By Vedika Sud and Nectar Gan, CNN

CNN记者维迪卡.萨德和内克塔尔·干戈报道

(CNN)With a Covid-19 caseload that's surpassed 10 million people, India is the world's second worst-hit country by the coronavirus pandemic, trailing only the United States.

(CNN)随着本土新冠病毒肺炎病例数超过1000万人次,印度成为了世界上受冠状病毒疫情影响第二严重的国家,仅次于美国。

But it is aiming to lift itself out of the crisis in the coming months with a massive vaccination drive -- covering in its first phase almost as many people as the entire US population.

但印度旨在在未来几个月通过大规模疫苗接种运动摆脱危机,疫苗接种的第一阶段预计惠及人数几乎相当于整个美国的人口数量。

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's government has identified 300 million people to receive the first doses of the vaccines. The priority group is made up of 30 million health care workers, policemen, soldiers and volunteers, and 270 million vulnerable people -- mostly citizens above the age of 50 and 10 million others with serious comorbidities.

印度总理纳伦德拉·莫迪领导的政府已经确定了3亿接受首批疫苗注射的人选。该优先群体由3 000万保健工作者、警察、士兵和志愿者以及2.7亿弱势群体组成,他们其中大多数是50岁以上的公民,还有1 000万患有其他并存疾病的人。

The producers of three leading coronavirus vaccine candidates have applied for emergency use authorization, and all of them require two doses to provide sufficient immunity. That adds up to a total of 600 million shots, and Modi's government wants to complete the whole process by August.

运用于此次接种的三种主要冠状病毒候选疫苗的生产商已申请紧急使用授权,所有种类的疫苗都需要两剂量才能提供足够的免疫力。所以(此次疫苗接种运动)加起来总共得有6亿次注射,莫迪政府希望在8月前能够完成整个过程。



A man walks past a mural of frontline workers after the government eased a nationwide coronavirus lockdown in New Delhi on July 14.

7月14日,在新德里,政府解除了全国冠状病毒封锁后,一名男子从展示一线工作人员的壁画前走过。


When it comes to the actual vaccination process, India already has a vast, established network under its Universal Immunization Program, which inoculates about 55 million people per year. Modi has also suggested that the country can draw from its experience of organizing the world's largest democratic elections, adopting a whole of society approach that involves the participation of states, districts, civil society, citizens and experts.

在实际的疫苗接种过程中,印度已经在其《普遍免疫项目》指南下建立了一个庞大而成熟的网络,该网络每年可以为大约5500万人接种疫苗。莫迪还建议,印度可以借鉴其组织世界上最大的民主选举的经验,采取一种涉及国家、地区、民间社会、公民和专家参与的贯穿全社会的办法。


Which coronavirus vaccines will be rolled out first?

哪些冠状病毒疫苗将首先在印度推出?

Of the three Covid-19 vaccine candidates pending approval from Indian regulators, two are being manufactured locally in India.

在等待印度监管机构批准的三种新型冠状病毒疫苗中,有两种正在印度当地生产。

One of them is Covishield, a vaccine developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca and produced by the Serum Institute of India, the world's largest vaccine maker.

其中之一名为Covishield,这是一种由牛津大学和阿斯利康公司联合开发的疫苗,该疫苗由全球最大的疫苗制造商印度血清研究所生产。

The other is India's first homegrown coronavirus vaccine, Covaxin, developed jointly by Bharat Biotech and the government-run Indian Council of Medical Research.

另一种疫苗是印度首个国产冠状病毒疫苗Covaxin,是由巴拉特生物技术公司和政府运营的印度医学研究委员会联合开发的。


Governor of the eastern Indian state of West Bengal Jagdeep Dhankhar (center) at the launch of the third phase of the regulatory trial of COVAXIN, in Kolkata on December 2.

12月2日,印度东部的西孟加拉邦州长贾格迪普·丹哈尔(图中)在加尔各答为COVAXIN监管试验的第三阶段启动讲话。

Pfizer India has also applied for emergency use authorization for the coronavirus vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech, Dr VK Paul, head of the national expert group on Covid-19 vaccination, confirmed to CNN.

辉瑞印度分公司还申请了由辉瑞和BioNTech(一家德国医药公司)开发的冠状病毒疫苗的紧急使用授权,冠状病毒疫苗接种国家专家组组长V.K.保罗博士向CNN记者证实了这一点。

Adar Poonawalla, CEO of Serum Institute of India, said his company is currently producing 50 to 60 million doses of Covishield per month, and production will be scaled up to 100 million doses a month after January or February.

印度血清研究所首席执行官阿达尔·波纳瓦拉说,他的公司目前每月生产5000万至6000万剂的Covishield(英国疫苗),而且明年1月或2月后,其产量将扩大至每月1亿剂。




The Serum Institute of India is the world's largest vaccine maker.

印度血清研究所是世界上最大的疫苗制造商。

But Poonawalla has made it clear that his company will focus on immunizing India first before sending the vaccines overseas.

但波纳瓦拉明确表示,他的公司所生产的疫苗将首先在印度进行免疫接种,之后才会将疫苗送往海外。

"It's very important we take care of our country first, then go on to COVAX after that and then other bilateral deals with countries. So I've kept it in that priority," Poonawalla said in an interview with CNBC-TV 18 last month, according to Reuters. COVAX is a World Health Organization-backed global initiative to ensure the rapid and equitable distribution of Covid-19 vaccines to rich and poor countries alike. But it was shunned by the US, partly because US President Donald Trump did not want to work with the WHO.

“我们首先照顾好自己的国家是非常重要的,然后再去实施《新冠肺炎疫苗计划》,之后再与其他国家达成双边协议。所以我一直把国家放在优先考虑的位置。” 《新冠肺炎疫苗实施计划》是世界卫生组织支持的一项全球倡议,旨在确保将冠状病毒疫苗迅速、公平地分发放给各国,无论其贫富条件。但美国避开了该倡议,部分原因是美国总统唐纳德·特朗普不想与世界卫生组织合作。



An employee removes vials of AstraZeneca's Covishield vaccine from a visual inspection machine inside a lab at Serum Institute of India, Pune, India.

一名员工从印度印度血清研究所实验室的视觉检测机器中取出阿斯利康公司的Covishield疫苗。



What preparations are underway in India?

印度正在进行哪些准备工作?

India not only produces more than 60% of all vaccines sold across the globe, it also runs one of the largest vaccine schemes in the world.

印度不仅生产全球销售的60%以上的疫苗,它还运行着世界上最大的疫苗计划之一。

Its Universal Immunization Program inoculates more than 26 million newborns and 29 million pregnant women annually against diseases such as polio, measles and hepatitis B, and over 9 million immunization sessions are held across India every year, according to WHO.

为了预防小儿麻痹症、麻疹和乙型肝炎等疾病,印度的普遍免疫计划每年为2600多万新生儿和2900万孕妇接种疫苗。世卫组织的数据显示,印度每年进行了900多万次的免疫接种项目。

"We do have the advantage of having run a very large universal immunization program across this country," said professor K. Srinath Reddy, president of the Public Health Foundation of India. "To some extent our health system is fairly well geared up."

印度公共卫生基金会主席K. 斯利纳特·雷迪教授说:“我们的优势是我们已经在全国范围内开展了一个非常大规模的普遍免疫计划。在某种程度上,我们的卫生系统已经做好了充分的准备。”


An Indian health official administers polio vaccination drops to newborn babies at a hospital in Agartala, India's northeastern state of Tripura.

一名印度卫生官员在印度东北部特里普拉邦阿加尔塔拉的一家医院为新生婴儿接种小儿麻痹症疫苗。

But vaccinating 55 million people in a year is still a far cry from the target of 300 million in just eight months.

但是,一年内为5500万人接种疫苗,与短短八个月就要为3亿人接种疫苗的目标仍相去甚远。

The country currently has 239,000 vaccinators under the Universal Immunization Program, but fewer than 65% of them will be deployed to administer coronavirus vaccines, to avoid too much disruption to the routine vaccinations, according to Bhushan, the health secretary.

据卫生部长布尚说,目前,印度全国共有23.9万名接种人员参与了全面免疫计划,但为了避免对常规接种造成太大干扰 实际只有不到65%的人将被派去接种冠状病毒疫苗。

He said the central government is in collaboration with states to arrange additional vaccinators, but did not reveal how many more staff will be added.

他说,印度中央政府正在与各州合作,准备安排更多的接种人员,但没有透露具体将增加多少工作人员。

"To get adequate work force of people to administer the injections, monitor the side effects, and then ensure that people come back for the second injection as well -- I think that is going to be the challenge that we have to meet," Reddy said.

雷迪说:“冠状病毒疫苗接种需要有足够的人力来实施注射,监测副作用,以及确保人们再回来进行第二次注射等,我认为这将是我们必须面对的挑战。”

According to the government's guidelines released Monday, 100 to 200 people will be vaccinated per session per day and monitored for half an hour after receiving the shots to examine any adverse effects, reported CNN affiliate News 18.

据CNN附属新闻18频道报道,根据印度政府周一发布的指导方针,届时每天将有100到200人接种疫苗,疫苗注射后以防万一,注射者需要监测半小时以检查任何不良反应。

A digital platform, the Covid Vaccine Intelligence Network (Co-WIN) system, will be rolled out to track enlisted participants and the delivery of Covid-19 vaccines.

印度还将推出一个名为“新冠病毒疫苗情报网(Covid Vaccine Intelligence Network, Co-WIN)系统”的数字平台,该平台用于跟踪疫苗参与者和冠状病毒疫苗的交付情况。

The government is also ramping up its stocks of cold chain storage equipment such as walk-in coolers and freezers, deep freezers and ice-lined refrigerators. At present, the country has more than 80,000 pieces of cold chain equipment at about 29,000 locations, which can store enough Covid-19 vaccines for the first 30 million frontline workers, Bhushan said.

目前,印度政府还在增加包括步入式冷冻机和冰柜、深冷冻机和冰衬里冰箱等冷链存储设备的库存。布尚表示,目前,全国约有2.9万个地点拥有8万多台冷链设备,这些设备可以为首批的3000万一线工作者储存足够的新冠肺炎疫苗。

"All necessary resources of vaccination have been delivered to the states," he added.

他补充说:“所有必要的疫苗接种资源都已经送到了各州。”


Workers pack syringes at the Hindustan Syringes factory, India's biggest syringe manufacturer, is ramping up production to churn out a billion units, anticipating a surge in demand.

印度斯坦注射器厂是印度最大的注射器制造商。工厂内,工人们正在包装注射器,由于预计需求将会激增,该工厂正加快生产10亿套注射器。


"Currently we are making around 700 million pieces per annum capacity and we plan to increase the production rate to a billion pieces per annum capacity by the second quarter of next year," he said.

他说:“目前我们每年的产能约为7亿件,而且我们计划在明年第二季度前将产能提高到10亿件。”

Drawing from the electoral machinery

从选举机器中抽取


And that's where India's electoral machinery for mobilizing the country's huge adult population can come in handy, he said.

他说,这就到了印度动员该国庞大成人人口的选举机制可以派上用场的地方。

"We do have a well-oiled machinery, which conducts this in phases in different parts of the country," Reddy said "That is a very orderly process, which proceeds extremely smoothly, even in the remotest corners of the country. So in terms of adult mobilization, it is a fairly well tested process."

雷迪说:“我们确实有一个运转良好的机制,这个机制在全国不同地区分阶段进行运作。这是一个非常有秩序的过程,即使在印度最偏远的角落,进展也非常顺利。所以就成人动员方面而言,这是一个经过有效验证的过程。”


Nuns wait in queue to cast their vote at a polling station during the last phase of Lok Sabha Election or general election on May 19, 2019.

5月19日,在印度人民院大选最后阶段,修女们在投票站排队等待投票。

In the 2019 general elections, India mobilized 900 million voters in under six weeks. The whole voting process was staggered into seven phases and scattered across the country.

在2019年的大选中,印度在不到六周的时间内就动员了9亿选民。整个投票过程分散在全国各地,分为七个阶段,。

"The same process of identification and lineup can easily be replicated here (for the vaccine drive). Of course, the administration of the vaccine itself will have to be done by people who are trained for that," Reddy said.

“同样的鉴别和排队过程可以很容易地照搬到这里(在疫苗运动中)。当然,接种疫苗本身必须由受过这方面训练的人来完成。”雷迪解释说。

And Reddy believes training new vaccinators won't be a difficult task.

雷迪认为,培训新的疫苗接种人员不会是一项很困难的任务。

"It is only a question of training people to administer intramuscular injections with safety and monitor for side effects," he said. "We can actually recruit people with a science background, preferably science graduates ... who can be trained easily and brought into the process as vaccinators under supervision."

他说:“现在的问题只是训练人们安全地进行肌肉注射和监测副作用。我们实际上可以招聘有科学背景的人,最好是科学毕业生……他们可以很容易地接受培训内容,并作为疫苗接种工作者在监督下很好地参与疫苗注射过程。”

Vaccinating 1.3 billion people?

给印度13亿人接种疫苗?

As the world's second most populous country, India's strategy is to vaccinate "a critical mass of people and break that virus transmission," so that it doesn't have to vaccinate the entire population of 1.3 billion, according to Balram Bhargava, director general of the Indian Council of Medical Research.

据印度医学研究委员会总干事巴尔拉姆·巴尔加瓦说,作为世界上人口第二多的国家,印度的策略是为“紧急人群接种疫苗,阻止病毒传播”,这样它就不必为13亿人口全部接种疫苗。

Health Secretary Bhushan also said at a news conference last month that "the government has never spoken about vaccinating the entire country."

印度卫生部长布尚也在上个月的一次新闻发布会上表示,“政府从未谈论过在全国接种疫苗的事情。”

Reddy, from the Public Health Foundation of India, said after the first phase of 300 million people are vaccinated, experts can better assess how much of a threat the virus remains and then decide on how many more people will need to be inoculated.

印度公共卫生基金会的雷迪说,在3亿人接种第一阶段疫苗后,专家们可以更好地评估这种病毒的威胁有多大,然后决定需要再接种多少人。

"This is an evolving epidemic. And our response will have to be adaptive even in terms of deciding how many and how soon we'll be vaccinated." Reddy said.

“这是一种不断发展的流行病。我们的应对措施必须是适应性的,甚至在决定接种疫苗的数量和时间上也是如此。”雷迪说。

"It is possible that conditions may change, and by that time the virus may not be as much of a threat as it is at the moment ... But over a period of time, I believe about 60% to 70% of the population would need to be immunized," he said.

“情况可能会发生变化,到那时病毒可能不会像现在那么具有威胁性……但我相信,在一段时间内,大约60%到70%的人口将需要接种疫苗。”