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[美国素材] 【为了大众】矫枉过正

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发表于 2019-5-2 13:13:54 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式


OVERCORRECTION
矫枉过正

【日期】2019~

【连接】https://www.propublica.org/series/overcorrection

【备注】   无敏感词

【注】标题机翻、认领后需重翻

【简介】
Crisis in California Jails

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 楼主| 发表于 2019-5-2 13:40:25 | 显示全部楼层


California Tried to Fix Its Prisons. Now County Jails Are More Deadly.
加州试图修复监狱,现在县监狱更致命


In a 48-hour stretch during January 2018, three men were booked into the Fresno County Jail. One was beaten into a coma. Two died soon afterward. Their cases kicked off a nightmarish year in a local jail where problems trace back to California’s sweeping 2011 prison downsizing and criminal justice reforms.

【日期】2019年4月24日

【连接】https://www.propublica.org/artic ... -county-jail-deaths

【备注】无评论      无敏感词

【注】标题机翻、认领后需重翻

【全文】
This story was originally co-published by The Sacramento Bee and ProPublica.

FRESNO, Calif. — On the night of Jan. 17, 2018, Lorenzo Herrera walked into the Fresno County Jail booking area and sat down for an interview. Yes, he had a gang history, an officer wrote on his intake form. But Herrera, 19, said he did not expect problems with others inside the gang pod he’d soon call home.

His parents had encouraged him to barter for books and newspapers — anything he could to preoccupy himself until his trial on burglary and assault charges. His father, Carlos Herrera, offered advice: “Just be careful, and only trust yourself.”

Herrera survived the violent chaos of the Fresno County Jail for 66 days, including living through a brawl that left another inmate unconscious. Then, on an afternoon in March, jail officers found him strangled.

Herrera didn’t get a trial or a plea deal. He got a death sentence, his parents say. And even now, no one at the jail seems to know what happened.

The evening before Herrera entered the jail, Ernest Brock, 20, was also arrested and booked pending trial. Officers put him in a cell with a psychotic inmate accused of rape who had refused to take medication and was beating his head against the walls. Brock made it three days inside before the cellmate choked him into a coma.

Yet a third inmate arrived soon after Brock, booked for a five-year-old probation violation. Andre Erkins, 30, writhed in pain for hours before dying of previously undetected cardiac disease. The jail staff failed to notice his worsening health until it was too late.

Three bookings within 48 hours. Three young men jailed for different reasons. Three people who walked into the overcrowded Fresno County Jail and left on gurneys, dead or barely alive.

The fates of Herrera, Brock and Erkins set the stage for the deadliest year in at least two decades at the jail, a sprawling complex of jam-packed cells, filled with inmates working their way through a clogged criminal justice system.

Eleven inmates died last year from drug and alcohol withdrawal, suicide, medical complications and murder. Thirteen other people were beaten and hospitalized for multiple days.

The increase in violence and death in Fresno started soon after the state was ordered in 2011 by the U.S. Supreme Court to reduce its prison population. That’s when California officials approved sweeping reforms called “realignment,” shifting responsibility for thousands of offenders from state prisons to county jails.

While decreasing the overload in state prisons, the results in many county jails have been deadly. An investigation by McClatchy and ProPublica has found that many county jails have struggled to handle the influx of violent and mentally ill inmates incarcerated for longer sentences than ever before. As a result, inmates are dying in markedly higher numbers.


Greg Betza, special to ProPublica

No other jail in California has seen a sharper increase in inmate deaths than the Fresno County Jail, whose three buildings house more than 3,000 inmates, mostly in the concrete cube known as the Main Jail in downtown Fresno. In the seven years before the 2011 realignment, 23 inmates died in jail custody, data from the California Department of Justice shows. That figure more than doubled to 47 deaths during the seven years after the state shifted more responsibility to the county jails.

Only one Fresno County inmate killed another in the seven years before realignment. Since then, four have died at the hands of other inmates.

The problem is particularly acute in places like Fresno, Kern and Merced counties, inland stretches of California, where deaths have surged disproportionately, a data analysis by McClatchy and ProPublica found. These less affluent counties in California’s Central Valley watched inmate homicides triple.

In the past seven years, some counties took advantage of the billions of dollars attached to California’s realignment efforts to address overcrowding. Others, the investigation shows, have viewed the changes as a burden.

The Fresno County Jail death toll illustrates how some counties have failed to institute reforms, keep up with federal court orders to improve conditions, and prioritize inmate well-being. As has long been the case, two-thirds of the people kept in jails are accused but not convicted.

Fresno County Sheriff Margaret Mims said that the county jails hold many dangerous people, and that awful events, including deaths, are almost inevitable. A few years ago, Mims said, an inmate hid a razor blade in his nasal cavity and cut his co-defendant in court.

“How long does it take to inhale a razor blade?” she said. “If you wanted absolutely no assaults on inmates, no assaults on staff, no murders, no suicides you would almost have to have a [guard] assigned to every single inmate or continually have eyes on those inmates.”

However, the state data shows Fresno County recorded far more inmate deaths, and particularly violent deaths, than some larger California jails. For example, Orange County’s jail on average holds twice as many people as Fresno County’s, but it had just one inmate-on-inmate homicide the past seven years. Fresno County had four.

Don Specter, director of the Berkeley, California-based nonprofit Prison Law Office, whose litigation against the state’s prisons spurred the realignment effort, called conditions in most county jails “a mess.”


Fresno County Sheriff Margaret Mims. (John Walker/The Fresno Bee)

The problems are compounded because county jails were never meant to accommodate these different inmates with yearslong sentences. County jails also lack effective oversight, especially in monitoring the handling of difficult inmates. And many sheriffs spend minimal amounts on jail health care and safety.

The Fresno County Sheriff’s Office does not segregate people awaiting trial from convicted inmates serving a jail sentence. When more dangerous or mentally ill inmates strain the short-handed staff, every part of the jail deals with the consequences. As the Herrera, Brock and Erkins cases illustrate, this can have a ripple effect throughout the jail. Officers are sometimes slower to conduct rounds, to notice inmates who are gravely sick, to watch fights develop in a gang pod or to isolate psychotic inmates.

Experts say apathy among officials in many of California’s 56 counties with jails has fostered a crisis.

“The sheriffs have been very indifferent to jail conditions,” Specter said. “There’s been a complete lack of action.”

Mims said 2018’s record number of fatalities inside her jail was predictable. In more than two hours of interviews, she repeatedly characterized such deaths as an unfortunate consequence of jail life after realignment and expressed no remorse over her office’s failure to prevent them. At one point she asked reporters for basic details about the fatalities in her own jail.

She also said one of the most “painful” moments of her time in office was releasing inmates during the economic downturn. “Being a peace officer,” Mims said, “you know, you want to keep people locked up.”

Though running a jail is complicated work, inmate deaths should not be dismissed as inevitable, said Marin County Sheriff Robert Doyle, speaking on behalf of the California State Sheriffs’ Association.

“As soon as someone walks in, they’re our responsibility,” he said. Asked if it’s the sheriff’s job to prevent inmate deaths and jail violence, Doyle responded, “Of course.”

The Prison-to-Jail Churn

Fresno County’s jail system has been teeming with prisoners for decades. In 1993, county officials packed 20 people into a cell intended for 12, with inmates sprawled on mattresses between and beneath bunk beds. In one incident, an inmate clogged his toilet with a sheet, causing other cells to overflow with waste when someone flushed.

“By the time we had breakfast, seventy-five people were eating with two inches of human waste on the floor,” one inmate said in a sworn affidavit.

Months before the toilets backed up, a convicted murderer raped and killed a man booked on drug charges. Then-Sheriff Steve Magarian told The Fresno Bee, “The jail is full of dangerous inmates who kill with no notice.”

Lawyers representing Fresno County inmates sued the sheriff’s office in February 1993, alleging cruel and unusual jail conditions that violated the U.S. Constitution’s Eighth Amendment. By November, the county settled with inmates and agreed in a consent decree to cap the jail population. When any part of the jail reaches full capacity, the sheriff’s office must release inmates and limit new arrivals. The sheriff is prohibited from having people sleep on the floor.


Though unpopular at first, “the reality is it put some kind of sensibility of operation into the jail,” said Assistant Sheriff Tom Gattie, who oversees Fresno’s jail.

In negotiations, the inmates’ lawyers agreed the sheriff’s office can house three people in a space designed for two. The sheriff is legally allowed to overcrowd the jail, but only to a point.

Then came back-to-back blows for Fresno County. The real estate market crash and recession dried up jail funding as tax revenues shriveled.

Mims was running for a second term as Fresno County sheriff in 2010. She won the top job four years earlier, advocating tough-on-crime policies and denouncing early inmate releases. But facing severe budget shortfalls, Mims laid off several dozen correctional officers. She closed several floors of the jail because she didn’t have enough officers to watch inmates. And the consent decree required Mims to set some of them free.

The inmate population dropped from 2,100 to 1,400 in the first six months of 2010, according to the sheriff’s office jail census data. The sheriff’s office primarily released people charged with misdemeanors or serving sentences for low-level crimes.

While Fresno County struggled with jail crowding and staffing, the state faced increasing pressure on its three dozen prisons. In May 2011, California lost its decadeslong legal fight on prison overcrowding. In a 5-4 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court required the state to reduce its prisoner population by 46,000 inmates. Without that dramatic change, there was “a certain and unacceptable risk of continuing violations of the rights of sick and mentally ill prisoners, with the result that many more will die or needlessly suffer,” Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote in the majority opinion. “The Constitution does not permit this wrong.”


A violent offender housing cell at the Fresno County Jail. (Eric Paul Zamora/The Fresno Bee)

Instead of releasing prisoners early, the state stopped thousands of new arrivals from going to prison at all.

Democratic Gov. Jerry Brown and state lawmakers reduced the number of convicts sent to the prisons. They bundled the first reforms in 2011 into Assembly Bill 109, referred to as realignment. The legislation rerouted people convicted of nonviolent, nonsexual and nonserious crimes to serve sentences in county jails.

Realignment and subsequent sentencing reforms brought relief to state prisons and new burdens for many local governments. To ease the load, counties received billions of state taxpayer dollars to pay for new jail facilities, treatment programs and staff.

Previously, judges could not sentence people to more than a year in county jails. In the reform era, jail sentences extended for years, meaning that sheriffs must provide long-term care for county jail inmates who previously would have gone to prisons.

County jails are not equipped for such strains, said Matt Cate, the former state corrections secretary who helped oversee realignment. In retrospect, Cate said he believes convicts sentenced to five years or more of incarceration should serve that time in prison, not the local jails.

“In some places, the sheriff had no chance,” Cate said. “The place was already crowded, and the place was already old, and the mission was already complex, and the budget was already not very good.”

As some state prisoners’ sentences ended in 2012, and realignment blocked new intakes, the prison population dropped by 20,000 within months.

The opposite occurred in county jails. The number of inmates increased by almost 10,000, to about 82,000.

The release of prisoners has stabilized, but violence has increased. Mims said this has been an unavoidable result of the reforms that now involve longer stays for challenging inmates. “Realignment changed the whole game,” the sheriff said.

     

Arguably, conditions inside the Fresno County jail should be improving. In 2015, the sheriff’s office agreed to a second consent decree in another class-action lawsuit over jail conditions. The agreement requires the sheriff to hire 127 additional correctional officers to protect and provide services to inmates.

Mims has expanded the jail’s force by roughly 100 officers, court records show, but adding staff has not gone smoothly. Throughout 2017, the sheriff’s office hired 40 new officers but lost 39. Many departures were retirements, replacing experienced officers with rookies.

The churn continued into January 2018.

When Brock, Herrera and Erkins entered the jail, the sheriff’s office was hemorrhaging correctional officers. In March 2018, 13% of the jail positions were vacant.

The deadline for hiring new officers is October, but Mims doubts the office will make the deadline.

“We’re never going to be always 100% compliant,” she said.

And the jail’s issues continue to fester. It had an average daily population of 3,136 inmates in February, 11% higher than the previous February. The number of people incarcerated has exceeded 3,000 for six of the past seven months, within a court-ordered population cap but more than any recent time. About 25% of the current inmates would have previously gone to state prisons, jail records show.

Jail staffers feel overwhelmed at times, said Lt. Russell Duran, a jail officer for 17 years. Staff members talk about the demands of guarding such large populations. The gang members expand their influence in the jail while serving longer sentences, the maximum-security inmates pose a greater threat, those with serious mental illness and those with chronic medical conditions suffer in a place built to temporarily seal them away.

“I’m not gonna lie,” Duran said, “it’s hard to manage.”

The Fresno County Jail is also holding all inmates for much longer periods of time than before realignment. The average length of stay in 2011 was 16 days. That extended to 21 days the following year as prison reform began. It has grown nearly every year since, according to data from the California Board of State and Community Corrections. Inmates stayed in Fresno County 35 days, on average, in 2018.

Even people awaiting trial have idled in jail far longer, with the average pretrial stay doubling from 12 days in 2011 to about 24 days last year.

Jail conditions rarely came up as Mims successfully campaigned for her fourth term last year. She hasn’t faced an opponent since her first race in 2006.

Among the memorabilia adorning Mims’ office is the hard hat she wore Jan. 25, 2018, at a ceremonial groundbreaking for the department’s new $110 million jail. The facility will replace a dilapidated 1947 jail annex, where female inmates are housed, that is dangerous and in disrepair. It will hold 200 fewer people, reflecting realignment’s goal of reform and downsizing.

But it is a temporary fix.

“We’re building it,” Mims said, “with expansion in mind.”

A Psychotic Cellmate


Greg Betza, special to ProPublica

The 48-hour period in which Herrera, Brock and Erkins entered the Fresno County Jail illustrates the failures of county jails since the 2011 realignment. They were not sent to jail because of realignment. But their lives were at increased risk at the troubled facility, in part, because of it.

On Jan. 16, 2018, police found Brock at his grandmother’s house and arrested him on a warrant issued in April 2017 for allegedly possessing child pornography on his computer.

Then 20 years old, Brock lived with his grandmother on the north end of town along the San Joaquin River. He had dropped out of high school and spent his days riding dirt bikes, playing video games and helping his father work at a radiator repair shop. His mother, Tabatha Rankin, said her son loved hiking and fishing but hadn’t figured out what to do with his life.

When Brock was arrested, his family couldn’t afford to post bail. Rankin visited him at the jail the next day. “He seemed to be OK, everything was OK,” she said. “And then the next day was a whole different story.”

Brock had been assigned a frightening cellmate three days after he was arrested. He sounded alarmed in a call to his mother. “He told me there was a guy in there and he was crazy and he needed his psych medicine,” Rankin recalled. She urged her son to report problems to staff.

The sheriff’s office knew of the cellmate’s mental issues.

The cellmate was incarcerated for six months, awaiting trial in a rape case, court records show, and a psychiatrist prescribed medicine for psychosis. The cellmate, then 26, refused to take it.

A judge ordered him moved to a locked state psychiatric hospital so he could be forcibly medicated. It was an urgent matter, the ruling states, because “if the defendant’s mental disorder is not treated with antipsychotic medications, it is probable that serious harm to the physical or mental health of the patient will result.”

He was still awaiting transfer a month later, when Brock was placed in his cell. Admission to a California state hospital often takes months, and in January 2018 the waitlist was more than 1,000 patients long. (Notably, Fresno County’s court sends more inmates to state mental hospitals than almost every other large county in California, The Fresno Bee reported in 2013.)

Whether Brock reported his fears about his cellmate to jail staff is unclear. But on Jan. 19, the cellmate according to the Fresno County sheriff’s office choked his cellmate until he’d squeezed off air to Brock’s brain.

Staff called the Fresno Fire Department and an emergency medical team arrived shortly before 9 p.m. Brock “had trauma to the neck and knuckles,” firefighters reported. Paramedics tried to reopen Brock’s airway and rushed him to the emergency room.

Rankin was unaware of the struggle to save her son. She repeatedly checked the online inmate search tool that evening to see if Brock had been moved to a different, safer cell. No updates popped up, until she saw that her son had been taken to a hospital.

Rankin waited outside until the jail’s lobby opened. She told the front desk staff she “wasn’t going to leave until they told me something.”

A supervising officer assured her “that he was OK,” Rankin remembered. “It was just a little fight that they had gotten into and everything was fine.” Yes, Brock was hospitalized, but Rankin couldn’t visit him unless she first posted bail.

More than an hour later, an officer called to tell her that Brock might not survive. She rushed to his hospital room to find his wrists and ankles cuffed to the bed frame, dark bruises around his throat. He was comatose, but two officers stood guard to ensure he didn’t escape.

“They didn’t know how long he had been without oxygen,” Rankin said. He remained unconscious for two weeks, clinging to life.

When Brock awakened, he couldn’t walk. He had no short-term memory, his mother said, and seemed to have problems with basic mental functions.

Prosecutors dropped the charges against Brock, and Rankin has filed a wrongful injury lawsuit against the sheriff’s office, now scheduled to go to trial next year. Fresno County has denied all wrongdoing in the case.

Today, Brock’s future remains uncertain, his mother said. He still lives with his grandmother, and his family tries to safeguard him.

“There’s always someone there with him,” Rankin said. “He’s never there by himself.”

“No Reason Why That Boy Should’ve Died”

Andre Erkins got into trouble with the law for the first time on Aug. 9, 2012. “While the victim was unloading groceries, Erkins took her purse from her shopping cart,” the arrest report said.

Fresno County prosecutors charged him with felony grand theft and simple assault, and he pleaded guilty in January 2013. A judge sentenced him to two years probation and 240 days in the Fresno County Jail.

When Erkins was released, he tried in his own way to get his life back on track.

He moved to Southern California to start over but failed to give his probation officer advance notice. Then he missed a court date. A judge issued a warrant for his arrest. Erkins knew he was in trouble, but his relationship with longtime friend Natalie Meza was going well.

They had their first child, Joseph, in 2014, and Christiana was born in spring 2016. Erkins stayed home with the kids when Meza worked. She moved to the Sacramento metro area in 2016 to train as a sign-language interpreter, and he joined her for their daughter’s first birthday.

Erkins rarely talked with Meza about his probation violation. But the rest of his family urged him to resolve it.


Natalie Meza and her son, Joseph, 4, in their Elk Grove home. Meza’s partner and father of their two children, Andre Erkins, died Feb. 17, 2018, in the Fresno County Jail while serving a one-month sentence for violating probation. The cause of death was listed as heart disease, but the 30-year-old had no previously reported medical conditions. (Autumn Payne/The Sacramento Bee)

On Jan. 18, 2018, Erkins rolled through an intersection without stopping while driving Meza to work, with his children in the backseat. An officer pulled him over and ran his name.

Erkins knew he was caught. He told his partner, “I’m going to go. … It might as well be now than later so I can get it done with.”

The officer put Erkins in the police car and told Meza to say goodbye. “I took that opportunity to go and tell him that I love him, that everything’s going to be right,” she said.

A judge on Feb. 5 ordered that he spend four weeks in jail to resolve the theft charge.

But on Feb. 17, Erkins “complained of not feeling well,” according to his autopsy report. He was “sent to the infirmary” and told staff he vomited seven times. Erkins was “interacting with infirmary staff when he collapsed,” after having “seizure like activity,” according to the report.

Jail staff began CPR, and an ambulance whisked him to a hospital five blocks away. He was pronounced dead at 8:37 p.m.

Erkins died a “natural” death caused by atherosclerotic heart disease, ruled the county coroner, who is part of the Fresno County Sheriff’s Office. His heart was slightly enlarged, and some of his arteries were 70% blocked. Investigators said that during his booking, he reported having high blood pressure but wasn’t taking medication.

That is the official version of events. But a cellmate said that doesn’t tell the full story of Erkins’ final hours.

Erkins’ bunkmate remembers trying to get help for him while he suffered for more than 10 hours, apparently unnoticed by correctional officers during hourly checks. Erkins complained of a headache, then vomited and poured sweat, his bunkmate said in a phone interview. (The bunkmate, now serving time in a state prison, requested his name not be used out of fear for his safety.)

“He did not look healthy at all. Pale. … He just looked drained, ” Erkins’ bunkmate said.


After he was sentenced in 2013 for stealing a woman’s purse from a shopping cart, Andre Erkins asked a judge for a reduced sentence. “I am fearful of losing all I have worked for due to my incarceration,” he wrote. (Fresno County Superior Court)

Erkins’ speech slurred that evening as they sat at a dayroom table. His lips were turning blue, but he told his bunkmate he had no previous medical problems. “This guy needs medical attention ASAP,” the bunkmate remembered telling an officer. “He’s gonna die!”

Erkins was taken to medical staff some 30 minutes after the inmates alerted the correctional officer, according to Erkins’ bunkmate. Officers locked down the jail five minutes later. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians arrived, loaded Erkins onto a stretcher and wheeled him away.

The bunkmate told his mother, Jennifer Sanders, what he saw. Bothered by the death of an otherwise healthy man in jail on a probation violation, Sanders wrote to officials accusing them of neglect and sent a copy to Erkins’ mom. She signed her letter “a concerned mother and citizen.”

“There was no reason why that boy should’ve died,” she said in a telephone interview.

The morning after Erkins died, an investigator called Erkins’ brother, Deijon, to ask questions about the family’s background and medical history. Deijon Erkins did not know what had happened to Ari, the family nickname for his brother.

“Is he alive?” Deijon Erkins demanded. “He just hesitated, and he’s like, ‘I’m sorry to inform you ...’”

Deijon Erkins called Meza, and she scolded him for interrupting her at the McDonald’s where she worked. “What was so important it couldn’t wait?” she wondered.

Ari died, Deijon told her.

Meza said she sobbed in the bathroom stall.

Erkins’ family tried to get lawyers to pressure the sheriff’s office for answers, but they eventually gave up, tangled in the county bureaucracy.


Andre Erkins’ 4-year-old son, Joseph Meza. (Autumn Payne/The Sacramento Bee)

Erkins’ mother, Chrisie Collins, wrote to the court complaining that she was getting the “runaround.” A year later, when contacted about the letter in Erkins’ court file, she said, “Finally, somebody’s paying attention.”

The family created pendants to hold Erkins’ ashes. For Collins, a silver music note filled with his remains travels with her in the car. Meza misses her partner and the better life they were trying to build.

Four-year-old Joseph dealt with the loss of his father through grief counseling, Meza said. Christiana, who recently turned 3, is only beginning to ask questions.

An Unsolved Case

On Jan.17, 2018, Lorenzo Herrera called his parents, Carlos and Anna, to say he was OK but was under arrest.

He and two other young men were accused of smashing into a home southeast of Fresno and fleeing in a pickup. Herrera allegedly pointed a gun at an officer before surrendering.

Herrera was working as a janitor at the local high school, and as far as his parents knew, the only thing he had ever stolen was a family barbeque smoker he used to party with friends and never returned, his father said. Lorenzo Herrera had no previous criminal history, according to court records.

In a jail intake photo, Herrera wore black clothes, his hat turned backward. He held a dry-erase board proclaiming to be a “Northerner” from Reedley, a subsect of the Norteños street gang. He said his moniker was “Rampage.”

His father saw the image as a survival tactic. Self-identifying as a gang member is part of living in the Central Valley and being Hispanic, he said. “My son wasn’t no gang member,” Carlos Herrera said in an interview.


Carlos Herrera and his wife, Anna Herrera. Their son Lorenzo Herrera was killed inside the Fresno County Jail on March 24, 2018. His killer has not been charged, and an investigation continues more than a year later. (John Walker/the Fresno Bee)

At booking, Herrera was assigned a cell in a Norteños gang pod. Correctional officers observe inmates in six different pods from a glass-encircled observation deck. The feeling is different on the floor. Concrete walls separate the six pods, and some pods contain up to 72 inmates. Some are serving yearslong sentences and others recently arrived and are awaiting their day in court.

Four correctional officers are expected to maintain order among some 200 inmates on the floor. Correctional officers, who do not carry firearms, are required by the state to perform hourly checks. If trouble erupts, they must craft a plan to take back control.

On Feb. 2, two weeks after Herrera arrived, a melee in the gang pod demanded action.

Three correctional officers appear to have been working the crowded sixth floor, and two officers in the security station noticed a group of men walking toward an inmate, according to a sheriff’s office incident report. They saw inmates beating a man under the stairwell.

An officer called for help. A pepper-ball launcher was rushed from the security station. An officer opened the door hatch, pulled a launcher from his leg holster and “instructed all inmates to stop fighting and to get down on the ground,” according to incident reports. That was met with “negative results.”

The officer fired six pepper-ball rounds toward the inmates, forcing them to drop to the floor. At least 18 correctional officers and staff from across the complex flooded into the pod.

An unconscious inmate was whisked to the hospital, and the pod was put on lockdown. The man assaulted “refused to press charges,” jail staff wrote.


Greg Betza, special to ProPublica

In the 66 days Herrera was in Fresno County’s custody, four people were so seriously injured in fights they required multiple-day hospital admissions, according to county records. That’s more than in all the preceding year.

While inside, Herrera spoke to his parents but never mentioned the violence. In one visit, he apologized to his mother for missing Valentine’s Day. “Mom, I’m really sorry. I don’t want to feel like you’re afraid for me. I’m OK. Don’t worry about me,” she said he told her.

About a month after that visit, on March 24, 2018, a correctional officer doing cell checks found Herrera dead on a cell bunk bed. A “man down” call was issued and the staff started CPR. He was pronounced dead about 25 minutes later.

An autopsy determined Herrera had been choked to death, the cause of death “ligature strangulation.”

The phone at Carlos and Anna Herrera’s home rang about 7:45 p.m., and they were asked to come to the jail. During the drive toward downtown Fresno, they wondered if their son would be released.

Instead, they were led into a meeting room and offered a box of tissues.

Lorenzo was dead. And though his killer was in custody, the jail officers were not sure who it was, according to court filings.

Inmates have some control over day-to-day life inside the pod. They’re not supposed to enter another person’s cell, but officers do not keep tabs on who’s coming and going. One officer described it as the “honor system.” Cameras record common areas and can see who enters and exits specific cells, which are not video monitored.

Herrera’s parents have filed a wrongful death lawsuit against the sheriff’s office, and a jury trial is scheduled for 2021. The county denies all wrongdoing.

The investigation into Herrera’s death remains open, and no one has been charged. Investigators have interviewed every inmate in the pod at the time of his death, along with every officer on duty.

Detectives were awaiting results from a DNA test of some evidence from the scene, according to a recent court filing.

The prolonged homicide investigation is but one of Mims’ challenges in managing the chaotic Fresno jail. Since the 2015 consent decree, lawyers and prison-reform experts have called for more jail staffing. In meetings with the sheriff’s staff, they examine progress in correcting a jail that has become known for its record of violence and death.


Greg Betza, special to ProPublica

Mims does not attend those meetings and said she instead sends jail administrators to represent her office.

Specter, with the Prison Law Office, said a sheriff’s absence sends a clear message. “One indication of how much they care is whether they show up,” he said.

For her part, Mims has established herself as a voice on national immigration policy. She traveled with President Donald Trump to the U.S.-Mexico border earlier this month to advocate tougher federal enforcement.

Meanwhile, the county jail is grappling again with setbacks. Within the past two months, three dozen correctional officers have retired or quit their posts.

The jail remains filled to capacity.
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发表于 2019-5-5 10:33:28 | 显示全部楼层
LZ,我要认领。
这么多,是不是15天内交稿即可?翻译稿上传发表到哪里啊?

点评

交稿没有时间限制,翻完后发往新人翻译区  发表于 2019-5-10 11:40
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发表于 2019-5-5 11:43:12 | 显示全部楼层
灰色空间 发表于 2019-5-2 13:40
California Tried to Fix Its Prisons. Now County Jails Are More Deadly.
加州试图修复监狱,现在县 ...

我要认领全部翻译,可以于15天内交稿。
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发表于 2019-5-5 13:55:47 | 显示全部楼层
OVERCORRECTION
矫枉过正
California Tried to Fix Its Prisons. Now County Jails Are More Deadly.
加州试图修复监狱,现在县监狱更致命
In a 48-hour stretch during January 2018, three men were booked into the Fresno County Jail. One was beaten into a coma. Two died soon afterward. Their cases kicked off a nightmarish year in a local jail where problems trace back to California’s sweeping 2011 prison downsizing and criminal justice reforms.
2018年1月,在长达48小时的时间里,三名男子被安排进弗雷斯诺县监狱。其中一人被打得昏迷。不久两人就死了。他们的案件在当地监狱开始了噩梦般的一年,问题可追溯到加州2011年大规模的监狱缩减和刑事司法改革。
【全文】
This story was originally co-published by The Sacramento Bee and ProPublica.
这个故事最初是由萨克拉曼多蜜蜂报和ProPublica新闻媒体共同披露的。
FRESNO, Calif. — On the night of Jan. 17, 2018, Lorenzo Herrera walked into the Fresno County Jail booking area and sat down for an interview. Yes, he had a gang history, an officer wrote on his intake form. But Herrera, 19, said he did not expect problems with others inside the gang pod he’d soon call home.
弗雷斯诺,加州---2018年1月17日晚,洛伦佐•赫雷拉走进弗雷斯诺县监狱预订区,坐下来接受采访。是的,他有黑帮历史,一位警官在他的录取表格上写道。但是19岁的赫雷拉说,他认为在他即将被称为家的帮派内部不会和其他人有问题。
His parents had encouraged him to barter for books and newspapers — anything he could to preoccupy himself until his trial on burglary and assault charges. His father, Carlos Herrera, offered advice: “Just be careful, and only trust yourself.”
他的父母曾鼓励他用书籍和报纸来进行易货贸易---在他因入室行窃和殴打指控受审之前,他可以全神贯注于此。他的父亲卡洛斯•赫雷拉(Carlos Herrera)给出了建议:“小心点,只相信自己。”  
Herrera survived the violent chaos of the Fresno County Jail for 66 days, including living through a brawl that left another inmate unconscious. Then, on an afternoon in March, jail officers found him strangled.
赫雷拉在弗雷斯诺县监狱的暴力混乱中幸存了66天,包括经历了一场让另一名囚犯失去知觉的争吵。然后,在三月的一个下午,狱警发现他被勒死了。
Herrera didn’t get a trial or a plea deal. He got a death sentence, his parents say. And even now, no one at the jail seems to know what happened.
赫雷拉没有得到审判或认罪协议。他父母说他被判了死刑。即使是现在,监狱里也没人知道发生了什么。
The evening before Herrera entered the jail, Ernest Brock, 20, was also arrested and booked pending trial. Officers put him in a cell with a psychotic inmate accused of rape who had refused to take medication and was beating his head against the walls. Brock made it three days inside before the cellmate choked him into a coma.
在赫雷拉进入监狱的前一天晚上,20岁的欧内斯特•布罗克也被逮捕,并在审判前被记录在案。警察把他关在一个牢房里,牢房里还有一名被控强奸的精神病犯人,这名犯人拒绝服药,并将他的头撞在墙上。布洛克在监狱里呆了三天后,狱友把他掐死,使他昏迷不醒。
Yet a third inmate arrived soon after Brock, booked for a five-year-old probation violation. Andre Erkins, 30, writhed in pain for hours before dying of previously undetected cardiac disease. The jail staff failed to notice his worsening health until it was too late.
然而,第三名囚犯在布洛克之后不久就到了,因为他违反了五年的缓刑规定.安德烈•埃尔金斯(AndreErkins),30岁,在痛苦中挣扎了几个小时,最后死于以前未被发现的心脏病。监狱工作人员直到太晚才注意到他日益恶化的健康状况。
Three bookings within 48 hours. Three young men jailed for different reasons. Three people who walked into the overcrowded Fresno County Jail and left on gurneys, dead or barely alive.
48小时内有三个立案。三个年轻人因不同的原因被关进监狱。三个人走进人满为患的弗雷斯诺县监狱,坐在轮床上,死了或几乎没有生命。
The fates of Herrera, Brock and Erkins set the stage for the deadliest year in at least two decades at the jail, a sprawling complex of jam-packed cells, filled with inmates working their way through a clogged criminal justice system.
赫雷拉、布洛克和埃尔金斯的命运为监狱里至少20年来最致命的一年做好了准备,这是一座杂乱无章的拥挤牢房,里面满是在拥挤的刑事司法系统中工作的囚犯。
Eleven inmates died last year from drug and alcohol withdrawal, suicide, medical complications and murder. Thirteen other people were beaten and hospitalized for multiple days.
去年有11名囚犯死于戒酒、自杀、医疗并发症和谋杀。另外13人被殴打并住院好几天。
The increase in violence and death in Fresno started soon after the state was ordered in 2011 by the U.S. Supreme Court to reduce its prison population. That’s when California officials approved sweeping reforms called “realignment,” shifting responsibility for thousands of offenders from state prisons to county jails.
弗雷斯诺暴力和死亡的增加是在2011年美国最高法院下令减少监狱人口数后不久开始的。那时,加州官员批准了名为“重组”的全面改革,将数千名罪犯的责任从州监狱转移到县监狱。  
While decreasing the overload in state prisons, the results in many county jails have been deadly. An investigation by McClatchy and ProPublica has found that many county jails have struggled to handle the influx of violent and mentally ill inmates incarcerated for longer sentences than ever before. As a result, inmates are dying in markedly higher numbers.
在减少州监狱超载的同时,许多县监狱的结果是致命的。McClatchy和ProPublica的一项调查发现,许多县监狱一直在努力应对暴力和精神病患者涌入的问题,他们被监禁的刑期比以往任何时候都长。因此,囚犯的死亡人数明显增加。
No other jail in California has seen a sharper increase in inmate deaths than the Fresno County Jail, whose three buildings house more than 3,000 inmates, mostly in the concrete cube known as the Main Jail in downtown Fresno. In the seven years before the 2011 realignment, 23 inmates died in jail custody, data from the California Department of Justice shows. That figure more than doubled to 47 deaths during the seven years after the state shifted more responsibility to the county jails.
在加州没有其他监狱的囚犯死亡人数比弗雷斯诺县监狱还大。弗雷斯诺县监狱有三栋大楼,关押着3000多名囚犯,其中大部分是在弗雷斯诺市中心被称为主监狱的混凝土立方体中。加州司法部(California Department Of Justice)的数据显示,在2011年重组前的7年里,23名囚犯死于监狱羁押,七年之间,这个数字翻了一番多,达到47人死亡,国家将更多责任归结于将囚犯到县监狱后。
Only one Fresno County inmate killed another in the seven years before realignment. Since then, four have died at the hands of other inmates.
在重组前的七年里,只有一名弗雷斯诺县的囚犯被杀。自那时以来,有四人死于其他囚犯之手。
The problem is particularly acute in places like Fresno, Kern and Merced counties, inland stretches of California, where deaths have surged disproportionately, a data analysis by McClatchy and ProPublica found. These less affluent counties in California’s Central Valley watched inmate homicides triple.
麦克拉奇和ProPublica的一项数据分析发现,在加利福尼亚州内陆地区的弗雷斯诺、克恩和默塞德等地,死亡人数激增的情况尤为严重。加州中央谷的这些不那么富裕的县眼睁睁地看着犯人被杀三倍。
In the past seven years, some counties took advantage of the billions of dollars attached to California’s realignment efforts to address overcrowding. Others, the investigation shows, have viewed the changes as a burden.
在过去的七年里,一些县利用了加州为解决过度拥挤问题而进行的调整所带来的数十亿美元的资金。调查显示,其他人则认为这些变化是一种负担。
The Fresno County Jail death toll illustrates how some counties have failed to institute reforms, keep up with federal court orders to improve conditions, and prioritize inmate well-being. As has long been the case, two-thirds of the people kept in jails are accused but not convicted.
弗雷斯诺县监狱死亡人数表明,一些县没有实施改革,没有遵守联邦法院的命令,改善条件,并将囚犯福利列为优先事项。长期以来,被关在监狱里的人中有三分之二被指控,但没有被定罪。
Fresno County Sheriff Margaret Mims said that the county jails hold many dangerous people, and that awful events, including deaths, are almost inevitable. A few years ago, Mims said, an inmate hid a razor blade in his nasal cavity and cut his co-defendant in court.
弗雷斯诺县警长玛格丽特•米姆斯说,县监狱关押着许多危险的人,可怕的事件,包括死亡,几乎是不可避免的。米姆斯说,几年前,一名囚犯把剃刀藏在鼻腔里,在法庭上割伤了他的共同被告。
“How long does it take to inhale a razor blade?” she said. “If you wanted absolutely no assaults on inmates, no assaults on staff, no murders, no suicides you would almost have to have a [guard] assigned to every single inmate or continually have eyes on those inmates.”
“吸入剃须刀片需要多长时间?”她说。“如果你想绝对不对囚犯进行攻击,不对工作人员进行袭击,不发生谋杀,也不想自杀,那么你几乎必须为每一名囚犯指派一名[警卫],或者不断监视这些囚犯。”
However, the state data shows Fresno County recorded far more inmate deaths, and particularly violent deaths, than some larger California jails. For example, Orange County’s jail on average holds twice as many people as Fresno County’s, but it had just one inmate-on-inmate homicide the past seven years. Fresno County had four.
然而,该州的数据显示,弗雷斯诺县记录的囚犯死亡,尤其是暴力死亡,远远多于一些规模较大的加州监狱。例如,奥兰治县的监狱平均关押的人数是弗雷斯诺县的两倍,但在过去七年里只有一名在押犯人被杀。弗雷斯诺县有四个。
Don Specter, director of the Berkeley, California-based nonprofit Prison Law Office, whose litigation against the state’s prisons spurred the realignment effort, called conditions in most county jails “a mess.”
位于加州伯克利的非营利性监狱法律办公室主任唐•斯佩克特称,大多数县监狱的条件是“一团糟”。
The problems are compounded because county jails were never meant to accommodate these different inmates with yearslong sentences. County jails also lack effective oversight, especially in monitoring the handling of difficult inmates. And many sheriffs spend minimal amounts on jail health care and safety.
问题变得更加复杂,因为县监狱从来没有打算用几年的刑期来安置这些不同的囚犯。县监狱也缺乏有效的监督,特别是在监督困难囚犯的处理方面。许多郡长在监狱的医疗保健和安全方面花费最少的钱。
The Fresno County Sheriff’s Office does not segregate people awaiting trial from convicted inmates serving a jail sentence. When more dangerous or mentally ill inmates strain the short-handed staff, every part of the jail deals with the consequences. As the Herrera, Brock and Erkins cases illustrate, this can have a ripple effect throughout the jail. Officers are sometimes slower to conduct rounds, to notice inmates who are gravely sick, to watch fights develop in a gang pod or to isolate psychotic inmates.
弗雷斯诺县警长办公室没有将等待审判的人与正在服刑的被定罪囚犯隔离开来。当更危险或精神疾病的囚犯使人手不足的工作人员感到紧张时,监狱的每个部分都会处理后果。正如Herrera,Brock和Erkins的案例所说明的那样,这可能会对整个监狱产生连锁反应。警察有时在进行巡逻、注意严重疾病的囚犯、观看帮派斗殴或隔离精神病囚犯方面速度较慢。
Experts say apathy among officials in many of California’s 56 counties with jails has fostered a crisis.
专家说,在加州56个有监狱的县中,许多官员的冷漠助长了一场危机。
“The sheriffs have been very indifferent to jail conditions,” Specter said. “There’s been a complete lack of action.”
“治安官对监狱条件漠不关心,”斯佩克特说。“一直缺乏行动。”
Mims said 2018’s record number of fatalities inside her jail was predictable. In more than two hours of interviews, she repeatedly characterized such deaths as an unfortunate consequence of jail life after realignment and expressed no remorse over her office’s failure to prevent them. At one point she asked reporters for basic details about the fatalities in her own jail.
米姆斯表示,2018年她监狱内的死亡人数是可以预测的。在两个多小时的访谈中,她一再将这种死亡描述为重组后监狱生活的不幸后果,并对她的办公室未能阻止这些死亡表示遗憾。有一次,她向记者询问了关于她自己监狱中的死亡事件的基本细节。
She also said one of the most “painful” moments of her time in office was releasing inmates during the economic downturn. “Being a peace officer,” Mims said, “you know, you want to keep people locked up.”
她还说,她在任期间最“痛苦”的时刻之一是在经济低迷时期释放囚犯。“作为一名治安官,”米姆斯说,“你知道,你想把人关起来。”
Though running a jail is complicated work, inmate deaths should not be dismissed as inevitable, said Marin County Sheriff Robert Doyle, speaking on behalf of the California State Sheriffs’ Association.
尽管管理监狱是一项复杂的工作,但不应将囚犯死亡视为不可避免,马林县警长罗伯特•多伊尔(RobertDoyle)在代表加州治安官协会(California State SheriffsAssociation)发言时说。
“As soon as someone walks in, they’re our responsibility,” he said. Asked if it’s the sheriff’s job to prevent inmate deaths and jail violence, Doyle responded, “Of course.”
一旦有人进来,他们就是我们的责任,”他说。当被问及治安官的职责是否是防止犯人死亡和监狱暴力时,多伊尔回答说:“当然。”
The Prison-to-Jail Churn
监狱到监狱的流民
Fresno County’s jail system has been teeming with prisoners for decades. In 1993, county officials packed 20 people into a cell intended for 12, with inmates sprawled on mattresses between and beneath bunk beds. In one incident, an inmate clogged his toilet with a sheet, causing other cells to overflow with waste when someone flushed.
几十年来,弗雷斯诺县的监狱系统里到处都是囚犯。1993年,县政府官员将20人安置在一个12人的牢房里,囚犯们躺在双层床之间和下面的床垫上。在一次事件中,一个囚犯用床单堵住了他的厕所,当有人冲的时候,其他的牢房就会溢出废物。
“By the time we had breakfast, seventy-five people were eating with two inches of human waste on the floor,” one inmate said in a sworn affidavit.
到我们吃早饭的时候,75个人旁边的地上有两英寸的人的粪便,”一名囚犯在宣誓证词中说。
Months before the toilets backed up, a convicted murderer raped and killed a man booked on drug charges. Then-Sheriff Steve Magarian told The Fresno Bee, “The jail is full of dangerous inmates who kill with no notice.”
在厕所被堵的前几个月,一名被定罪的杀人犯强奸并杀害了一名被控吸毒的男子。当时,警长史蒂夫•马吉里安对弗雷斯诺蜜蜂说:“监狱里到处都是危险的囚犯,他们在没有事先通知的情况下杀人。”
Lawyers representing Fresno County inmates sued the sheriff’s office in February 1993, alleging cruel and unusual jail conditions that violated the U.S. Constitution’s Eighth Amendment. By November, the county settled with inmates and agreed in a consent decree to cap the jail population. When any part of the jail reaches full capacity, the sheriff’s office must release inmates and limit new arrivals. The sheriff is prohibited from having people sleep on the floor.
代表弗雷斯诺县囚犯的律师在1993年2月起诉了治安官办公室,指控违反美国宪法第八修正案的残忍和不寻常的监狱条件。到了11月,该县与囚犯达成和解,并在一项同意法令中同意对监狱人口进行限制。当监狱的任何部分满员时,治安官办公室必须释放囚犯并限制新来的人。治安官被禁止让人睡在地板上。
Though unpopular at first, “the reality is it put some kind of sensibility of operation into the jail,” said Assistant Sheriff Tom Gattie, who oversees Fresno’s jail.
弗雷斯诺监狱的监狱长汤姆•加蒂(Tom Gattie)助理警长说,“尽管一开始不受欢迎,但现实是,这会让监狱里存在了某种可操作性。”
In negotiations, the inmates’ lawyers agreed the sheriff’s office can house three people in a space designed for two. The sheriff is legally allowed to overcrowd the jail, but only to a point.
在谈判中,囚犯的律师同意治安官办公室可以把三个人安置在一个为两人设计的空间里。法律允许治安官把监狱挤得人满为患,但只在一定程度上。
Then came back-to-back blows for Fresno County. The real estate market crash and recession dried up jail funding as tax revenues shriveled.
然后又对弗雷斯诺县进行了一次又一次的打击。由于税收减少,房地产市场崩溃和经济衰退使监狱资金枯竭。
Mims was running for a second term as Fresno County sheriff in 2010. She won the top job four years earlier, advocating tough-on-crime policies and denouncing early inmate releases. But facing severe budget shortfalls, Mims laid off several dozen correctional officers. She closed several floors of the jail because she didn’t have enough officers to watch inmates. And the consent decree required Mims to set some of them free.
2010年,米姆斯竞选弗雷斯诺县治安官的第二任期。四年前,她赢得了最高职位,倡导严厉的犯罪政策,并谴责提前释放犯人。但面对严重的预算短缺,米姆斯解雇了数十名惩教官员。她关闭了监狱的几层楼,因为她没有足够的警察监视囚犯。“同意令”要求米姆斯释放其中一些人。
The inmate population dropped from 2,100 to 1,400 in the first six months of 2010, according to the sheriff’s office jail census data. The sheriff’s office primarily released people charged with misdemeanors or serving sentences for low-level crimes.
根据治安官办公室的监狱普查数据,2010年头6个月,囚犯人数从2100人下降到1400人。治安官办公室主要释放了被控犯有轻罪或因低级犯罪而服刑的人。
While Fresno County struggled with jail crowding and staffing, the state faced increasing pressure on its three dozen prisons. In May 2011, California lost its decadeslong legal fight on prison overcrowding. In a 5-4 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court required the state to reduce its prisoner population by 46,000 inmates. Without that dramatic change, there was “a certain and unacceptable risk of continuing violations of the rights of sick and mentally ill prisoners, with the result that many more will die or needlessly suffer,” Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote in the majority opinion. “The Constitution does not permit this wrong.”
尽管弗雷斯诺县在监狱拥挤和人员配备方面困难重重,但该州的30多所监狱面临着越来越大的压力。2011年5月,加州在监狱人满为患的问题上输掉了长达数十年的法律斗争。在一项5-4的判决中,美国最高法院要求该州将其囚犯人数减少46,000人。法官安东尼•肯尼迪(Anthony Kennedy)在多数人的意见中写道,如果没有这种戏剧性的改变,“会有某种不可接受的风险,继续侵犯患病和精神疾病囚犯的权利,结果会导致更多人死亡或遭受不必要的痛苦。”“宪法不允许这种错误。”
Instead of releasing prisoners early, the state stopped thousands of new arrivals from going to prison at all.
该州没有提前释放囚犯,而是完全阻止了数千名新来的人进监狱。
Democratic Gov. Jerry Brown and state lawmakers reduced the number of convicts sent to the prisons. They bundled the first reforms in 2011 into Assembly Bill 109, referred to as realignment. The legislation rerouted people convicted of nonviolent, nonsexual and nonserious crimes to serve sentences in county jails.
民主党州长杰里•布朗和州议员减少了被送进监狱的犯人人数。他们将2011年的第一次改革捆绑到第109号议会法案中,称为重组。该立法将被判犯有非暴力、非性和非严重罪行的人改判在县监狱服刑。
Realignment and subsequent sentencing reforms brought relief to state prisons and new burdens for many local governments. To ease the load, counties received billions of state taxpayer dollars to pay for new jail facilities, treatment programs and staff.
重新调整和随后的量刑改革减轻了国家监狱的负担,也给许多地方政府带来了新的负担。为了减轻负担,各县获得了数以十亿计的州纳税人的钱来支付新的监狱设施、治疗项目和工作人员的费用。
Previously, judges could not sentence people to more than a year in county jails. In the reform era, jail sentences extended for years, meaning that sheriffs must provide long-term care for county jail inmates who previously would have gone to prisons.
在此之前,法官在县监狱中的刑期不得超过一年。在改革时代,监狱刑期延长了数年,这意味着治安官必须为以前曾进过监狱的县监狱囚犯提供长期护理。
County jails are not equipped for such strains, said Matt Cate, the former state corrections secretary who helped oversee realignment. In retrospect, Cate said he believes convicts sentenced to five years or more of incarceration should serve that time in prison, not the local jails.
前州管教部长马特•凯特(Matt Cate)表示,县监狱不具备应对这种压力的能力。回顾过去,凯特说,他认为被判五年或五年以上监禁的罪犯应该在监狱服刑,而不是在当地监狱服刑。
“In some places, the sheriff had no chance,” Cate said. “The place was already crowded, and the place was already old, and the mission was already complex, and the budget was already not very good.”
“在一些地方,治安官没有机会,”凯特说。“这个地方已经人满为患了,这个地方已经很旧了,任务已经很复杂了,预算也已经不太好了。”
As some state prisoners’ sentences ended in 2012, and realignment blocked new intakes, the prison population dropped by 20,000 within months.
由于一些州囚犯的刑期在2012年结束,重新调整阻止了新的囚犯入境,监狱人口在几个月内减少了2万人。
The opposite occurred in county jails. The number of inmates increased by almost 10,000, to about 82,000.
相反的情况发生在县监狱里。囚犯人数增加了近10 000人,达到约82 000人。
The release of prisoners has stabilized, but violence has increased. Mims said this has been an unavoidable result of the reforms that now involve longer stays for challenging inmates. “Realignment changed the whole game,” the sheriff said.
释放囚犯的情况已经稳定下来,但暴力事件有所增加。米姆斯说,这是改革不可避免的结果,这些改革现在需要更长的时间来挑战囚犯。“调整改变了整个游戏,”警长说。
Arguably, conditions inside the Fresno County jail should be improving. In 2015, the sheriff’s office agreed to a second consent decree in another class-action lawsuit over jail conditions. The agreement requires the sheriff to hire 127 additional correctional officers to protect and provide services to inmates.
可以说,弗雷斯诺县监狱的条件应该得到改善。2015年,治安官办公室在另一宗针对监狱条件的集体诉讼中通过了第二项同意令。该协议要求治安官增聘127名管教人员,以保护囚犯并为其提供服务。
Mims has expanded the jail’s force by roughly 100 officers, court records show, but adding staff has not gone smoothly. Throughout 2017, the sheriff’s office hired 40 new officers but lost 39. Many departures were retirements, replacing experienced officers with rookies.
法庭记录显示,米姆斯已经将监狱的警力扩大了大约100名,但增派工作人员进展并不顺利。整个2017年,治安官办公室雇佣了40名新警官,但损失了39名。许多离职都是退休,用新手取代了经验丰富的军官。
The churn continued into January 2018.
这种混乱持续到2018年1月。
When Brock, Herrera and Erkins entered the jail, the sheriff’s office was hemorrhaging correctional officers. In March 2018, 13% of the jail positions were vacant.
当布洛克、赫雷拉和埃尔金斯进入监狱时,治安官办公室正在大出血。2018年3月,13%的监狱职位空缺。
The deadline for hiring new officers is October, but Mims doubts the office will make the deadline.
招聘新警官的截止日期是10月,但米姆斯怀疑办公室是否会达到最后期限。
“We’re never going to be always 100% compliant,” she said.
她说:“我们永远不会100%顺从。”
And the jail’s issues continue to fester. It had an average daily population of 3,136 inmates in February, 11% higher than the previous February. The number of people incarcerated has exceeded 3,000 for six of the past seven months, within a court-ordered population cap but more than any recent time. About 25% of the current inmates would have previously gone to state prisons, jail records show.
监狱的问题继续恶化。2月份平均每日囚犯人数为3 136人,比前一月份增加11%。在过去七个月中,在法院规定的人口上限内,被监禁的人数已经超过3000人,但超过了最近的任何时候。监狱记录显示,目前的囚犯中约有25%以前会去过州立监狱。
Jail staffers feel overwhelmed at times, said Lt. Russell Duran, a jail officer for 17 years. Staff members talk about the demands of guarding such large populations. The gang members expand their influence in the jail while serving longer sentences, the maximum-security inmates pose a greater threat, those with serious mental illness and those with chronic medical conditions suffer in a place built to temporarily seal them away.
监狱工作人员有时会感到不知所措,监狱官员拉塞尔•杜兰中尉说。工作人员谈论保护这么多人口的要求。黑帮成员在服刑较长时间的同时扩大了他们在监狱中的影响力,安全性最高的囚犯构成了更大的威胁,那些患有严重精神疾病的人和那些患有慢性病的人在一个临时封闭他们的地方遭受痛苦。
“I’m not gonna lie,” Duran said, “it’s hard to manage.”
“我不会说谎,”杜兰说,“这很难管理。”
The Fresno County Jail is also holding all inmates for much longer periods of time than before realignment. The average length of stay in 2011 was 16 days. That extended to 21 days the following year as prison reform began. It has grown nearly every year since, according to data from the California Board of State and Community Corrections. Inmates stayed in Fresno County 35 days, on average, in 2018.
弗雷斯诺县监狱也将所有囚犯关押的时间比重组前长得多。2011年的平均停留时间为16天。随着监狱改革的开始,这一时间延长到了第二年的21天。加州州立和社区矫正委员会的数据显示,自那以后,这一数字几乎每年都在增长。2018年,囚犯们平均在弗雷斯诺县呆了35天。
Even people awaiting trial have idled in jail far longer, with the average pretrial stay doubling from 12 days in 2011 to about 24 days last year.
即使是等待审判的人在监狱里呆的时间也要长得多,平均审前逗留时间从2011年的12天增加到去年的24天。
Jail conditions rarely came up as Mims successfully campaigned for her fourth term last year. She hasn’t faced an opponent since her first race in 2006.
在米姆斯去年成功竞选第四个任期时,监狱条件很少出现。自2006年第一次比赛以来,她从未遇到过对手。
Among the memorabilia adorning Mims’ office is the hard hat she wore Jan. 25, 2018, at a ceremonial groundbreaking for the department’s new $110 million jail. The facility will replace a dilapidated 1947 jail annex, where female inmates are housed, that is dangerous and in disrepair. It will hold 200 fewer people, reflecting realignment’s goal of reform and downsizing.
在米姆斯办公室装饰的纪念品之一是她2018年1月25日戴的一顶安全帽,这是米姆斯监狱新建的1.1亿美元监狱的开创性仪式。该设施将取代1947年的一座破旧的监狱附属设施,那里关押着女囚犯,这是危险的,而且破旧不堪。它将减少200人,反映出改革和缩编的目标。
But it is a temporary fix.
但这只是暂时的解决办法。
“We’re building it,” Mims said, “with expansion in mind.”
“我们正在建造它,”米姆斯说,“考虑到扩张。”
A Psychotic Cellmate
精神病狱友
The 48-hour period in which Herrera, Brock and Erkins entered the Fresno County Jail illustrates the failures of county jails since the 2011 realignment. They were not sent to jail because of realignment. But their lives were at increased risk at the troubled facility, in part, because of it.
赫雷拉、布洛克和埃尔金斯进入弗雷斯诺县监狱的48小时时间说明了自2011年重组以来县监狱的失败。他们没有因为重组而被送进监狱。但他们在这个陷入困境的机构中的生命风险却在增加,部分原因就是因为这个原因。
On Jan. 16, 2018, police found Brock at his grandmother’s house and arrested him on a warrant issued in April 2017 for allegedly possessing child pornography on his computer.
2018年1月16日,警方在他祖母家发现了布罗克,并以2017年4月签发的逮捕令逮捕了他,罪名是他涉嫌在他的电脑上拥有儿童色情制品。
Then 20 years old, Brock lived with his grandmother on the north end of town along the San Joaquin River. He had dropped out of high school and spent his days riding dirt bikes, playing video games and helping his father work at a radiator repair shop. His mother, Tabatha Rankin, said her son loved hiking and fishing but hadn’t figured out what to do with his life.
20岁时,布洛克和他的祖母住在圣华金河镇的北端。他高中辍学,整天骑着土自行车,玩电子游戏,帮助父亲在一家散热器修理店工作。他的母亲塔巴莎•兰金(TabathaRankin)说,她的儿子喜欢徒步旅行和钓鱼,但却不知道该怎么生活。
When Brock was arrested, his family couldn’t afford to post bail. Rankin visited him at the jail the next day. “He seemed to be OK, everything was OK,” she said. “And then the next day was a whole different story.”
布洛克被捕时,他的家人付不起保释金。兰金第二天去监狱看他了。“他看起来很好,一切都很好,”她说。“第二天就完全不同了。”
Brock had been assigned a frightening cellmate three days after he was arrested. He sounded alarmed in a call to his mother. “He told me there was a guy in there and he was crazy and he needed his psych medicine,” Rankin recalled. She urged her son to report problems to staff.
布洛克被捕三天后,被指派了一个可怕的狱友。他给母亲打电话时听起来很惊慌。兰金回忆说:“他告诉我里面有个人,他疯了,他需要他的心理药物。”她敦促儿子向工作人员报告问题。
The sheriff’s office knew of the cellmate’s mental issues.
警长办公室知道狱友的心理问题。
The cellmate was incarcerated for six months, awaiting trial in a rape case, court records show, and a psychiatrist prescribed medicine for psychosis. The cellmate, then 26, refused to take it.
法庭记录显示,这名狱友被监禁六个月,等待对一起强奸案的审判,还有一名精神病医生给他开了治疗精神病的处方。那个26岁的狱友拒绝接受。
A judge ordered him moved to a locked state psychiatric hospital so he could be forcibly medicated. It was an urgent matter, the ruling states, because “if the defendant’s mental disorder is not treated with antipsychotic medications, it is probable that serious harm to the physical or mental health of the patient will result.”
一位法官命令将他转移到一家被锁着的精神病院,这样他就可以被强制接受药物治疗。裁决指出,这是一件紧迫的事情,因为“如果被告的精神障碍得不到抗精神病药物治疗,很可能会对病人的身心健康造成严重损害”。
He was still awaiting transfer a month later, when Brock was placed in his cell. Admission to a California state hospital often takes months, and in January 2018 the waitlist was more than 1,000 patients long. (Notably, Fresno County’s court sends more inmates to state mental hospitals than almost every other large county in California, The Fresno Bee reported in 2013.)
一个月后,他还在等待转移,布洛克被关在牢房里。加州州立医院通常需要几个月的时间,而2018年1月,等待名单上的病人超过1000人。(值得注意的是,弗雷斯诺县法院将更多的囚犯送往州立精神病院,比加州几乎所有其他大县都要多,弗雷斯诺蜜蜂在2013年报道。)
Whether Brock reported his fears about his cellmate to jail staff is unclear. But on Jan. 19, the cellmate according to the Fresno County sheriff’s office choked his cellmate until he’d squeezed off air to Brock’s brain.
布洛克是否向监狱工作人员报告了他对狱友的担忧,目前尚不清楚。但是在1月19日,根据弗雷斯诺郡治安官办公室的说法,狱友掐死了他的狱友,直到他把布洛克的脑子掐住使之窒息。
Staff called the Fresno Fire Department and an emergency medical team arrived shortly before 9 p.m. Brock “had trauma to the neck and knuckles,” firefighters reported. Paramedics tried to reopen Brock’s airway and rushed him to the emergency room.
工作人员打电话给弗雷斯诺消防局,紧急医疗队在晚上9点前到达。据消防员报道,布罗克“颈部和指节受伤”。医护人员试图重新打开布洛克的气道,把他送到急诊室。
Rankin was unaware of the struggle to save her son. She repeatedly checked the online inmate search tool that evening to see if Brock had been moved to a different, safer cell. No updates popped up, until she saw that her son had been taken to a hospital.
兰金没有意识到救她儿子的斗争。那天晚上,她反复检查了在线囚犯搜索工具,看看布洛克是否被转移到了另一个更安全的牢房。直到她看到她的儿子已经被送往医院,才有任何新的消息出现。
Rankin waited outside until the jail’s lobby opened. She told the front desk staff she “wasn’t going to leave until they told me something.”
兰金在外面等着,直到监狱大厅打开。她对前台工作人员说,“在他们告诉我一些事情之前,她是不会离开的。”
A supervising officer assured her “that he was OK,” Rankin remembered. “It was just a little fight that they had gotten into and everything was fine.” Yes, Brock was hospitalized, but Rankin couldn’t visit him unless she first posted bail.
一位监督官员向她保证,“他没事”,兰金回忆道。“他们只是打了一场小仗,一切都很好。”是的,布罗克住院了,但兰金不能去看他,除非她先交保释金。
More than an hour later, an officer called to tell her that Brock might not survive. She rushed to his hospital room to find his wrists and ankles cuffed to the bed frame, dark bruises around his throat. He was comatose, but two officers stood guard to ensure he didn’t escape.
一个多小时后,一位警官打电话告诉她,布洛克可能活不过了。她冲进他的病房,发现他的手腕和脚踝被铐在床架上,脖子上有黑色的瘀伤。他昏迷不醒,但两名军官站岗,以确保他没有逃脱。
“They didn’t know how long he had been without oxygen,” Rankin said. He remained unconscious for two weeks, clinging to life.
兰金说:“他们不知道他没有氧气多久了。”他昏迷了两个星期,坚持着生命。
When Brock awakened, he couldn’t walk. He had no short-term memory, his mother said, and seemed to have problems with basic mental functions.
布洛克醒来时,他无法行走。他的母亲说,他没有短期记忆,似乎有基本的精神功能问题。
Prosecutors dropped the charges against Brock, and Rankin has filed a wrongful injury lawsuit against the sheriff’s office, now scheduled to go to trial next year. Fresno County has denied all wrongdoing in the case.
检察官撤销了对布罗克的指控,兰金已经对治安官办公室提出了一项不正当的伤害诉讼,计划明年开庭审理。弗雷斯诺县否认了此案中的所有不当行为。
Today, Brock’s future remains uncertain, his mother said. He still lives with his grandmother, and his family tries to safeguard him.
今天,布罗克的未来仍然不确定,他的母亲说。他仍然和他的祖母住在一起,他的家人试图保护他。
“There’s always someone there with him,” Rankin said. “He’s never there by himself.”
“总有人陪着他,”兰金说。“他从来没有一个人在那儿。”
“No Reason Why That Boy Should’ve Died”
“那个男孩应该死是没有理由的”
Andre Erkins got into trouble with the law for the first time on Aug. 9, 2012. “While the victim was unloading groceries, Erkins took her purse from her shopping cart,” the arrest report said.
2012年8月9日,安德烈•埃尔金斯(AndreErkins)第一次遇到了法律上的麻烦。“当受害人卸下物品时,厄金斯从她的购物车里拿出她的钱包,”逮捕报告说。
Fresno County prosecutors charged him with felony grand theft and simple assault, and he pleaded guilty in January 2013. A judge sentenced him to two years probation and 240 days in the Fresno County Jail.
弗雷斯诺县检察官指控他犯有重大盗窃罪和简单伤害罪,他于2013年1月认罪。一名法官判处他缓刑两年,并在弗雷斯诺县监狱服刑240天。
When Erkins was released, he tried in his own way to get his life back on track.
当埃尔金斯获释时,他试图用自己的方式让自己的生活重回正轨。
He moved to Southern California to start over but failed to give his probation officer advance notice. Then he missed a court date. A judge issued a warrant for his arrest. Erkins knew he was in trouble, but his relationship with longtime friend Natalie Meza was going well.
他搬到南加州重新开始,但没有提前通知缓刑官。然后他错过了开庭日期。一位法官签发了逮捕他的逮捕令。埃尔金斯知道他有麻烦,但他和老朋友娜塔莉•梅扎的关系很好。
They had their first child, Joseph, in 2014, and Christiana was born in spring 2016. Erkins stayed home with the kids when Meza worked. She moved to the Sacramento metro area in 2016 to train as a sign-language interpreter, and he joined her for their daughter’s first birthday.
2014年,他们有了他们的第一个孩子,约瑟夫。克里斯蒂安娜在2016年春天出生。梅萨工作时,埃尔金和孩子们呆在家里。2016年,她搬到萨克拉门托地铁站,作为手语翻译,他和她为女儿过了第一个生日。
Erkins rarely talked with Meza about his probation violation. But the rest of his family urged him to resolve it.
埃尔金斯很少和梅扎谈论他违反缓刑的事。但他的家人敦促他解决这个问题。
On Jan. 18, 2018, Erkins rolled through an intersection without stopping while driving Meza to work, with his children in the backseat. An officer pulled him over and ran his name.
2018年1月18日,埃尔金斯开车去梅扎上班时,带着他的孩子坐在后座上,没有停下来就过了一个十字路口。一个警官把他拉到路边查了查他的名字。
Erkins knew he was caught. He told his partner, “I’m going to go. … It might as well be now than later so I can get it done with.”
厄金斯知道他被抓了。他对他的同伴说:“我要走了。…现在不如晚一点,这样我就能把这件事解决了。“
The officer put Erkins in the police car and told Meza to say goodbye. “I took that opportunity to go and tell him that I love him, that everything’s going to be right,” she said.
警官把厄金斯放进警车里,叫梅扎跟他道别。她说:“我借此机会去告诉他,我爱他,一切都会好起来的。”
A judge on Feb. 5 ordered that he spend four weeks in jail to resolve the theft charge.
2月5日,一名法官命令他在狱中呆四个星期以解决盗窃罪的指控。
But on Feb. 17, Erkins “complained of not feeling well,” according to his autopsy report. He was “sent to the infirmary” and told staff he vomited seven times. Erkins was “interacting with infirmary staff when he collapsed,” after having “seizure like activity,” according to the report.
但2月17日,埃尔金斯“抱怨身体不适”,根据他的尸检报告。他被“送到医务室”,并告诉工作人员他呕吐了七次。据报道,埃尔金斯在“癫痫样活动”后“与医务室工作人员互动”。
Jail staff began CPR, and an ambulance whisked him to a hospital five blocks away. He was pronounced dead at 8:37 p.m.
监狱工作人员开始心肺复苏术,一辆救护车把他送到五个街区外的一家医院。他在晚上8点37分被宣布死亡。
Erkins died a “natural” death caused by atherosclerotic heart disease, ruled the county coroner, who is part of the Fresno County Sheriff’s Office. His heart was slightly enlarged, and some of his arteries were 70% blocked. Investigators said that during his booking, he reported having high blood pressure but wasn’t taking medication.
艾金斯死于由动脉粥样硬化性心脏病引起的“自然”死亡,郡验尸官是弗雷斯诺郡警长办公室的一部分。他的心脏轻度增大,他的一些动脉阻塞了70%。调查人员说,在他的预约期间,他报告有高血压,但没有服用药物。
That is the official version of events. But a cellmate said that doesn’t tell the full story of Erkins’ final hours.
这是事件的官方版本。但一名狱友说,这并不能说明埃尔金斯最后几个小时的全部情况。
Erkins’ bunkmate remembers trying to get help for him while he suffered for more than 10 hours, apparently unnoticed by correctional officers during hourly checks. Erkins complained of a headache, then vomited and poured sweat, his bunkmate said in a phone interview. (The bunkmate, now serving time in a state prison, requested his name not be used out of fear for his safety.)
Erkins的室友记得他在经历了10多个小时的痛苦时试图为他寻求帮助,在每小时检查一次时,狱警显然没有注意到这一点。埃尔金斯在一次电话采访中说,他的室友抱怨头痛,然后呕吐,然后大汗淋漓。(这位现在州立监狱服刑的室友出于安全考虑,要求不要使用他的名字。)
“He did not look healthy at all. Pale. … He just looked drained, ” Erkins’ bunkmate said.
他看上去一点也不健康。脸色苍白。…他看上去精疲力竭,“厄金斯的室友说。
Erkins’ speech slurred that evening as they sat at a dayroom table. His lips were turning blue, but he told his bunkmate he had no previous medical problems. “This guy needs medical attention ASAP,” the bunkmate remembered telling an officer. “He’s gonna die!”
那天晚上,当他们坐在一张休息室的桌子上时,厄金斯的讲话含糊不清。他的嘴唇变蓝了,但他告诉他的室友,他没有以前的医疗问题。“这家伙需要尽快就医,”掩体同伴回忆说。“他会死的”
Erkins was taken to medical staff some 30 minutes after the inmates alerted the correctional officer, according to Erkins’ bunkmate. Officers locked down the jail five minutes later. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians arrived, loaded Erkins onto a stretcher and wheeled him away.
据厄金斯的室友说,在囚犯通知狱警30分钟后,厄金斯被带到医务人员那里。警察五分钟后封锁了监狱。消防队员和紧急医疗技术人员赶到,把埃尔金斯抬上担架,把他推走。
The bunkmate told his mother, Jennifer Sanders, what he saw. Bothered by the death of an otherwise healthy man in jail on a probation violation, Sanders wrote to officials accusing them of neglect and sent a copy to Erkins’ mom. She signed her letter “a concerned mother and citizen.”
室友把他看到的告诉了他的母亲詹妮弗•桑德斯。桑德斯对一名因违反缓刑令而被关押在监狱中的健康男子的死亡感到不安,他写信给官员,指责他们忽视了他们,并将一份副本寄给埃尔金斯的母亲。她在信上签了名:“一个担心的母亲和公民。”
“There was no reason why that boy should’ve died,” she said in a telephone interview.
她在一次电话采访中说:“没有理由让那个男孩死掉。”
The morning after Erkins died, an investigator called Erkins’ brother, Deijon, to ask questions about the family’s background and medical history. Deijon Erkins did not know what had happened to Ari, the family nickname for his brother.
埃尔金斯死后的第二天早上,一名调查员打电话给艾金斯的弟弟戴戎,询问他的家庭背景和病史。戴戎不知道艾里发生了什么事,这是他哥哥的家庭昵称。
“Is he alive?” Deijon Erkins demanded. “He just hesitated, and he’s like, ‘I’m sorry to inform you ...’”
“他还活着吗?”戴戎•埃尔金斯要求。“他只是犹豫了一下,他说,‘很抱歉通知你…’”
Deijon Erkins called Meza, and she scolded him for interrupting her at the McDonald’s where she worked. “What was so important it couldn’t wait?” she wondered.
戴戎•埃尔金斯打电话给梅泽,她骂他在她工作的麦当劳打扰她。“有什么这么重要,让人等不及了?”她很好奇。
Ari died, Deijon told her.
艾里死了,戴戎告诉她。
Meza said she sobbed in the bathroom stall.
梅泽说她在浴室的摊子里抽泣。
Erkins’ family tried to get lawyers to pressure the sheriff’s office for answers, but they eventually gave up, tangled in the county bureaucracy.
埃尔金斯的家人试图让律师向治安官办公室施压,以寻求答案,但最终他们放弃了,陷入了县政府的官僚主义之中。
Erkins’ mother, Chrisie Collins, wrote to the court complaining that she was getting the “runaround.” A year later, when contacted about the letter in Erkins’ court file, she said, “Finally, somebody’s paying attention.”
埃尔金斯的母亲赫里西•柯林斯写信给法庭,抱怨说她正在“逃跑”。一年后,当联系到埃尔金斯法庭档案中的这封信时,她说,“终于有人注意到了。”
The family created pendants to hold Erkins’ ashes. For Collins, a silver music note filled with his remains travels with her in the car. Meza misses her partner and the better life they were trying to build.
这家人制作了吊坠来保存埃尔金斯的骨灰。对柯林斯来说,一张装满他遗骸的银色音乐音符和她一起在车里旅行。梅泽想念她的伴侣还想念他们想要建立的更好的生活。
Four-year-old Joseph dealt with the loss of his father through grief counseling, Meza said. Christiana, who recently turned 3, is only beginning to ask questions.
梅泽说,四岁的约瑟夫通过悲伤咨询来处理失去父亲的问题.最近才三岁的克里斯蒂娜才刚刚开始提问。
An Unsolved Case
未解决的案件
On Jan.17, 2018, Lorenzo Herrera called his parents, Carlos and Anna, to say he was OK but was under arrest.
2018年1月17日,洛伦佐•赫雷拉打电话给他的父母卡洛斯和安娜,说他没事,但被逮捕了。
He and two other young men were accused of smashing into a home southeast of Fresno and fleeing in a pickup. Herrera allegedly pointed a gun at an officer before surrendering.
他和另外两名年轻人被指控闯入弗雷斯诺东南的一栋房屋,乘皮卡逃跑。据称,赫雷拉在投降前用枪指着一名警官。
Herrera was working as a janitor at the local high school, and as far as his parents knew, the only thing he had ever stolen was a family barbeque smoker he used to party with friends and never returned, his father said. Lorenzo Herrera had no previous criminal history, according to court records.
他的父亲说,赫雷拉当时在当地的一所高中做看门人,据他父母所知,他偷过的唯一件东西就是一个家庭烧烤烟鬼,他过去常和朋友一起聚会,后来再也没有回来过。根据法庭记录,洛伦佐•赫雷拉以前没有犯罪记录。
In a jail intake photo, Herrera wore black clothes, his hat turned backward. He held a dry-erase board proclaiming to be a “Northerner” from Reedley, a subsect of the Norteños street gang. He said his moniker was “Rampage.”
在进监狱的照片里,赫雷拉穿着黑色的衣服,他的帽子倒向后。他举行了一个干燥的董事会,宣布将是一个来自Reedley的“北方人”,是NortestinosStreetGang的一个子教派。他说他的绰号是“拉姆佩奇。”
His father saw the image as a survival tactic. Self-identifying as a gang member is part of living in the Central Valley and being Hispanic, he said. “My son wasn’t no gang member,” Carlos Herrera said in an interview.
他父亲把这个形象看作是一种生存策略。他说,作为黑帮成员的自我认同是生活在中央山谷的一部分,也是西班牙裔的一部分。“我儿子不是黑帮成员,”卡乐斯•赫雷拉在接受采访时说。
At booking, Herrera was assigned a cell in a Norteños gang pod. Correctional officers observe inmates in six different pods from a glass-encircled observation deck. The feeling is different on the floor. Concrete walls separate the six pods, and some pods contain up to 72 inmates. Some are serving yearslong sentences and others recently arrived and are awaiting their day in court.
在立案时,赫雷拉被分配到北边的一个帮派吊舱里的一个牢房里。狱警从玻璃包围的观察甲板上观察六个不同的吊舱中的囚犯.地板上的感觉不一样。混凝土墙将六个吊舱分隔开来,一些吊舱可容纳多达72名囚犯。一些人正在服长年徒刑,另一些人最近来了,正在等待他们出庭的那一天。
Four correctional officers are expected to maintain order among some 200 inmates on the floor. Correctional officers, who do not carry firearms, are required by the state to perform hourly checks. If trouble erupts, they must craft a plan to take back control.
预计四名惩教人员将维持大约200名囚犯的秩序。国家要求不携带火器的惩教人员每小时进行一次检查。如果出现麻烦,他们必须制定一个夺回控制权的计划。
On Feb. 2, two weeks after Herrera arrived, a melee in the gang pod demanded action.
2月2日,在赫雷拉到达后两周,一名帮派成员要求采取行动。
Three correctional officers appear to have been working the crowded sixth floor, and two officers in the security station noticed a group of men walking toward an inmate, according to a sheriff’s office incident report. They saw inmates beating a man under the stairwell.
根据治安官办公室的事故报告,三名狱警似乎在拥挤的六楼工作,保安站的两名警官注意到一群男子朝一名囚犯走去。他们看到囚犯在楼梯井下面殴打一个人。
An officer called for help. A pepper-ball launcher was rushed from the security station. An officer opened the door hatch, pulled a launcher from his leg holster and “instructed all inmates to stop fighting and to get down on the ground,” according to incident reports. That was met with “negative results.”
一位警官要求帮助。一个胡椒球发射器被从安全站冲过来了。一名军官打开舱门,根据事件报告从他的腿套和“指示所有囚犯停止战斗并在地面上蹲下,”中拔出发射器。那是和“负面结果。”吻合。
The officer fired six pepper-ball rounds toward the inmates, forcing them to drop to the floor. At least 18 correctional officers and staff from across the complex flooded into the pod.
警察向囚犯发射了六发胡椒弹,迫使他们倒在地上.整个建筑群至少有18名狱警和工作人员涌进了吊舱。
An unconscious inmate was whisked to the hospital, and the pod was put on lockdown. The man assaulted “refused to press charges,” jail staff wrote.
一名失去知觉的囚犯被送往医院,吊舱被封锁。监狱工作人员写道,这名男子殴打“拒绝提出指控”。
In the 66 days Herrera was in Fresno County’s custody, four people were so seriously injured in fights they required multiple-day hospital admissions, according to county records. That’s more than in all the preceding year.
据县记录,在66天里,赫雷拉被弗雷斯诺县拘留,四人在战斗中受重伤,需要住院好几天。比前一年还多。
While inside, Herrera spoke to his parents but never mentioned the violence. In one visit, he apologized to his mother for missing Valentine’s Day. “Mom, I’m really sorry. I don’t want to feel like you’re afraid for me. I’m OK. Don’t worry about me,” she said he told her.
在里面,赫雷拉与他的父母交谈,但从未提及暴力事件。有一次,他为错过情人节向母亲道歉。“妈妈,我真的很抱歉。我不想让你觉得你害怕我。我还好。“别担心我,”她说,“他告诉她。
About a month after that visit, on March 24, 2018, a correctional officer doing cell checks found Herrera dead on a cell bunk bed. A “man down” call was issued and the staff started CPR. He was pronounced dead about 25 minutes later.
大约在那次访问一个月后,2018年3月24日,一名正在做牢房检查的狱警发现赫雷拉死在一张牢房的双层床上。发出了一个“人倒下”的电话,工作人员开始心肺复苏术。大约25分钟后,他被宣布死亡。
An autopsy determined Herrera had been choked to death, the cause of death “ligature strangulation.”
一次尸检确定,赫雷拉已经窒息致死,死因是“结扎勒死”。
The phone at Carlos and Anna Herrera’s home rang about 7:45 p.m., and they were asked to come to the jail. During the drive toward downtown Fresno, they wondered if their son would be released.
卡洛斯和安娜•埃雷拉家的电话在晚上7:45左右打了电话,他们被要求去监狱。在前往弗雷斯诺市中心的路上,他们想知道他们的儿子是否会被释放。
Instead, they were led into a meeting room and offered a box of tissues.
相反,他们被带到会议室,提供了一盒纸巾。
Lorenzo was dead. And though his killer was in custody, the jail officers were not sure who it was, according to court filings.
洛伦佐死了。虽然凶手已经被拘留,但根据法庭文件,狱警并不确定凶手是谁。
Inmates have some control over day-to-day life inside the pod. They’re not supposed to enter another person’s cell, but officers do not keep tabs on who’s coming and going. One officer described it as the “honor system.” Cameras record common areas and can see who enters and exits specific cells, which are not video monitored.
囚犯们可以控制舱内的日常生活。他们不应该进入另一个人的牢房,但是警察不会监视来来往往的人。一名军官称其为“荣誉体系”。摄像机记录公共区域,并能看到谁进入和退出特定的细胞,而这些牢房没有视频监控。
Herrera’s parents have filed a wrongful death lawsuit against the sheriff’s office, and a jury trial is scheduled for 2021. The county denies all wrongdoing.
赫雷拉的父母对治安官办公室提出了错误的死亡诉讼,定于2021年举行陪审团审判。县政府否认一切不当行为。
The investigation into Herrera’s death remains open, and no one has been charged. Investigators have interviewed every inmate in the pod at the time of his death, along with every officer on duty.
对赫雷拉死亡的调查仍未结束,没有人受到指控。调查人员与每一名值勤的官员一起,在他死时采访了舱内的每一名囚犯。
Detectives were awaiting results from a DNA test of some evidence from the scene, according to a recent court filing.
根据最近的一份法庭文件,侦探们正在等待来自现场的一些证据的DNA测试结果。
The prolonged homicide investigation is but one of Mims’ challenges in managing the chaotic Fresno jail. Since the 2015 consent decree, lawyers and prison-reform experts have called for more jail staffing. In meetings with the sheriff’s staff, they examine progress in correcting a jail that has become known for its record of violence and death.

长时间的凶杀案调查只是米姆斯在管理混乱的赫雷斯诺监狱方面面临的挑战之一。自2015年“同意法令”颁布以来,律师和监狱改革专家一直呼吁增加监狱人员配置。在与治安官工作人员的会议上,他们审查了纠正因其暴力和死亡记录而闻名的监狱的进展情况。
Mims does not attend those meetings and said she instead sends jail administrators to represent her office.
米姆斯没有参加这些会议,她说她派监狱管理人员代表她的办公室。
Specter, with the Prison Law Office, said a sheriff’s absence sends a clear message. “One indication of how much they care is whether they show up,” he said.
与监狱法律办公室一起的检察官说,治安官的缺席发出了一个明确的信息。“他们有多在乎的一个迹象就是他们是否出现了,”他说。
For her part, Mims has established herself as a voice on national immigration policy. She traveled with President Donald Trump to the U.S.-Mexico border earlier this month to advocate tougher federal enforcement.
对米姆斯来说,她已经确立了自己在国家移民政策中的发言权。本月早些时候,她与美国总统唐纳德•特朗普(Donald Trump)一起前往美国-墨西哥边境,主张加强联邦执法。
Meanwhile, the county jail is grappling again with setbacks. Within the past two months, three dozen correctional officers have retired or quit their posts.
与此同时,县监狱又在努力应对挫折。在过去两个月里,已有三十多名狱警退休或辞职。
The jail remains filled to capacity.
监狱仍然满员。


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