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[原创-生活] 这五种食物据说有益健康,但我们所摄入的量并不足以起到治疗作用

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发表于 2019-5-15 15:37:12 龙腾移动网页版 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
原文链接:https://theconversation.com/these-5-foods-are-claimed-to-improve-our-health-but-the-amount-wed-need-to-consume-to-benefit-is-a-lot-116730
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龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.comFood gives us the nutrients we need to survive, and we know a balanced diet contributes to good health.
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.comBeyond this, many people seek out different foods as “medicines”, hoping eating certain things might prevent or treat particular conditions.
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.comIt’s true many foods contain “bioactive compounds” – chemicals that act in the body in ways that might promote good health. These are being studied in the prevention of cancer, heart disease and other conditions.
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食物给我们所需的营养,我们知道,均衡的饮食有助于身体健康。
除此之外,许多人寻找不同的食物作为“药物”,希望吃某些东西可以预防或治疗特定的疾病。
的确,很多食物都含有“生物活性物质”——这些化学物质在身体中起着促进健康的作用。它们正在被研究用于预防癌症、心脏病和其他疾病。

But the idea of food as medicine, although attractive, is easily oversold in the headlines. Stories tend to be based on studies done in the lab, testing concentrated extracts from foods. The effect seen in real people eating the actual food is going to be different to the effects in a petri dish.
If you do the maths, you’ll find you actually need to eat enormous amounts of particular foods to get an active dose of the desired element. In some cases, this might endanger your health, rather than protecting it.
These four foods (and one drink) show the common healing claims around the foods we eat don’t always stack up.

但是,把食物当作药物的想法,尽管很有吸引力,却很容易在头条上被夸大。故事往往是基于实验室里的研究,测试食物的浓缩提取物。在真实的人身上看到的效果与在培养皿中看到的效果是不同的。
如果你计算一下,你会发现你实际上需要吃大量特定的食物来获得所需元素的活性剂量。在某些情况下,这可能会危害你的健康,而不是有利于健康。
这四种食物(和一种饮料)表明,我们所吃的量并不足以起到治疗作用。

Cinnamon(肉桂)
Cinnamon, which contains a compound called cinnamaldehyde, is claimed to aid weight loss and regulate appetite.
There is evidence cinnamaldehyde can reduce cholesterol in people with diabetes. But this is based on studies of the chemical in large doses – not eating the spice itself.
These studies give people between 1 and 6 grams of cinnamaldehyde per day. Cinnamon is about 8% cinnamaldehyde by weight – so you’d have to eat at least 13 grams of cinnamon, or about half a supermarket jar, per day. Much more than you’d add to your morning porridge.

肉桂含有一种叫做肉桂醛的化合物,据称可以帮助减肥和调节食欲。
有证据表明肉桂醛可以降低糖尿病人的胆固醇。但这是基于对大剂量这种化学物质的研究——而不是吃肉桂本身。
这些研究每天给人们1到6克肉桂醛。肉桂醛的重量约占肉桂的8%,所以你每天至少要吃13克肉桂,或者超市里半罐肉桂。远远超过你早上粥里添加的量。

Red wine(红酒)
The headlines on the health benefits of red wine are usually because of a chemical in grape skins called resveratrol. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, a family of chemicals with antioxidant properties.
It’s been claimed resveratrol protects our cells from damage and reduces the risk of a range of conditions such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and heart disease.
There is some limited evidence that resveratrol has benefits in animal models, although studies done in humans have not shown a similar effect.
It varies by wine, but red wine contains about 3 micrograms (about 3 millionths of a gram) of resveratrol per bottle. The studies that have shown a benefit from resveratrol use at least 0.1 grams per day (that’s 100,000 micrograms).
To get that much resveratrol, you’d have to drink roughly 200 bottles of wine a day. We can probably all agree that’s not very healthy.

关于红酒有益健康的头条新闻通常是因为葡萄皮中含有一种叫做白藜芦醇的化学物质。白藜芦醇是一种多酚,是一类具有抗氧化性能的化学物质。
据称,白藜芦醇可以保护我们的细胞免受损害,并降低患癌症、2型糖尿病、老年痴呆症和心脏病等一系列疾病的风险。
有一些证据表明白藜芦醇在动物模型中有好处,但在人类身上做的研究没有显示出类似的效果。
不同葡萄酒中白藜芦醇的含量可能有差异,红葡萄酒每瓶的白藜芦醇含量约为3微克(约300万分之一克)。研究表明白藜芦醇要对人类有益,每天至少要摄入0.1克(10万微克)。
为了得到这么多的白藜芦醇,你必须每天喝大约200瓶葡萄酒。我们都知道这不是很健康。

Blueberries(蓝莓)
Blueberries, like red wine, are a source of resveratrol, but at a few micrograms per berry you’d have to eat more than 10,000 berries a day to get the active dose.
Blueberries also contain compounds called anthocyanins, which may improve some markers of heart disease. But to get an active dose there you’re looking at 150-300 blueberries per day. More reasonable, but still quite a lot of fruit – and expensive.

蓝莓,像红酒一样,是白藜芦醇的来源,但是如果每个蓝莓只有几微克,你必须每天吃10000多个才能获得活性剂量。
蓝莓还含有一种叫做花青素的化合物,可以改善心脏病的一些指标。但要获得活性剂量,需要每天150-300个蓝莓。这个数量比刚刚要合理点,但仍然相当多而且很贵。

Chocolate(巧克力)
The news that dark chocolate lowers blood pressure is always well-received. Theobromine, a chemical in chocolate has been shown to lower blood pressure in doses of about 1 gram of the active compound, but not at lower doses. Depending on the chocolate, you could be eating 100g of dark chocolate before you reached this dose.
Chocolate is a discretionary food, or “junk food”. The recommended serve for discretionary foods is no more than 600 kilojoules per day, or 25g of chocolate. Eating 100g of chocolate would be equivalent to more than 2,000kJ.
Excess kilojoule consumption leads to weight gain, and being overweight increases risk of heart disease and stroke. So these risks would likely negate the benefits of eating chocolate to lower your blood pressure.

黑巧克力降低血压的消息总是很受欢迎。巧克力中的一种化学物质——可可碱,已经被证明可以降低血压(大约1克的活性化合物的剂量,更低的剂量就不行了)。根据巧克力的不同,在达到这个剂量之前,你可能已经吃了100克黑巧克力。
巧克力是一种非必需食品,或者说是“垃圾食品”。非必需食品的推荐量是每天不超过600千焦,或25克巧克力。吃100克巧克力相当于超过2000千焦。
摄入过多的热量会导致体重增加,而超重会增加患心脏病和中风的风险。因此,这些风险可能会抵消吃巧克力降低血压的好处。

Turmeric(姜黄)
Turmeric is a favourite. It’s good in curries, and recently we’ve seen hype around the tumeric latte. Stories pop up regularly about its healing power, normally based on curcumin.
Curcumin refers to a group of compounds, called curcuminoids, that might have some health benefits, like reducing inflammation. Inflammation helps us to fight infections and respond to injuries, but too much inflammation is a problem in diseases like arthritis, and might be linked to other conditions like heart disease or stroke.
Human trials on curcumin have been inconclusive, but most use curcumin supplementation in very large doses of 1 to 12 grams per day. Turmeric is about 3% curcumin, so for each gram of tumeric you eat you only get 0.03g of curcumin. This means you’d have to eat more than 30g of tumeric to get the minimum active dose of tumeric.
Importantly, curcumin in turmeric is not very bioavailable. This means we only absorb about 25% of what we eat, so you might actually have to eat well over 100g of turmeric, every day, to get a reasonable dose of curcumin. That’s a lot of curry.

姜黄是最受欢迎的。它在咖喱里很好吃,最近我们看到了关于姜黄拿铁的炒作。关于姜黄素的治疗功效的故事经常出现,通常是基于姜黄素。
姜黄素指的是一组化合物,称为姜黄素类化合物,可能有一些健康益处,比如减少炎症。炎症帮助我们对抗感染和对伤害做出反应,但过多的炎症会导致关节炎等疾病,可能与心脏病或中风等其他疾病有关。
对姜黄素的人体试验还没有定论,但大多数结论是需要每天服用1至12克的姜黄素补充剂。姜黄大约含有3%的姜黄素,所以你每吃一克姜黄素,只能得到0.03克姜黄素。这意味着你必须吃超过30克的姜黄才能获得最低的活性剂量。
重要的是,姜黄中姜黄素的生物可利用性并不高。这意味着我们只能吸收我们所吃的姜黄素的25%,所以你可能每天要吃100克以上的姜黄,才能得到合理剂量的姜黄素。那可是很多咖喱。

What to eat then?(那吃什么呢?)
We all want food to heal us, but focusing on single foods and eating mounds of them is not the answer. Instead, a balanced and diverse diet can provide foods each with a range of different nutrients and bioactive compounds. Don’t get distracted by quick fixes; focus instead on enjoying a variety of foods.

我们都希望食物能治愈我们的疾病,但专注于某一种食物并大量食用并不是解决之道。相反,均衡和多样化的饮食可以提供一系列不同的营养和生物活性物质。心急吃不了热豆腐,你应该专注于享受各种各样的食物。

(评论部分)
Jenni Reside
A clarification please, do you mean the active dose in the studies? Has there been studies to see if there is a cumulative effect over years of eating such foods? Also in regards to the comments about chocolate, isn’t the ‘active compound in chocolate’ from cocoa beans? therefore one could ingest it in other ways?

请澄清一下,您是指研究中使用的活性剂量吗?有没有研究表明,多年来一直吃这些食物是否会产生累积效应?还有关于巧克力的部分,“巧克力中的活性成分”不是来自于可可豆吗?所以我们可以通过其他方式摄取吗?

Mark Stewart
I just love this article. Well done to the authors. 200 bottles of red a day. Sounds like Uncle Dan (Murphy)‘s best dream ever!The history of nutrition is littered with the “miracle” nutrient which was going to solve everything (and let us keep eating the rubbish we want to.) Vitamin D, fish-oil, even poor old Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling obsessing over vitamin C. What a shame food/whole diets are so chemically complex they resist breaking down to reductionist (and dare I suggested it, patentable/marketable) single compounds.

我就是喜欢这篇文章。作者干得漂亮。每天喝200瓶红酒。听起来像是丹·墨菲做过的最棒的梦!营养史上充斥着“奇迹”营养素,它将解决一切(我们能继续吃我们想吃的垃圾)。维生素D,鱼油,甚至可怜的老诺贝尔奖得主莱纳斯·鲍林痴迷于维生素C。多可惜啊,食物或者说整个饮食结构的化学成分这么复杂,它们都不愿意分解成单一的化合物(我敢说,它们都是可以申请专利/上市的)。

Steve Phillips
Despite out best efforts none of us will live past 130yrs much less forever. “so in all things, practise moderation”

尽管我们尽了最大的努力,但我们谁也活不过130岁,更别说永远活着了。"所以在所有事情上,要适度"。

——————分割线——————
Dean Frenkel(楼主)
Thanks for the interesting article. It did provoke a few thoughts.
(1) How does industry get away with making fraudulent claims when peoples’ health is at stake?
(2) I am an advocate for food-as-medicine but not in overdosing on one ingredient.
(3) When attention is focussed on nutri-medicine, it diverts attention away from a much more profound concern: junk food and the appalling Western diet.
(4) I am suspicious of the auto-recommendation by ‘experts’ to eat a diverse diet. Yes I know that our gut flora can thrive on it but it also suffers when we eat unhealthy food. Rather I would suggest recommending that people aim for a high ratio of nutritious food compared to the western diet that mainstream eaters consume. It is much better for our health to cut-out the bad foods like meat.

谢谢你这篇有趣的文章,它确实引发了我的一些思考。
(1)当人们的健康受到威胁时,企业是如何逃脱欺诈索赔的?
(2)我主张食疗,但不主张过量摄入某种成分。
(3)当人们把注意力集中在营养药物上时,就不那么关注一个更深层的问题了:垃圾食品和令人震惊的西方饮食。
(4)我对“专家”推荐的多样化饮食持怀疑态度。确实,我知道我们的肠道菌群可以靠多样化饮食而生长,但当我们吃不健康的食物时,它也会受到影响。相反,我建议人们追求更高比例的营养食物,而不是主流饮食者所吃的西方饮食。戒掉像肉这样的坏食物对我们的健康更好。

Andrew Reilly(回复楼主)
Usually the industry is perfectly happy for non-industry charlatans and excitable, click-seeking reporters to exaggerate or make the fraudulent claims for them. There is still a trickle of prosecutions of companies that overstep the mark, but not many. Enough to show that regulators are paying attention, perhaps.
By “appalling Western diet” are you including the much-lauded Mediterranean diet, or any of the other “Western” diets that involve actual food? I quite like the “Western” bits of my diet. The Eastern bits too of course. There’s good food almost everywhere. Just stay away from the non-food products, IMO.

通常情况下,面对那些外行的骗子和那些容易激动、追求点击量的记者,这些企业是非常高兴的。对违规企业的起诉仍然很少,但并不多。这或许足以表明,监管机构正在对此予以关注。
“令人震惊的西方饮食”,你是否包括了广受赞誉的地中海饮食,或其他任何涉及实际食物的“西方”饮食?我很喜欢我饮食中的“西方”部分。当然东方部分我也喜欢。几乎到处都有好吃的食物。我的建议是远离非食品类产品。

Roger Peters
I suffer osteoarthritis. I have tried a number of prescribed and across the counter medications. Generally, they were ineffective, or they produced some gut problems. I take several “natural” remedies, enforced by my wife of 50 years, Omega 3, Glucosamine, Magnesium, but rarely do I venture out on my own, far too cynical. At one stage she had a quite vile concoction of turmeric with honey, each morning and not surprisingly no change in pain. (It was simply the powder from the local supermarket). I then tried massive dosage in capsule form, and the pain in my left knee settled substantially in about 3 days. More importantly, I was pain-free in bed. I am not persuaded it was a placebo effect, as my understanding is that the placebo effect generally doesn’t last. I am now three months along from the initial dose and I have had no reoccurrence of the inflammatory pain in my knee.

我有关节炎。试过一些处方药和非处方药,一般都是无效的,或者产生了一些肠道问题。我被结婚50年的妻子强制服用了几种“天然”药物——欧米茄3、葡萄糖胺、镁,但我很少独自“冒险”,因为太玩世不恭了。有一段时间,她每天早上都要喝一种很难喝的蜂蜜姜黄混合物,毫无疑问,她的疼痛并没有减轻。(那只是当地超市的奶粉)。然后我尝试了大剂量的胶囊,我的左膝疼痛在大约3天内基本缓解。更重要的是,我在床上不再疼痛。我不相信这是安慰剂效应,因为我的理解是安慰剂效应一般不会持续很久。从最初的疗程到现在已经三个月了,我的膝盖没有再出现炎症性疼痛。

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发表于 2019-5-16 09:25:52 | 显示全部楼层
有病治病,没病就注意多样化饮食。说什么材料好就可劲吃那就是给自己找病。平时注意少油、少糖、少盐就可以了。
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发表于 2019-5-16 14:41:25 | 显示全部楼层
好吧,也许又给了酒鬼们一个多喝的理由。
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发表于 2019-5-16 15:51:55 | 显示全部楼层
多吃水煮的菜,少油少盐,比什么都强
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发表于 2019-5-17 10:17:31 | 显示全部楼层
我少油少盐。
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
基本一天只吃一点点肉,大多以素为主。(超爱吃肉)0龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
但只要不运动就长肉,这么久来一直有动动。龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com

我泥玛惹 谁了。
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发表于 2019-5-17 10:31:13 | 显示全部楼层
layken 发表于 2019-5-17 10:17
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com我少油少盐。
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
基本一天只吃一点点肉,大多以素为主。(超爱吃肉)0
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
那你淀粉类主食和糖份吃的多吗?其实吃肉不一定胖啊,动物蛋白质还是要摄入的,就是肥肉少吃。零食夜宵含糖类饮料也要少吃,三顿饭多吃点没关系,食品种类要多。平时一天到晚不太动弹,即使天天有固定运动时间的人也不如没有固定锻炼时间但从早到晚忙忙碌碌、基本不长时间坐下休息的人。
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发表于 2019-5-17 15:07:46 | 显示全部楼层
zasuimuer 发表于 2019-5-17 10:31龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
那你淀粉类主食和糖份吃的多吗?其实吃肉不一定胖啊,动物蛋白质还是要摄入的,就是肥肉少吃。零食夜宵含 ...

龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com从小就不爱吃糖 太甜的水果和饮料基本不碰。这个倒不是刻意。龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com

龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com以米饭居多,淀粉类的就没有太注意了。(可以举例说几个么,含量高的,我好规避。谢谢!)
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
不吃夜霄 不喝啤酒 也不喝酒。 每天都有跑步一个小时。

只要一停下来几天就会长肉!我去。
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发表于 2019-5-17 16:55:02 | 显示全部楼层
layken 发表于 2019-5-17 15:07
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com从小就不爱吃糖 太甜的水果和饮料基本不碰。这个倒不是刻意。
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
以米饭居多,淀粉类的就没有太注意了。 ...

龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com米面都是属于淀粉类的。
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com你这种应该就是属于吸收特别好的,想不增肥倒未必需要有意节食,但可以试用一个办法:细嚼慢咽,拖长吃饭的时间,很多时候吃的快也是吃得多的原因,因为脑子还没反映过来已经饱了,嘴里又吃了一堆进去。
我从没有刻意节食,都是想吃就吃,没有啥忌口的,但体重一直保持的比较好,还略有偏瘦,可能跟我小时候看过某名人说的细嚼慢咽,少食长寿有关,前几年看过BBC的一个节目,其中也提到大概这么一个意思:吃的越多,死的越快。理由大概是人体本身是平衡的,吃的乱七八糟的东西哪怕是好东西都会破坏这个平衡,而且正如古人说的是药三分毒,基本啥东西都多少有点毒性,只是毒性多少的问题,吃得多毒素自然也多,出问题的几率也大。
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发表于 2019-5-17 20:25:07 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 月悄悄 于 2019-5-17 20:27 编辑
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layken 发表于 2019-5-17 15:07龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
从小就不爱吃糖 太甜的水果和饮料基本不碰。这个倒不是刻意。龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com

龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com以米饭居多,淀粉类的就没有太注意了。 ...
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
其实米饭吃多了也容易长胖。
以前在大学食堂,每餐吃不了多少菜,我的饭量从一小碗,变成一大碗,再变成一盒都能吃光。体重也不知不觉的上来了。
回家后天天大鱼大肉的吃着,反而容易饱腹还减重。
我自己体感吃瘦肉、红肉比较容易饱腹,还不容易胖。吃糖类最容易长胖。我妈爱吃淀粉类(番薯什么的),还喜欢吃糖(麻花、芝麻糕等热量炸弹),正餐吃得很少还是胖乎乎的。
所以减肥绝对不是少吃肉就行了。

建议老哥每天肉、蛋、奶(无糖)充分摄取,再去锻炼,不仅不会胖,还会有一身漂亮腱子肉哦~


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发表于 2019-5-20 10:29:41 | 显示全部楼层
dalian433 发表于 2019-5-17 16:55龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
米面都是属于淀粉类的。龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
你这种应该就是属于吸收特别好的,想不增肥倒未必需要有意节食,但可以试用一个 ...

龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com嗯。那我控制一下节奏。因为从大学军训后吃饭的节奏就快了。再到工作中一直很快。
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com其实我吃不了多少。成年男性中午我吃一两半,晚上吃半两饭。晚上从不敢吃肉,就算吃也是一个月一两次。

而且选的是鱼或鸡之类的。

我会慢慢调整 。谢谢兄台。
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发表于 2019-5-20 10:33:24 | 显示全部楼层
月悄悄 发表于 2019-5-17 20:25龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
其实米饭吃多了也容易长胖。
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com以前在大学食堂,每餐吃不了多少菜,我的饭量从一小碗,变成一大碗,再变成 ...
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
米饭我一天加起不会超过三两米饭。
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com
龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com我较喜欢吃土豆和米饭。估计是这玩意儿的原因。

糖类基本不吃的。本人不太爱吃糖的,咸的。个人口味还是很清淡的。

嗯。我就蛋 奶多摄入。现在除了大暴雨不想健身外天天都有。以前去健身房,现在没有去了。天天在公园跑呀快走呀之类的。

只要一停个几天肯定疯狂长肉。还好现在一直控制住的。
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