German manufacturer OHB-System has signed a €445m (£400m) contract to begin construction of a satellite network to monitor carbon dioxide.

德国制造商OHB-System公司签署了一份4.45亿欧元(4亿英镑)的合同,开始建造一个监测二氧化碳的卫星网络。

The CO2M constellation will consist in the first instance of two spacecraft, but there is an option for a third.

CO2M卫星网络将首先由两个航天器组成,但也有可能是三个。

The platforms will track the greenhouse gas across the globe, helping nations assess the scale of their emissions.

这个卫星网络将跟踪全球的温室气体,帮助各国评估其排放规模。

Under the Paris climate accord, countries must compile CO2 inventories. CO2M will provide supporting data.

根据巴黎气候协议,各国必须编制二氧化碳排放清单。CO2M将为各国提供支持数据。

The aim is to launch the OHB spacecraft in 2025 so they can inform the international stocktake that will report in 2028.

首个目标是在2025年发射OHB的航天器,以便它们能够为2028年报告的国际清查提供信息。

CO2M falls under the European unx''s Copernicus Earth observation programme. This flies a series of satellite sensors called Sentinels, which monitor everything from damage wrought by earthquakes to the health of staple food crops.

CO2M属于欧盟的哥白尼地球观测项目。该方案发射一系列被称为 "哨兵 "的卫星传感器,这些传感器监测由地震造成的损害到主要粮食作物的健康状况等各种情况。

When the CO2M spacecraft go into orbit, they too will assume the Sentinel moniker.

当CO2M航天器进入轨道后,它们也将采用哨兵的名称。

No-one draws a distinction between the importance of the different Sentinels but given the urgency of the climate crisis, "CO2M will be the beacon of Copernicus, its most visible mission", Marco Fuchs, the CEO of OHB-System, told BBC News.

没有人对不同哨兵的重要程度进行排名,但考虑到气候危机的紧迫性,"CO2M将成为哥白尼的灯塔,是其最引人注目的任务",OHB-System公司的CEO Marco Fuchs告诉BBC新闻。

His company''s contract is with the European Space Agency (Esa), which acts as the technical and procurement agent for the EU on Copernicus.

他的公司与欧洲航天局(Esa)签订的合同,后者是欧盟在哥白尼项目中的技术支持和采购代理。


The satellites will carry a CO2 instrument, obviously, but a range of secondary sensors also to help with the signal''s retri and to differentiate the human-produced sources of the gas from those emitted by natural processes.

显而易见的,卫星将携带二氧化碳探测仪器,但也将携带一系列辅助传感器,以帮助信号的检索,并区分气体的来源是人类生产或者自然过程排放。

Franco-Italian manufacturer Thales Alenia Space has been engaged as a key sub-contractor. Its French division will deliver a combined carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide spectrometer that operates in near- and shortwave-infrared bands.

法国-意大利制造商泰雷兹阿莱尼亚空间公司已被聘为关键的分包商。其法国分部将提供一个在近红外和短波红外波段运行的二氧化碳和二氧化氮组合光谱仪。

TAS''s UK arm will build a multi-angle polarimeter; and the Belgian company OIP Sensors will make a cloud imager.

TAS的英国分公司将制造一台多角度偏振计;比利时的OIP传感器公司将制造一台云成像仪。


There are currently six Sentinel satellite systems either already in orbit, or soon to be in orbit. CO2M is part of an expansion that would see the Copernicus space component double in size.

目前有6个 "哨兵 "卫星已经在轨,或者即将在轨。CO2M是扩展的一部分,哥白尼项目空间部分的规模将扩大一倍。

How soon this advance in capability can be achieved is uncertain, however.

不过,这种规模的提升多久能够实现还尚不确定。

The leaders of the EU''s 27 member states recently agreed a downgrading of the proposed Copernicus budget in the next financial period (2021-2027) from €5.8bn to €4.8bn.

欧盟27个成员国的领导人最近同意将下一个财政期(2021-2027年)的哥白尼项目拟议预算从58亿欧元下调至48亿欧元。

If this budget envelope is implemented, it will impact the roll-out of the expansion Sentinels.

如果这个预算计划得到落实,将影响到扩容哨兵的推出。

Indeed, the fact that OHB is only being asked to build two spacecraft for the moment - and not all three - is a reflection of the current financial realities.

事实上,目前只要求OHB建造两个航天器--而不是所有三个航天器--是当前财政现实的反映。



But even with these extra sources of finance, there will be a shortfall in the funding needed to implement the full Copernicus expansion in a timely fashion.

但即使有了这些额外的资金来源,要想及时实施哥白尼的全面扩张,所需的资金也会出现缺口。



The other five missions in the planned expansion are:

计划扩展中的其他五个任务是:


LSTM: A thermal infrared sensor to measure land-surface temperature. Again, useful in agriculture and to predict drought. Airbus, Spain.

LSTM:一个测量陆地表面温度的热红外传感器。同样,对农业和预测干旱有用。西班牙空客公司。


ROSE-L: An L-band radar which can also observe ice but many other targets as well, including forests and soils. TAS, Italy.

ROSE-L:一种L波段雷达,可以测量地球上的冰原高度--监测气候变化的重要工具。L波段雷达,不仅能观测冰,还能观测其他目标,包括森林和土壤。TAS,意大利。

CIMR: A microwave radiometer to measure sea-surface temperature and salinity, and sea-ice concentration. TAS, Italy.

CIMR:微波辐射计,用于测量海面温度和盐度以及海冰浓度。TAS,意大利。

The existing Sentinel satellite systems in the EU''s Copernicus programme are:

欧盟 "哥白尼 "方案中现有的 "哨兵 "卫星系统有:

Sentinel-1: Radar satellite that can see the Earth''s surface in all weathers

哨兵-1号:雷达卫星,可以在任何天气下看到地球表面。

Sentinel-2: Multi-wavelength detectors to study principally land changes

哨兵-2号:主要研究土地变化的多波长探测器

Sentinel-3: Multiple sensors tuned to observe ocean properties and behaviour

哨兵-3号:调整多个传感器以观察海洋特性和行为。

Sentinel-4: Future high-orbiting sensor to measure atmospheric gases

哨兵-4号:未来测量大气气体的高轨传感器

Sentinel-5: Low-orbiting atmospheric sensor to help monitor air quality

哨兵-5号:有助于监测空气质量的低轨大气传感器