(图解:混血种coywolf)



(图一:区分狼与郊狼)
郊狼的鼻根更小、口鼻更细狭;
狼为短耳,耳朵末端圆润;郊狼为长耳,耳朵末端尖锐)
(译注:北美地区犬科动物的译名略混乱,一般而言,
狼默认为灰狼;
郊狼=草原狼=丛林狼;
森林狼涵盖灰狼的几个亚种,为灰狼的子集)



(图二:coywolf的基因构成)
64%:郊狼
13%:灰狼(即狼)
13%:东加拿大狼
10%:狗



(图三:当郊狼(coyote)碰上狼(wolf),形成了coywolf)
Coywolf也称东部郊狼,是一种体型略大于郊狼的混种郊狼,包含一小部分狼的基因。科学家们认为,它是从北美大平原向东部迁徙的郊狼同安大略南部的东加拿大狼/阿尔冈昆狼杂交的产物,这一过程发生于20世纪初。
雄性西部郊狼:27磅,肩高15-20英寸
雄性coywolf:36磅,肩高约24英寸
雄性东加拿大狼:62磅,肩高23-27英寸
外观:coywolf长得像郊狼,但在外观上兼具部分狼的特征,包括白色的脸,深棕色、略带红色、亚麻色或灰白色的皮毛,甚至有可能拥有接近德牧的外观。
食物:coywolf和郊狼相似,吃小型哺乳动物和爬虫类,还有水果、昆虫和腐肉,但更有可能去猎食大型动物,比如白尾鹿。
分布范围:coywolf在美国东北部和加拿大东部省份均有发现,最西到达了五大湖区各州,最南到达了佛吉尼亚州。

Coywolves are not ‘shy wolves’—they are coyote-wolf hybrids (with some dog mixed in) and now number in the millions

(副标题)Coywolf并不是“害羞的灰狼”,它们是郊狼和狼的混种(混入了一些狗的基因),到现在,数量已达几百万头


Coywolves only emerged over the last century or so and have since spread successfully over much of eastern North America, reports Zachary Davies Boren for The Independent.

Coywolves的出现仅仅是过去一百年间的事,到现在已经成功扩张到了美国东北部的大部分地区,《独立报》的扎克利·戴维斯·博伦报道。

As deforestation, hunting and poisoning depleted the population numbers of eastern wolves, they interbred with western coyotes. A report from PBS writes that the first eastern coyote or coywolf appeared around 1919 in Ontario, Canada. Today, wolf DNA has popped up in "coyote" poop as far south as Virginia.

由于森林被砍光、打猎以及毒杀耗尽了东加拿大狼的种群数量,它们开始和西部郊狼杂交。美国公共广播公司的一份报道写道,第一只东部郊狼(即coywolf)在1919年左右出现于加拿大的安大略地区。如今,“郊狼”的粪便中已经兀自出现了狼的基因,这种情况南至佛吉尼亚都有发现。



Coyotes dislike hunting in forests. Wolves prefer it. Interbreeding has produced an animal skilled at catching prey in both open terrain and densely wooded areas, says Dr Kays. And even their cries blend those of their ancestors. The first part of a howl resembles a wolf’s (with a deep pitch), but this then turns into a higher-pitched, coyote-like yipping.

“‘郊狼不喜欢在森林中狩猎。而狼更喜欢这种方式。而通过杂交已经产生了一种既擅长在开阔地形中也擅长在密林地区追捕猎物的动物’,凯斯博士说。而且,连它们的狼嗥都混入了它们祖先的狼嗥声。嚎叫的第一部分像是狼发出的(音调低沉),但这种声音会在之后变成音调更高亢的郊狼式尖啸。 ”


While the fact that coywolves can still breed with wolves and dogs means it doesn’t quite fit the definition of a new species (for some), that may change. Coywolves are telling an "amazing contemporary evolution story that’s happening right underneath our nose," Kays tells The Economist.

虽然Coywolves仍能和狼以及狗杂交的事实意味着它不太符合新物种的定义,但这种情况也是有可能改变的。Coywolves讲出了一个“惊人的当代演化故事,它就发生在我们眼皮底下”,凯斯告诉《经济学人》。

Someday, they may unambiguously be another species, but for now coywolves are enjoying the advantages of hybrid vigor.

有朝一日,它们可能会毫不含糊地成为另一个物种,但目前,coywolves正享受着杂交带来的优势。