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爱荷华州立大学:长得好看会影响人们对性的态度
2019-05-22 yzy86 6406 0 0  



People tend to feel strongly about mattersof sexual morality, such as premarital sex or gay marriage.

人们往往对和性道德有关的问题反应很大,比如婚前性行为,或是同志婚姻。

Some sources of these differences areobvious. Religion, media portrayals and parents and peers are big social forcesthat shape attitudes about sex.

造成这些差异的部分根源是显而易见的。宗教、媒体的刻画、父母以及同龄人是塑造性态度的重大社会力量。

But could something as innocuous as the waywe look spark these different outlooks, too? In a recently published article, Istudied this question.

但是,像外貌这种无关痛痒的东西也能激发出这些不同的观点吗?我在最近发表的一篇文章中研究了这个问题。

Beauty and opportunity

美丽和机遇

Compared with the rest of us, mostbeautiful people lead charmed lives.

和我们其他人相比,最美丽的人过的是顺风顺水的生活。

Studies show that pretty people tend to getfavorable treatment. They secure better jobs and earn higher salaries. Othersare friendlier toward them. With this extra money and social support, they’rebetter equipped to fend off any consequences of their actions. For instance,the better-looking can get more benefit of the doubt from juries.

研究显示,漂亮的人群往往能得到优待。他们能弄到更好的工作,赚取更高的薪水。旁人对待他们更为友善。有了这份额外的金钱和社会支持,他们便能更好地规避其行为导致的任何后果。譬如说,更美貌的人能从陪审团的怀疑中得到更多好处。

Their lives are most charmed, though, inmatters of sex and romance. While many benefits of beauty are small – aslightly higher salary offer here, a better performance uation there – theromantic benefits are larger and more consistent. Good-looking people onaverage have more sexual opportunities and partners.

不过,他们的生活在性和爱情方面是最顺风顺水的。虽然美丽带来的很多利好在于小处,这里稍微高一点的薪水,那里得到些更好的表现评价,但爱情方面的受益更为重大也更为持久。平均而言,美貌的人拥有更多的性机遇和性伴侣。   

Could this create a sense, among attractivepeople, that anything goes when it comes to sex? Could it make them lessinclined to value sexual purity? And might sexually experienced people belittlethe moral costs of sex in order to feel better about their own past conduct?

这种情况会不会让富有吸引力的人群产生一种感觉,就是在性的方面躺着都能赢?这种情况是否会让他们不那么容易去珍视性的纯洁?而且在性方面富有经验的人群会不会为了对自己过往的行为产生更好的自我感觉而去贬低性的道德成本?  

If so, we would expect good-looking peopleto be the most tolerant ones where sex is concerned. They would have lessrestrictive views on issues like premarital sex, abortion or gay marriage.

如果是这样,我们便可以认为好看的人是对性最宽容的群体。他们对于婚前性行为、堕胎或是同志婚姻之类议题,没有那么多约束性的观点。

A link to conservatism?

和保守主义有联系?

But you could also argue the opposite.

但你也可以主张相反的观点。

Higher salaries and greater success in thejob market might pull good-looking people toward more conservative views whenit comes to taxes or economic justice.

职场上更高的薪水和更大的成功可能会在缴税或是经济正义问题上,把美貌人群拉向更保守的观点。   

Since conservatives, on average, dislikesexual freedom more than liberals do, identifying with conservatives foreconomic reasons – or simply moving in conservative social circles – might makethe beautiful less, not more, tolerant where sex is concerned. Along theselines, studies have found that good looks are associated with conservatismamong politicians.

由于保守派平均而言比自由派更厌恶性自由,出于经济原因认同保守派(或是生活在保守派的社交圈中)可能会让美貌人群对性更不宽容,而不是更宽容。沿着这些思路,各种研究已经发现:在政客中,美貌和保守主义是联系在一起的。

Attractiveness could then plausiblyassociate with higher or lower standards for what sexual activities are morallyacceptable. Or the two arguments could cancel each other out, as one study ofcollege students suggested.

那么,吸引力可能就看似合理地与何种性行为在道德上可以被接受的更高或更低的标准联系在一起了。或者,这两种主张也许会互相抵消,如同一项对大学生的研究所表明的。

Digging into the surveys

对这些调查的深究

To further explore this issue, I turned totwo large, prominent surveys of Americans’ views: the General Social Surveyfrom 2016 and the American National Election Studies from 1972.

为了进一步探索这个议题,我转向了研究美国人观点的两个大型重要调查:2016年的综合社会普查和1972年的美国大选研究。

Both surveys were administeredface-to-face. And, unusually, both studies asked the person administering thesurvey to uate the respondent’s looks on a one-to-five scale. (Therespondent doesn’t see the score. The study’s designers weren’t that heedlessof social awkwardness.)

这两个调查都是面对面进行的。而且不同寻常的是,两个研究都要求调查者用1分到5分去评价受访者的外貌。(受访者是看不到这个得分的。该研究的设计者也不是那种不理会社交无能群体的人。)

This measure of beauty isn’t rigorous. Butit does resemble quick personal judgments made in everyday life. Moreover, thedecades-long gap between the studies gives some sense of whether effectspersist across a generation’s worth of cultural change.

这种对美丽的估量方式并不算严密。但确实近似日常生活中的个人快速判断。此外,各种研究之间长达几十年的缺口能带给人一些认识,即这种效果在跨越了一代人的文化变迁后是否还能存续。

The surveys also asked about legal andmoral standards relevant to sex, such as how restrictive abortion laws shouldbe, whether gay marriage should be legal and about the acceptability ofpremarital, extramarital and gay sex.

这些调查也问到了和性相关的法律和道德标准,比如堕胎法的限制程度应当为何,是否应该让同志婚姻合法,以及对婚前性行为、婚外性行为和同志性行为的接受度。

In both studies, the better-looking seemmore relaxed about sexual morality. For instance, in the data from 2016, 51percent of those whose looks were rated above average said a woman who wants anabortion for any reason should legally be allowed to have one. Only 42 percentof those with below-average looks said the same. This nine-point differenceincreases to 15 points when accounting for factors like age, education,political ideology and religiosity.

在两个研究中,更美貌的人群似乎对性道德都更不拘束。比如在2016年的数据中,外貌评分高于平均的人里有51%的人表示:一个出于任何原因想要堕胎的女人应该得到法律的许可。而外貌评分低于平均的人里只有42%的人表达了同样的看法。而如果算上年龄、受教育水平、政治意识形态和宗教之类的因素,这里9个百分点的差异就增加到了15个百分点。

This pattern repeated for almost allquestions. The one exception was a question that asked when adultery wasmorally acceptable. Almost all respondents said “never” to that, washing outdifferences between the more and less attractive.

该模式在几乎所有问题中都反复出现。这里有一个例外,有个问题问的是通奸在道德上是否能被接受。几乎所有的受访者都回答“绝不”,这就弥合了在更有吸引力和吸引力更小的人群之间存在的差异。

Are morals opportunistic?

道德也会玩机会主义?

If past experience is what makes beautifulpeople more tolerant toward issues like abortion and gay marriage, we would notexpect them to be notably more tolerant about matters in which looks don’tapply. This proves to be true. Good-looking respondents in these surveys aren’tdetectably more open, for example, to a legal right to die or to acceptingcivil disobedience.

如果是过往的经验导致美貌人群对堕胎和同志婚姻之类的议题更为宽容,我们便不会指望他们在与外貌无关的事项中表现出明显更为宽容的立场。这一点也被证明为真。比如说,并没有发现参与这些调查的美貌受访者对于合法死亡权利或是接受不合作主义持更为开放的态度。 
  
These results are consistent with otherfindings showing that getting away with violating norms can make you morecasual about those norms in the future. Whether in white-collar crime or policeviolence or international human-rights violations, those who pull off onequestionable action often become more willing to justify doing the same, orperhaps even a little more, in the future.

这些结果也和其他的一些发现相符,即违反了(社会/法律)规范而能侥幸全身而退,这就会在未来让你对那些规范抱持更不以为然的态度。无论是白领犯罪还是警察暴力,抑或是国际间的人权侵犯,那些做成了一次可指摘行为的人往往更愿意在未来为一犯再犯辩护,甚至在程度上还加重了。

The same could be said for sex. If you’vehave a lot of sexual experiences in the past, it may color your attitudestoward the vast range of sexual possibilities – even those that don’t directlyapply to your own sexuality or personal experience.

这一点也适用于性。如果你在过去有很多性经验,这就可能扭曲你对于类型纷繁的性事可能性的态度,甚至是那些不直接适用于你自己的性体验或个人体验的可能性。

评论区:

1、There have been otherstudies and reports written about we humans predilection to deference towardsattractive people.     One that springsto mind is a bank robbery where the robbers dressed in smart suits, ties andpolished shoes.    As they emerged fromthe bank guns ablaze the snipers who were tasked with neutralising themhesitated because they were “smartly dressed and looked like bankers”.    Very heavily armed bankers (the worstkind).

另有一些研究和报告,说的是人们更喜欢迁就有吸引力的人。浮现我脑海的是一宗银行劫案,抢劫犯身着时髦套装,打着领带,皮鞋锃亮。他们从银行里冒头的时候,负责狙杀他们的狙击手犹豫了,因为他们“衣履光鲜,而且看着像银行家”。真是武装到牙齿的银行家啊(最可怕的那种)。

2、It is an interestingarticle. As a somewhat beautiful person I can tell you that there is privilegeinvolved, yes.I did want to say, though, with all due respect - I did not likethe term “dislike sexual freedom” which strikes me as a very manipulative wayof saying what we all know to mean “sexually conservative”. I just had to signin and chime in about this. I can’t stand this type of language because it isdishonest, and it is a misuse of the word ‘freedom’.

这文很有趣。作为一个颇有几分姿色的人,我可以告诉你们:是的,确实会发生优待的情况。但我也确实想说,请恕我冒昧,我不喜欢“厌恶性自由”这个说法,我们都知道这里想表达的是“对性保守”,这种说法感觉上包藏着心机。对此我必须进来插点话。我无法容忍这种说话方式,因为这是在耍诡诈,而且是对“自由”这个词的误用。

3、I agree that on theface of it physically attractive people initially get treated with deferenceand can get away with more than a physically unattractive person.        But society is still predicated onability for success.     Not physicalfeatures      Unless you include filmstardom or modelling.

我同意:乍看之下,外在富有吸引力的人群在待遇上会得到迁就,而且相比外在没有吸引力的人更容易侥幸过关。但这个社会仍然是以成功的能力来论断人的,而非身体特征。除非你的身份是电影明星或模特。

In the long term competence or the lackthereof becomes their making or undoing.

长远来看,是否具备能力最终决定了他们的成败。

I’m in my 60th year and am short 168cm andnot particularly photogenic.
So I have had plenty of time andopportunity to observe and reflect on the treatment of others in relation tomyself and without being too immodest I have noticed that height especially isa trait that is commonly seen as desirable in both leadership and matchmaking.

我60岁了,身高168,也不是特别上相。
所以我有足够的时间和机会去观察反思和我有关系的人所受的待遇,我也不想太不谦虚,但我注意到身高这个特性在关系和婚介中被普遍视为性感点。

But and this is a big BUT, if the ‘chosenone’ is not competent they will fail and suffer greater distress than myself.
Why?   Well,l because they have become conditioned to the expectation ofpreferential treatment without effort.

但是,如果“天之骄子”能力不行,他们也是会失败的,且会比我遭受更大的危难。
为什么呢?好吧,因为他们已经习惯了去指望不付出努力就能得到优待。