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日本垂死乡村中的古老节日挣扎求生
2018-10-10 周天寰宇2 2297 14 0  
IN JAPAN’S DYING COUNTRYSIDE, ANCIENT FESTIVALS STRUGGLE TO LIVE

日本垂死乡村中的古老节日挣扎求生



Shrinking rural communities have put the future of many traditional celebrations in doubt

不断萎缩的日本农村社区使许多传统庆祝活动未来受到质疑。

For generations, festivals whose origins have been lost in the mists of time have been the lifeblood of virtually all of Japan’s communities. In the depths of February, for example, men clad only in loincloths take part in Okayama’s Hadaka Matsuri, or “naked festival”, by pouring water over each other to celebrate prosperity and fertility.

几代人以来那些在时光迷雾中消失的节日一直是维系日本几乎所有社区的命脉。例如2月底,只穿着兜裆布的男人会去参加冈山“裸体祭”,即“裸体节”,通过互相浇水来庆祝祈求繁荣和生育。

Dancers turn the streets of Kochi into a riot of colour during the annual Yosakoi Festival in August. Demons in terrifying masks and clothing made of straw prowl Shinzan Shrine and the streets of Oga, Akita Prefecture, every February.

每年8月一年一度的夜来祭期间,舞者们将高知县街道装饰成了一片色彩斑斓的海洋。每年2月份的日本秋田县,人们穿戴用稻草制作的可怕面具服饰在男鹿神社街道上游荡。



For every famous festival that attracts crowds of locals and visitors from further afield, however, there are others at risk of disappearing as rural communities shrink, young people move to the cities to find work and funds for traditional forms of entertainment and worship run dry.

然而每一个吸引远方游客和当地人到来的著名节日都有可能随着农村社区的萎缩而消失。年轻人搬到城市去找工作,也去城市为传统的娱乐祭祀活动寻找资金来源。

With rural Japan already in the grip of chronic depopulation, some communities have reluctantly decided to halt their forefathers’ traditions.

由于日本农村已经长期陷入人口减少陷阱,一些社区不情愿地决定停止他们祭祀祖先的风俗传统。

“We are not sure exactly when the festival started, but we think it was about 140 years ago,” said Miki Chiba, an official of the district office in Seiyo, Ehime Prefecture. “The residents of the town of Shirokawa were meant to have this year’s event on July 1, but they suspended it this year because there are just not enough people to take part.”

“我们不确定这个节日是什么时候开始的,但我们认为大约在140年前左右,”日本西友的地区办公室官员Miki Chiba称。“石罗川镇居民本应在7月1日举行今年的祭祀节庆活动,但今年他们暂停了活动,因为没有足够多人参加其中。”

The Doronko Matsuri – literally the mud festival – had long been a fixture of this part of the prefecture. The festival, which involves farmers using bulls to plough a paddy field, celebrates the start of the planting season for the local rice crop. The spectacle was less about ploughing, however, than the farmers and bulls getting coated in mud, while youngsters threw themselves into the fields.

泥祭——字面意思是“泥巴狂欢节”长期以来一直是该地区固定节日。在这个节日里农民用牛来犁地以庆祝当地水稻种植季节开始。然而这一奇观与其说是在耕地不如说是农民和公牛被涂上泥然后年轻人把自己扔进田地里打滚。

At the end of the day, after everyone had been hosed down, villagers would gather at the nearby shrine to pray for a good harvest in the months ahead. A decade ago, more than 700 local people took part and thousands would turn out to watch, local officials said. Today, there are only 300 residents in the village and no one keeps bulls any more.

当天活动结束后每个人都被冲洗干净,然后村民们会聚集在附近神社为未来几个月的丰收祈祷。当地官员说大约10年前有700多名当地居民参加活动,数千人观看。现在村里只有300名居民,也没有人再养公牛。



“The population of the town is shrinking every year as the birth rate declines and young people move away,” said Chiba. “And even though some people said we should go ahead with the festival, it was impossible because there are just not enough of them.”

千叶市发言人称:“随着出生率不断下降年轻离开奔赴大城市,这个城镇人口每年都在减少。”“尽管有些人说我们应该继续坚持庆祝这个节日,但不可能了。因为人数都不够。”

“Everyone connected with the event has been really sad about the festival ending,” she added, hinting at the reality of an occasion that is still officially “suspended.”

“每个参与过这一节庆的人都对这个节日停办感到非常难过,”她补充道,暗示可能只是暂停举办。

According to the Nippon Matsuri Network, a non-profit organisation that is working to protect the nation’s rural heritage, there are as many as 300,000 festivals held across Japan each year, but the Sankei newspaper reported that around 40 traditional events in 20 prefectures were either halted or suspended in 2016. And with rural depopulation picking up speed, that annual figure is likely to increase in the years to come.

据日本松日网报道日本各地每年有多达30万个节日需要庆祝。但产经新闻也报道2016年20个县约40个传统活动被暂停或取消。。随着农村人口减少速度不断加快,这个节庆停办数字在未来几年可能仍会增加。

“The most famous festivals on the Japanese calendar include the Aomori Nebuta Festival and the Awa Odori, while events such as Kyoto’s Gion Festival and the Chichibu Festival are very famous around the world,” said Hideo Nigata, vice-chairman of the Nippon Matsuri Network.

“日本日历上最著名的节日包括青森市睡魔祭和阿波市的阿波舞,而京都祗园节和琦玉节等活动在世界各地也很有名,”日本松日网络副主席Hideo Nigata称。

“But some of the less famous events are finding it hard to continue because there are not enough people left in their communities, there are too few young people and not enough money to organise these events each year,” he told This Week in Asia.

他接受亚洲周刊采访时表示:“但一些不太出名的节日却发现自己很难维持下去,因为社区参与人数不足年轻人太少,也没有足够资金组织这些活动。”

“My fear is that if a festival ends, then it is inevitable that the community that created it will also eventually disappear.”

“我担心的是,如果一个节日停办了那么创造它的社区也将不可避免地最终消失。”

“Our organisation was set up to encourage more people to go to these festivals, to make them famous once again, through television coverage, the internet or some other means,” he added. “Only people power can assist these festivals.”

他补充说:“我们组织的目的是鼓励更多人参加这些节日,让这些节日通过电视报道互联网或其他方式再次闻名海内外。”“只有足够知名度才能帮助这些节日摆脱困局。”



The town of Kanegasaki-cho, in Iwate Prefecture, northeast Japan, is taking a proactive approach to protecting the Deer Dance Festival that has been part of its heritage since the Edo Period (1603 – 1868).
位于日本东北部岩手镇正在采取积极措施保护鹿舞节,这一节日源自江户时代(1603-1868)。

“The population of this town is quite stable because we have some industry – there is a Toyota factory here and connected businesses – but the deer dance is dying out in some of the surrounding villages,” said Hidekatsu Asari, the curator of the town’s history centre.

该镇历史中心发展策划人Hidekatsu Asari称:“这个小镇人口相当稳定,因为我们保有一些工业——这里有一个丰田工厂还有一些相关生意。但是鹿舞节在周边村庄里逐渐消失了。”

“In years gone by, there were a lot more festivals and traditions associated with farming in the district, but the few farmers who are left use tractors instead of livestock and fewer shrines have seasonal festivals.”

“过去几年里这个地区有更多与农业相关的节日传统,但越来越多农民使用拖拉机而不是牲畜,固定举办季节性节庆的神社也越来越少。

Other traditions have fallen by the wayside, too, Asari said.

Asari称其他历史传统也被放弃了。

“Ancestor worship has also changed,” he said. “Obon [an annual holiday commemorating deceased ancestors] used to be the time when everyone would return to the village so the family could be together, but now it has become a time for people to go on holiday, rather than a community festival.”

“祖先崇拜也发生了变化,”他说。“盂兰盆节是一个纪念已故祖先的节日,过去每个人都会回到村子里一家人一起过节。但现在已经变成了一个一家人举家度假的节日,而不是一个社区节庆活动。”

Asari is determined to do what he can to preserve the ancient traditions for the coming generations.

Asari决心尽其所能为子孙后代保留古老传统。



“We believe that events such as the Deer Dance bring the people of the community back together and should be encouraged,” he said. “If you talk to the older people, they will tell you that they feel sad or lonely when festivals fade away because they were such a big part of their lives when they were growing up.

他说:“我们相信像鹿舞节这样的节庆会让社区居民团结在一起,这应该得到鼓励。”“如果你和年长者交谈,他们会告诉你当过去节日逐渐消失的时候他们会感到悲伤孤独。因为那些节日是他们成长生活中不可或缺的一部分。”

“That is why we have started to go into local kindergartens and nursery schools to teach the children about the dance, getting them dressed up in kids’ costumes and showing them the steps so that they want to keep doing the festival when they are older and hand it on to future generations.”

“这就是为什么我们开始进入当地幼儿园教孩子们跳舞,让他们穿上童装教会他们舞蹈步骤。这样当他们长大后才会希望将这一节日传承给下一代。”
 
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