UK economy shrinks by one-fifth under lockdown
-UK economy rebounds more slowly than expected

封锁之下,英国经济萎缩五分之一
——英国经济的反弹速度低于预期



新闻:

The UK's economy rebounded more slowly than expected in May, growing just 1.8% from the previous month, as the gradual easing of lockdown had a modest impact.

英国经济5月份的反弹速度比预期的要慢,随着封锁的逐渐放松产生了温和的影响,仅比上个月增长了1.8%。

Manufacturing and house building showed signs of recovery in May as some firms saw staff return to work.

5月,制造业和房屋建筑业显示出复苏迹象,部分企业的员工重返工作岗位。

But the Office for National Statistics said the economy was "in the doldrums".

但英国国家统计局表示,英国经济“处于低迷状态”。


What do the experts make of the latest figures?

专家们对最新的数据有什么看法?

The return to economic growth in May was described as "disappointing" by economists, who had expected an expansion of 5% or more.

经济学家认为,5月份的经济增长恢复“令人失望”,他们原本预期能增长5%或更多。

The increase came after a fall of 6.9% in March and a record 20.4% decline in April.

在此之前,3月份的降幅为6.9%,4月份的降幅为创纪录的20.4%。

In the three months to May, the economy shrank by 19.1% compared with the previous three-month period, the ONS said.

国家统计局表示,到5月为止的三个月里,经济与前三个月相比萎缩了19.1%。

"The economy was still a quarter smaller in May than in February, before the full effects of the pandemic struck," said Jonathan Athow, deputy national statistician for economic statistics at the ONS.

英国国家统计局负责经济统计的副国家统计学家乔纳森·阿休表示:“5月份的经济规模仍比疫情全面爆发前的2月份小四分之一。”


Are things going to get better now?

现在情况会好转吗?

Mr Athow told the BBC's Today programme that there could be signs of improvement in next month's release of figures.

阿休先生在《今日BBC》节目中表示,下个月发布的数据可能会出现好转的迹象。

"Some of the survey data we're seeing suggests that as more of the economy reopened and as some of the restrictions were eased, we did see stronger performance in June, but it's really early," he said.

他说:“我们看到的一些调查数据表明,随着更多的经济重新开放,以及一些限制放松,我们已经看到6月份的经济表现更加强劲,但现在下结论还为时尚早。”

"You've got one month of firm data and some indicators suggesting June might be stronger, but there's a long road to go here and we're still trying to figure out what the best data is to understand the overall picture."

“已经有一个月的稳固数据了,并且一些指标暗示6月份的数据可能更强劲,但还有很长一段路要走,我们仍在努力找出能了解整体情况的最佳数据。”

Which parts of the economy returned to growth?

经济的哪些部分恢复了增长?

May's modest month-on-month expansion came as sectors such as manufacturing, construction, DIY retailers and garden centres were allowed to reopen.

在5月份出现温和的环比上涨之际,制造业、建筑、DIY零售商和花园中心等行业获准重新开业。

Manufacturing grew by more than 8% during the month, as did construction.

制造业在这个月增长超过8%,建筑业也是如此。

What is GDP?

GDP是什么?

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the sum (measured in pounds) of the value of goods and services produced in the economy.

GDP(国内生产总值)是经济体中生产的商品和服务价值的总和(以英磅计算)。

But the measurement most people focus on is the percentage change - the growth of the country's economy over a period of time, typically a quarter (three months) or a year. It's been used since the 1940s.

但大多数人关注的衡量标准是其百分比变化,即国家经济在一段时间内的增长,通常以一个季度(三个月)或一年为周期。这个标准从20世纪40年代就开始使用了。

It's the main way of determining the health of the UK economy.

这是判定英国经济健康与否的主要方式。

What's the political reaction?

政治上有什么反应?

"Today's figures underline the scale of the challenge we face," said Chancellor Rishi Sunak.

“今天的经济数据凸显了我们面临的挑战的规模,”总理里什·苏纳克说。


"Our clear plan invests up to £30bn in significant and targeted support to put people's livelihoods at the centre of our national renewal as we emerge through the other side of this crisis."

“我们的明确计划将投资高达300亿英镑作为有针对性的重大支持举措,在我们走出危机的尽头之际,把民众的生计放在我们国家复兴的中心地位。”

Can the economy get back on track?

经济能回到正轨吗?

A quarter of the economy's output was lost under lockdown in March and April, and May's figures show even firms who are back in business may be struggling to get on track.

在3月和4月,经济产出损失了四分之一,5月的数据显示,即使是那些已经恢复业务的公司可能也难以回到正轨。



The Bank of England's own chief economist is among those who've voiced hopes for a "V-shaped" recovery - a swift and full bounce back in activity.

英国央行自己的首席经济学家也表达了对“V型”复苏——经济活动迅速全面反弹的希望。

But history tells us that economies can take years to make up lost ground after a slump. The blow from this crisis was felt within days, convalescence may be tougher. And in the meantime, the livelihoods of many may feel the strain.

但历史告诉我们,经济在衰退后可能需要数年时间才能收复失地。危机的打击在几天内就能感觉到,而恢复期可能更加艰难。与此同时,许多人的生计可能会感到压力。

What are the chances of a speedy recovery?

经济迅速复苏的可能性有多大?

The British Chambers of Commerce said May's "modest rally" in economic growth did little to alter "the UK's historically downbeat growth trajectory".

英国商会表示,5月份经济增长的“温和反弹”,几乎无助于改变“英国历来低迷的增长轨迹”。


"While UK economic output may grow further in the short term as restrictions ease, this may dissipate as the economic scarring caused by the pandemic starts to bite, particularly as government support winds down."

“随着限制放松,英国经济产出短期内可能会进一步增长,但随着疫情造成的经济创伤开始显现,特别是随着政府支持力度减弱,这种增长可能会消失。”

Thomas Pugh, UK economist at Capital Economics, said the data showed the recovery was "maybe not so V-shaped after all" - a reference to remarks last month by Bank of England economist Andy Haldane, who said the UK was on track for a quick recovery.

资本经济公司英国经济学家托马斯·普表示,数据显示,经济复苏“或许根本没有那么V型”——他指的是英国央行经济学家安迪·霍尔丹上月的言论。当时霍尔丹表示,英国正处于快速复苏的轨道上。


"Indeed, the path to full economic recovery will probably be much longer than most people anticipate," he added.

“事实上,经济全面复苏的道路可能比大多数人预期的要长得多,”他补充说。