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[原创-美国] 美国宇航局关于凯利双胞胎的太空研究

发表于 2019-4-15 13:57:18 龙腾移动网页版 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 龙腾网翻译版务 于 2019-4-16 09:48 编辑

原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:土拨鼠之日 转载请注明出处

Daily life aboard the International Space Station moves fast. Really fast. Traveling at approximately 17,000 miles per hour, 300 miles above the Earth, astronauts watch 16 sunrises and sunsets every “day” while floating around in a box with a handful of people they depend on for survival.


One need look no further than Hollywood blockbusters like “The Martian,” “Gravity” and “Interstellar” for futuristic visions of life beyond Earth as we venture longer and deeper into outer space. But what about the human body’s response to real-life spaceflight – what are the health effects? Will space travelers age at different rates than those of us on Earth? Just how adaptable to the space environment are we?


The NASA TWINS Study represents the most comprehensive view of the human body’s response to space flight ever conducted. Results will guide future studies and personalized approaches for uating health effects of individual astronauts for years to come.


As a cancer biologist at Colorado State University I study the impact of radiation exposure on human cells. As part of the TWINS Study, I was particularly interested in uating how the ends of the chromosomes, called telomeres, were altered by a year in space.


Teasing apart health effects of space living


NASA put out a call and selected 10 peer-reviewed investigations from around the country for the TWINS Study. Studies included molecular, physiological and behavioral measures, and for the first time ever in astronauts, “omics”-based studies. Some teams uated the impact of space on the genome – the entire complement of DNA in a cell (genomics). Other teams examined which genes were turned on and producing a molecule called mRNA (transcriptomics). Some studies focused on how chemical modifications – which do not alter the DNA code – affected the regulation of the genes (epigenomics). Some researchers explored the proteins produced in the cells (proteomics), whereas others scrutinized the products of metabolism (metabolomics).


Even so, the question of spaceflight-associated aging and the accompanying risk of developing age-related diseases like dementia, cardiovascular disease and cancer – during or after a mission – is an important one, and one that we aimed to address directly with our study of telomere length.


Telomeres are the ends of chromosomes that protect them from damage and from “fraying” – much like the end of a shoestring. Telomeres are critical for maintaining chromosome and genome stability. However, telomeres naturally shorten as our cells divide, and so also as we age. The rate at which telomeres shorten over time is influenced by many factors, including oxidative stress and inflammation, nutrition, physical activity, psychological stresses and environmental exposures like air pollution, UV rays and ionizing radiation. Thus, telomere length reflects an individual’s genetics, experiences and exposures, and so are informative indicators of general health and aging.


Telomeres and aging


Our study proposed that the unique stresses and out-of-this-world exposures the astronauts experience during spaceflight – things like isolation, microgravity, high carbon dioxide levels and galactic cosmic rays – would accelerate telomere shortening and aging. To test this, we uated telomere length in blood samples received from both twins before, during and after the one year mission.


The long-term health effects of long duration spaceflight are yet to be determined, but the TWINS Study represents a landmark step in humankind’s journey to the moon, Mars and beyond…and to making science fiction science fact.


原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:土拨鼠之日 转载请注明出处

The new study found that Scott had mutations in his "immune system and DNA repair function" that are genetically permanent and cannot be repaired. Scott, the researchers say, there are five kinds of gene mutations, which contains the space radiation and zero gravity environment on the impact of the physiological, because at the beginning to the space station, Scott squarely in high-energy charged particles under the van Allen belt, radiation is 48 times of the earth, so the body cell will have been busy repair radiation injury, will appear this kind of mutation.


Margaret M
It’s so funny to me that in an article like this, non-ionizing radiation from living full-time in a highly electronics-laden environment is never mentioned as another possible factor, especially when there is so much research showing NIR has neurological effects, genetic effects, and increases oxidative stress.


Julien Triquet
The twin paradox is from Paul Langevin, not Einstein.


Sheila Davis
logged in via Facebook
I am guessing in space aging is slower since the telomeres were longer, maybe aging actually reverse, is a way of looking at it, since they grew. From my understanding - as one age the telomeres shorten. Guessing! Nicely written article - gives one something to think about from the scientific point of view as well as biblical - man being bound to Earth and subject to time -which is aging and death.



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