、并且他的汉语水平已经达到你理想状态水平的西方人,然后向他请教。很可能你会发现他们学习一门语言的最好(也许也是唯一)方法就是使用它。

Long Answer…
I asked this Quora question when I arrived in China and was struggling to learn Chinese.  I've recently turned the corner and can now have day-to-day life conversations with Chinese people.  Although I'm nowhere near the level of proficiency I desire, I have found a process that is working for me and feel bit more qualified to answer my own question.

长答案......
当我刚到中国,还在努力学习中文的时候,我也问了Quora上的这个问题。最近我已经度过了难关,并且可以和中国人进行日常生活对话了。虽然我还远没有达到自己期望的熟练程度,但我已经找到了一个适合自己的方法,所以我觉得自己更有资格回答自己的问题。

I moved to China in the Spring of 2012.  It was a hard landing for me, much harder than I expected.  In America I spent about 6 months studying part time with software products like Memrise, Chinesepod, and Anki flashcards as well periodic lessons with 1-1 tutors.  I continued this practice in China, and by May of 2012 I was intensely frustrated with my progress.  Chinese people had a hard time understanding even basic words I was saying and I understand almost nothing of what I heard.  Fortunately my hours using Memrise had given me a good grasp of pinyin and knowledge of about 1,000 characters, so at least I could use SMS to communicate as a last resort.  But overall I realized that if I didn't find a better approach to start rapidly improving I was on the road to becoming another Westerner who tried to learn and gave up.

2012年的春天,我搬到了中国。对我来说,这次硬着陆比我想象的困难得多。在美国,我花了大约6个月的空闲时间,利用Memrise、Chinesepod、Anki等软件进行学习,并参加了一对一的导师定期授课。到了中国,我继续这样的学习方式,但是到了2012年5月,我对自己的进步感到非常沮丧。中国人连我说的基本词汇都很难听懂,我也几乎听不懂我听到的东西。幸运的是,我在Memrise上花费的时间让我很好地掌握了拼音和大约1000个汉字,所以至少我可以将短信作为最后的交流手段。但总的来说,我意识到,如果我不能找到一个更好的方法快速提高我的中文,我就会成为另一个试图学习中文却放弃的西方人。

Out of sheer frustration I started reaching out to people like Daniel Tedesco (see his answer) and others for advice.  I took Benny Lewis ("fluent in 3 months") to dinner and got his advice.  I was shocked at the wide range of opinions.  Some of the advice was helpful, some (like "just get a Chinese girlfriend") was useless to happily married me.  

出于极度的沮丧,我开始向Daniel Tedesco等人寻求建议。我请Benny Lewis(在3个月内中文达到流利程度)去吃晚饭,听取了他的建议。各种各样的观点令我感到震惊,其中有些建议很有用,而有些(比如“找个中国女朋友”)则对我的幸福婚姻毫无帮助。

I met a lot of Westerners who started working when the first arrived in China, took few hours each week of lessons, and never really got to the point where they could use Chinese as well as I can now.  I commonly hear the regret, "I wish I had first focused on Chinese when I arrived."

我遇到了很多西方人,他们一到中国就开始工作,每周只上几个小时的课,所以他们从来没有能像我现在这样使用中文。我经常听到这样的遗憾:“我真希望我刚来的时候先把注意力放在学习中文上。”

Every Westerner I met who was "fluent" (1) spent at least several months studying Chinese full time, and (2) spent massive amounts of time speaking 1-1 with native Chinese people.

我遇到的每一个中文“流利”的西方人都(1)至少花了几个月的时间全职学习中文,(2)花费大量时间与中国人进行一对一的交谈。

Of course this doesn't mean that software products, classrooms, and studying part time don't help - I just didn't meet anyone who had used them successfully. 

当然,这并不意味着软件、课堂和业余学习没有帮助——我只是没有遇到任何成功地使用过它们的人。

So in early June I decided to give myself a 3-month deadline of getting to basic efficiency or give up.  I stopped taking meetings in Beijing, stopped work on any other projects, and dedicated myself full time, 7 days a week to learning Chinese.  

所以在6月初,我决定给自己3个月的期限,要么达到基本的能力,要么放弃。我不再参加北京的会议,不再做任何其他项目,而是全身心地、每周7天投入到中文的学习中。

I increased my 1-1 time with Chinese teachers from ~8 hours/week to ~25.  I found two great teachers(one from a school in Beijing http://www.livethelanguage.cn/, one referred by another American expat) and worked with them 1-1 for 3-6 hours per day, 7 days/week.  These 3-hour sessions were exhausting at times.

我和中文老师一对一相处的时间从每周8小时增加到25小时。我和两位优秀的教师一起进行每周7天、每天3-6小时的一对一学习。这三个小时的课程有时会让人精疲力尽。

Outside of class I got stacks of spoken Chinese textbooks with MP3 recorders.  I spent hour after hour listening to MP3s, reading dialogs, and asking my teachers for help whenever I didn't understand a word or grammar.  Whenever I could listed to the MP3 at full speed and read and understand the entire dialog I would move on, never going back, always moving on to the next dialog.  

课下,我收到了一堆的带有MP3录音的中文口语课本。我一小时又一小时地听MP3,阅读对话,每当我不懂某个单词或语法的时候就向老师求助。只要我能以最快的速度列出MP3中的所有对话,阅读并理解他们,我就会继续前进,永不回头,继续学习下一个对话。

No flashcards, no textbook exercises (unless part of speaking with my teachers).  

不用抽认卡,不做课本练习(除非和老师交谈)。

I started watching episodes of 喜羊羊与灰太狼 per Daniel's advice.  I could not (and still can't) follow the dialog at full speed, so my teacher would transcribe the dialog for me and I would study it as well.  With my teacher I would explain the entire episode to her, ask questions, and attempt to use the new words and grammar from the episode.  When I could watch it at full speed and understand everything I would move on.  Sometimes I would have to see the same word multiple times before getting it.

我开始看《喜羊羊与灰太狼》。我不能(现在仍然不能)完全听懂这个对话,所以我的老师会为我抄录对话,然后我去学习它。我会向我的老师解释整集剧情,问问题,并尝试使用这集里的新单词和语法。当我能全速观看并理解一切时,我会继续下一集。有时候,同一个单词我得看好几遍才会明白。

Since I never hand write English, I decided not to learn how to write Hanzi characters except 一 、二、三 :-).  But I did type Hanzi everyday, typing out homework assignments, creating my own fictional dialogs, and writing stories.  Every day I read them with my teacher, get errors corrected, and talk about them. 

因为我从不手写英文,所以我决定不去学习如何手写除了一、二、三以外的汉字。但我每天都会打汉字,打作业,创造自己的虚拟对话,写故事。每天我会和我的老师一起阅读,纠正错误,然后讨论它们。

I looked for every daily life opportunity to speak Chinese.  Before going to get a haircut/buy something/to a restaurant I would write out fictional dialogs about what I planned to do, then I would read and discuss them with my teachers.  Then I would go out and use the language in the wild, making mistakes and stumbling through it.  

在日常生活中,我会寻找每一个说中文的机会。在去理发/买东西/去餐馆之前,我会写一些关于我计划做什么的虚拟对话,然后我会阅读它们并与我的老师进行讨论。最后我就会走出去,在生活中使用这门语言,犯错误,再磕磕绊绊地克服它。

I tried (not always successfully) to not use English.  If I took an evening off and watched an English TV program or spoke English with friends I found the next day's class particularly tough.  In retrospect, my episodes of progress came when I went into Chinese and never came out for long stretches of time.  But it has been very hard and many times I just wanted to quit.

我试着(不总会成功)不使用英语。如果我有一晚上没学习中文,而是看了一档英语电视节目,或者和朋友们说英语,我会发现第二天的课特别难。回想起来,当我开始学中文,并且长时间沉浸其中的时候,我才有了进步。但这段时间真的很艰难,很多时候我只想离开。

And...it worked.  By the end August, my 3 month deadline, I was able to carry out basic life conversations.  

终于……我的努力有了回报。到8月底,也就是我三个月期限的最后阶段,我已经能够进行基本的生活对话了。

I still plan on working 1-1 with teachers a few hours a day, reading Chinese, and writing at every opportunity.  

我仍然计划每天花几个小时和老师们一对一地交流,阅读中文,抓住每一个机会进行写作。

In retrospect, my advice is…

现在回想起来,我的建议是……

1.  If life allows it, dedicate 6 months, full time, 24x7 to studying and using Chinese when you arrive in China.  There is so much basic life stuff to organize when you get hear anyway and you can use your time with teachers or students to learn how to use the bank, get a haircut, etc.

1. 如果生活允许,当你来到中国的时候,请花6个月的时间,一天24小时、一周七天地去学习和使用中文。无论你听到什么,你都有很多基本的生活用语要整理,你可以利用和老师或学生在一起的时间学习如何在银行办理业务、理发等等。

2.  Find a way to spend 20-30 hours/week in one-on-one dialog with native speakers.  Professional teachers are the best if you can afford it ($5-$20 USD/hour) but you can also get students and tutors if necessary.  

2.想办法每周花20-30个小时和母语人士进行一对一的对话。如果你能负担得起(每小时5- 20美元)费用,最好请专业教师,但如果无法负担,你也可以请学生和导师。

3.  Be patient, be determined.  It is so hard but it gets better.

3.要有耐心,要有决心。虽然过程会很艰难,但最终总会变好。