How did China get so big in size and population

中国的规模和人口怎么会这么大


Chris Hills studied Entrepreneurship/Entrepreneurial Studies & Business at King's College London (2008)
China is the most populous nation on earth. The figures are so large that they are hard to take in. At 1,382 million (2016 estimate) this is 19% of the world population ➚ of 7,349 million, or in other words one person in every five lives in China. No country has ever ruled so many people. China's population is four times the population of the U.S. or double the entire population of Europe (2016 figures). Population density is uneven: 70% of people live in the Eastern third; while the extensive deserts and mountains covering half of the area has only about 12% of the population.

中国是地球上人口最多的国家。 这些数字太大了,大到一般人听到都很难接受。 据说有13.82亿人(2016年估计),这是世界总人口,即73.49亿人的19%➚,地球上每五个人中就有一个人住在中国。没有哪个国家统治过这么多人。中国人口是美国人口的四倍,欧洲总人口的两倍(2016年的数据)。人口密度不平衡:70%的人口居住在东部,而覆盖一半地区的广阔沙漠和山脉仅占人口的12%。


Population growth over history

人口增长超过历史


The first accurate population statistic comes from as long as go as 2CE in the Han dynasty. It gives the population as 57.7 millions in 12.4 million households. Later in 140CE the figure had decreased to 48 million people in 9.5 million households - probably due to incursions by northern nomads. Meanwhile the whole Roman Empire of Emperor Augustus ➚ [27BCE-14CE] had between 70 and 90 million people.

第一个准确的人口统计来自汉代最长(公元前2世纪)。它使1240万户家庭的人口达到5770万。后来在公元140年数字有所下降在950万个家庭中有4800万人-可能是由于北方游牧民族的入侵。与此同时,奥古斯都皇帝的整个罗马帝国有7000到9000万人。

At this time most people still lived along the Yellow River valley (Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Shandong) but also the remote upper stretches of the Yangzi in Sichuan. There were fewer people in the lower Yangzi which is now the most densely populated part of China.

此时,大多数人仍然生活在黄河流域(陕西、山西、河南、山东),也是四川扬子江的偏远上游地区。下扬子江是中国人口最稠密的地区,但人口较少。


During the Han dynasty it is estimated that the urban (town) population was between 10 and 20%. The capital city of Chang'an, Shaanxihad 80,000 houses with 246,200 people, the city of Luoyang, Henan 52,839 houses with 195,504 people and Chengdu, Sichuan had 76,256 houses with 282,147 people.

汉代城镇人口估计在10%-20%之间。 陕西长安的省会城市有8万间房屋,246200人,河南洛阳有52,839所住房,195,504人,四川成都有76,256所住房,282,147人。


When the Tang dynasty re-unified China the population rapidly climbed to 52.8 million (754CE). The An Lushan rebellion of 766CE reversed this quickly down to 17 million. The following Song dynasty was another period of prosperity that brought another sharp increase to about 100 million followed by the Mongol invasion which led to a steep decline. By the Southern Song dynasty the majority of people were in southern China (as defined by south of the Huai River).

当唐朝重新统一中国时,人口迅速上升到5,280万(公元754年)。安禄山(公元766年)的叛乱迅速逆转为1700万。接下来的宋朝是另一个繁荣时期,带来了另一个急剧增加到约1亿人口的时代,随后蒙古入侵导致人口再次急剧下降。到了南宋时期大部分人生活在中国南部(由淮河以南定义)。

By the Yuan dynasty it was 58 million - but only counting those taxed; it then more than doubled to about 150 million in the late Ming. This trend continued into the Qing, with expanded territory under Emperor Qianlong, the population grew rapidly to 243 million in 1778 and about 400 million in 1840. In 1820 China's population of 381 million dwarfed that of the whole of western Europe of only 122 million.

到了元朝,这一数字是5800万,但只计算了那些纳税的人口;到了明末,这一数字增加了一倍多达到了大约1.5亿。这种趋势持续到清朝,领土不断扩大,到乾隆皇帝时期人口在1778年迅速增长到2.43亿,1840年增长到约4亿。1820年时中国3.81亿的人口使整个西欧仅有1.22亿的人口相形见绌。

The devastating effect of warfare is evident in these population figures. It is estimated that one in three (about 30 million) died in the Mongol invasion that defeated the Song (1279). In the Manchu conquest (1644) 16% died (about 25 million). In the Taiping Rebellion (1865) about 50 million died. By comparison the more recent Japanese occupation (1928-37) 5 million and Civil war with nationalists (1945-49) at 2.5 million seem relatively low. Comparison of these figures with total dead of two World Wars - 80 million demonstrates how high they are.
In a List of the top 30 world atrocities ➚ China accounts for 162 million deaths while all others total 260 million deaths - so China represents 62% of these man-made disasters.
With a keen knowledge of history the Chinese people equate division and conflict with traumatic death tolls. Historians believe that over-population caused famines which in turn contributed to these conflicts. This is particularly true of the Qing dynasty when over a hundred years the population doubled to 400 million and the Taiping Rebellion resulted.

战争的破坏性影响在这些人口数字中显而易见。据估计三分之一(约3000万)死于打败了宋朝的蒙古入侵(1279年)。在满族入侵时期(1644)死亡了16%(约2500万)。在太平天国起义(1865年)中大约有5000万人死亡。相比之下最近的日本侵华(1928-37)时期死亡的500万和与国民政府内战时期的250万(1945-49)相比似乎相对较低。将这些数字与两次世界大战的总死亡人数进行比较得出结论,让我们知道8000万人的死亡人数有多高。
凭借对历史的敏锐了解,中国人民将分裂和冲突等同于创伤性死亡人数。历史学家认为人口过多导致饥荒,而饥荒又加剧了这些冲突。在清朝尤其如此,一百多年来人口翻了一番达到4亿,但马上的太平天国随之而来。







Malthus
It was the British cleric and scholar the Reverend Thomas Malthus ➚ 1766-1834 who made a significant contribution to the study of population dynamics in his study ‘An Essay on the Principle of Population’ (1798-1826). He held the view that population has a natural tendency to forever increase until it is naturally controlled by famine, disease or warfare. Over-crowding leads to competition which trigger wars for access to a limited to supply of food and this decreases the population. Over-crowding also gives easier transmission of infectious diseases. So, before modern times the population of a region had a natural limit that could not be exceeded because one of the controlling influences would cause it to decline. Cycles of increase and decrease are seen as natural processes not chance happenings. This analysis is evident in China, periods of steady population growth were followed by famine that fueled Civil War. The Taiping Rebellion is the classic example of this.

马尔萨斯
(马尔萨斯理论)是英国神职人员和学者托马斯·马尔萨斯牧师(1766-1834)在他的《人口原理随笔》(1798-1826)研究中为人口动力学研究做出的重要贡献。他认为人口有永远自然增加的趋势,直到受饥荒,疾病或战争影响这种自然增长被控制住为止。过度拥挤导致竞争,引发争夺有限食物供应的战争这使人口减少。过度拥挤还使传染病更容易传播。因此在近代之前,一个地区的人口有一个自然界限,这是无法超过的,因为控制因素之一会使它下降。增加和减少的周期被视为自然过程,而不是偶然的事件。 这种分析在中国很明显,在人口稳定增长的时期之后饥荒加剧了内战。太平天国运动就是一个典型的例子。

It is only in modern times when intensive agriculture and free trade have allowed nations to import food in bulk that the limit has been raised. A dramatic illustration of this is that the availability of potatoes in Europe allowed the population to quickly double.

只有在现代集约农业和自由贸易允许各国大量进口粮食的时候,上限才被提高。 这方面的一个显著例子是欧洲土豆的供应使人口迅速翻了一番。

The building of China's railways
History
The building of railways became a competitive scramble between foreign powers in the late 19th and early 20th century. Railways were seen as the key first step to opening up inland China for trade. Britain, France, Germany, Japan and America all invested in the building of them only for the investment to be lost in the following years of turmoil.

历史
中国铁路的建设
在19世纪末至20世纪初,铁路建设成为外国列强之间竞争激烈争夺的焦点。 铁路被视为开放内陆贸易的关键第一步。英国,法国,德国,日本和美国都对它们的建设进行了投资,只是在随后的动荡中这些投资都损失掉了。

At this time there was very little mechanization and so there was an enormous need for manual labor in agriculture with about 80% of the population living in the countryside. Measures were introduced to encourage more women to work on the land. Fields had been standing idle due to lack of people to cultivate it. So the government line was that more people were needed in order to alleviate famine rather than the other way around. Instead of over-population causing poverty it was stated that poverty came from exploitation and oppression.

这个时候中国的机械化很薄弱,因此农业中需要大量的体力劳动,大约80%的人口生活在农村。政府采取了一些措施鼓励更多的妇女在土地上工作。由于没有人耕种田地,田地一直闲置着。因此政府当前的规划是需要更多的人来缓解饥荒而不是相反。他们指出贫穷不是人口过多造成的,而是来自剥削和压迫

From 1949 there was a steep increase at a rate of 2 to 2.5% annual increase or about an extra 10 million people a year. This was partly because the new government introduced many sensible health care initiatives that succeeded in rapidly decreasing infant mortality.

从1949年起人口急剧增加,年增长率为2%至2.5%,每年增加约1000万人。这部分是因为新政府引入了许多合理的医疗保健政策成功迅速地降低了婴儿死亡率。

No accurate census figures are available for the whole of China in the period of upheavals from 1850 to 1953 - estimates for 1949 vary from 350 to 600 million. The first accurate census figure was 582.6 million in 1953, by 1957 the population rose to 656.6 million which is only half the present day figure.

在1850年至1953年的动荡时期中国没有准确的人口普查数字,1949年的估计数字从3.5亿到6亿不等。第一次准确的普查数字是1953年的260万人,到1957年人口增至6.566亿,仅为目前数字的一半。

One child policy
By 1964 the Chinese population had risen to 694.5 million, during the 1970s the study of demographics led to some panic in the growth rate - it was believed to have risen to 3% per year by the end 1960s. By 1982 China's population had grown to 1,008 million - doubling in just 30 years - and the profile showed that many young women born after the foundation of the PRC were now at child-bearing age (46% of people were under 20 years old). Even though food production had doubled the population had doubled too - vindicating Malthus' view that food supply controlled growth.

独生子女政策
到1964年中国人口已增长至6.945亿,在1970年代人口统计研究导致人们对增长率出现恐慌-据信,到1960年代末,这一增长率已达到每年3%。到1982年,中国的人口已增长到10.08亿在短短30年间翻了一番。该资料显示建国后出生的许多年轻妇女现在已达到育龄年龄(46%的人年龄在20岁以下)。 即使粮食产量增加了一倍人口也增加了一倍-证明了马尔萨斯关于粮食供应控制增长的观点。


Modern History
An in-depth overview of the position of China in the world and its likely development in the future. China is on track to being the leading super-power before too long. What sort of future is in store for us all?

近代史
深入概述了中国在世界上的地位及其未来的发展。 不久之后,中国就有望成为领先的超级大国。 我们所有人都有什么样的未来?

Soon there was a generation of 'Little Emperors ➚' - pampered single children with the undivided affection of two parents and four grandparents. Lack of competition with siblings led to a feeling of entitlement and selfishness. However there was one clear benefit, girls were no longer treated so badly, if the only child was a girl there could be no preferential treatment of a brother.

很快出现的一代“小皇帝”-受宠的独生子女,两个父母和四个祖父母把全部的心血都给了他。与兄弟姐妹缺乏竞争导致孩子们生成了一种应享权利和自私的感觉。然而这样做有一个明显的好处,女孩不再受到恶劣的对待,如果唯一的孩子是女孩,就不可能像有兄弟时那样受到优待。

Moving to cities
At the birth of the People's Republic in 1949 only about 20% of the population lived in cities (places with population more than 2,000 people) this had already risen from an estimated 27 million in 1938. At least 330 million moved to cities to escape the famines of the Great Leap Forward (late 1950s).
Urbanization of China 1990-2020. Data from China Statistical Yearbook 2007/8.
Since 1980 the pace of urbanization has rapidly accelerated. In 1990 this was 20% , 1992 27%, 1997 32%, 2002 39%, 2007 45% and expected to be 60% by 2020. This vast movement of people is the biggest mass migration in human history. In 1998 alone 120 million people left the countryside for the cities (that is twice U.K.'s entire population in one year). In many cases the migrant workers set up huge shanty towns on the fringes of cities in the hope of finding work. Shanghai and Beijing had about 3 million migrant workers at this time. This migration had the effect of reducing rural poverty as many migrants sent part of their salary back home to the village.

搬到城市
1949年中华人民共和国成立之初,只有大约20%的人口居住在城市(人口超过2,000人的地方),而这一数字已经从1938年的2700万人增加到了至少3.3亿。
自1980年以来城市化的步伐迅速加快。在1990年这一比例为20%,1992年为27%,1997年为32%,2002年为39%,2007年为45%,预计到2020年将达到60%。这种巨大的人口流动是人类历史上最大的大规模移民。仅在1998年就有1.2亿人离开农村前往城市(这是一年中英国总人口的两倍)。在许多情况下,外来务工人员在城市边缘建立了巨大的棚户区以期找到工作。上海和北京目前约有300万农民工。由于许多移徙者将其部分薪水寄回了该村庄,因此这种移徙减轻了农村贫困。

Culture
The cultivation of ricefor food has been carried out in China for the last 10,000 years. Over this time about 50,000 different varieties have been bred sextively for every possible soil and climate type. Recently it has proved cheaper to import rice rather than grow it in China, so rather surprisingly China is a major importer of this staple food.

文化
在过去的10,000年中,中国一直在进行粮食大米的种植,他们在这段时间内针对每种可能的土壤和气候类型选择性繁殖了大约50,000种不同的品种。最近的事实证明,进口大米比在中国种植大米便宜,因此令人惊讶的是,中国是这种主食的主要进口国。

Ethnic mix
It is a common, initial observation that all Chinese look the same, and indeed Han Chinese consider themselves part of one large family, all descendents from the legendary founder of China Huangdi (the Yellow Emperor). At over 90% of China's people the Han dominate but the remainder are important because they inhabit the less populated parts of China.

民族混合
最初的一个普遍观察是所有中国人看起来都是一样的,而且汉人实际上认为自己是一个大家族的一部分,他们都是传说中的中国皇帝黄帝(黄帝)的后裔。 在中国90%以上的人口中,汉族占主导地位,但其余部分也很重要,因为他们居住在中国人口稀少的地区。

The future of China
Modern History
An in-depth overview of the position of China in the world and its likely development in the future. China is on track to being the leading super-power before too long. What sort of future is in store for us all?

中国的未来
近代史
深入概述了中国在世界上的地位及其未来的发展。 不久之后,中国就有望成为领先的超级大国。 我们所有人都有什么样的未来?

Future growth
The target was set for the population to peak at 1,040 million and then gradually decline as the children born under the single child policy reach maturity. However this has inevitably led to a boom generation (25% of the population) who will require health and social care as they reach old age in 2030-40 with far fewer descendents to care for them.

未来成长
设定的目标是使人口达到顶峰的10.4亿,然后随着单身子女政策所生子女的成熟而逐渐下降。但是这不可避免地导致了一代人(占人口的25%)的繁荣,他们将在2030-40年年老时需要卫生和社会护理,而照顾他们的后代则要少得多。

With China's increased prosperity and entry into the world trading market there is now no reason for China to limit herself to self sufficiency in food. China can now afford to import a fair proportion. This is particularly evident in the case of rice, for centuries the main foodstuff of southern China. Now that it is cheaper to import from lands further south - Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia - the ancient practice of growing rice with manual labor on marginal land is in decline. This has led to China becoming a net importer of rice.

随着中国的繁荣和在世界贸易市场的增长,中国现在没有理由将自己限制在食品自给自足上。 他现在负担得起相当一部分进口。这一点在大米方面表现的尤为明显,因为这是中国南方几个世纪以来的主要食物来源。现在从更南部的土地(越南,马来西亚和印度尼西亚)进口大米相当便宜,古老的做法是在边际土地上用人工劳动来种植水稻。这导致中国成为大米的净进口国。

China's huge population and increasing GDP has never been seen before, when the British Empire was at its height, U.K. represented only 2.5% of world population and then the U.S. followed as the world super power has only 4.6%, so at 20% China's future power and influence can only be guessed at.

在人类历史上从未出现过像中国这样庞大的人口和不断增长的GDP。大英帝国鼎盛时期英国仅占世界人口的2.5%,其次是美国,这个世界超级大国仅占4.6%,因此占全人类20%人口的中国的未来,他的力量和影响力只能在人们的想象中进行猜测。