Ahmed Abdelhaq Zaydan, lived in Meknès, Morocco Answered April 4 · Upvoted by Vikas Jha, M.Sc. Economics & Econometrics, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (2016)
Economically? Sure. Financially? Maybe.I find people don’t understand the problem the Gulf States have so I’ll explain using Poland and Saudi Arabia.Poland has a population of 38 million and is widely considered a wealthy country in the European unx, compared to Saudi Arabia’s population of 30 million. It has a GDP of $524 billion and a GDP per capita of $16,000,Its government has a revenue of $109 billion.Polish government touts deficit cut ahead of election.

经济方面?确实会。金融方面?也许吧。我发现人们不理解海湾国家的问题,所以我将用波兰和沙特阿拉伯来解释。波兰有3,800万人口,被普遍认为是欧盟的富裕国家,而沙特阿拉伯只有3,000万人口。波兰GDP为5240亿美元,人均GDP为16000美元,波兰的政府财政收入为1090亿美元。波兰政府在大选前鼓吹削减赤字。

Saudi Arabia, which has a smaller population than Poland, has a revenue of $209 billion and even that’s not enough as its budget was $261 billion.Saudi Arabia's 2018 Budget Is The Country's Largest Ever.The problem for the Gulf States isn’t their economy but their financial streams. At the moment, Saudi Arabia is spending $261 billion annually and has spent at this level for years due to the oil boom of 2008–2015.

人口比波兰少的沙特阿拉伯的财政收入为2,090亿美元,但即便如此,也不够用,因为沙特阿拉伯的财政预算是2,610亿美元。沙特阿拉伯2018年的预算是该国有史以来最高的。海湾国家面临的问题不是经济问题,而是金融流问题。目前,沙特阿拉伯每年花费2610亿美元,由于2008-2015年的石油繁荣,多年来一直保持这个水平。

While Western “rentier” type States such as Australia (Minerals like Iron) and Canada (Oil exporter) don’t have this issue as their governments’ revenue depends on taxes not resource extraction, this isn’t the case in the Gulf where to curry favor with their citizenry, the Gulf Monarchs pursued a “Zero Taxation” policy which gave their citizens the benefits of a Western Welfare State (Free Education, Free Healthcare, High Quality Policing etc.) without the costs (Taxes).The Gulf States are thus forced to find a way of replacing their oil money without angering their civilians.

而西方“食利者”类型的国家,如澳大利亚(出口矿产,如铁矿石)和加拿大(石油出口国)没有这个问题,因为他们政府的收入取决于税收而不是资源开采。海湾国家的情况并非如此,为了讨好他们的公民,海湾国家的君主奉行“零税收”政策,让他们的公民享受西方福利国家的好处(免费教育、免费医疗、高质量的治安等等),而不用付出成本(税收)。因此,海湾国家不得不寻找一种方法,在不触怒平民的情况下,用他们的石油收入替代税收。

The only Gulf State that succeeded is Dubai.However this is because Dubai has replaced its minor (even by Gulf standards) oil revenue with a very intense fine system.Salik and speed fines are vital government revenue - economist
To give you an idea of just how strict Dubai is with fining, its population in 2014 was 2.2 million yet 2.98 million TRAFFIC fines were handed out alone.
So the luxury police cars aren’t just for show, they’re to ensure they can catch up to any speeding vehicle and fine them.

唯一成功的海湾国家是迪拜。然而,这是因为迪拜用一种非常严格的罚款制度,取代了其不足的(即使按海湾国家的标准衡量)石油收入。道路自动收费系统和超速罚款是至关重要的政府收入。让我们看看迪拜的罚款有多严格吧。2014年,迪拜的人口是220万,但仅仅是交通罚款就有298万笔。因此,这些豪华警车并不只是为了炫耀,它们是为了确保能赶上任何超速行驶的车辆并对其处以罚款。

This allows Dubai to essentially “tax” its residents in a way where it’s your fault. So instead of paying say $8,000 in taxes , you’re now paying $8,000 in fines because you were speeding so many times, spit gum on the sidewalk or were heard insulting someone in the streets.This has allowed Dubai to continue running smoothly. Which brings us to Saudi Arabia and the question:What should Saudi Arabia do to replace oil revenue?

这使得迪拜实质上可以以某种方式对其居民“征税”。所以,你现在要交8000美元的罚款,而不是缴纳8000美元的税,因为你超速很多次,在人行道上吐口香糖,或者有人听到你在街上侮辱别人,这使得迪拜得以继续平稳运行。与沙特阿拉伯对比,我们就会有个问题:沙特阿拉伯应该如何弥补石油收入(不足)呢?