he spent that winter in the following spring doing forced labor as a porter under rebel rule in the ruined capital but he was still writing poetry

他在那个冬天和第二年的春天被迫从事劳动,成为叛乱后首都废墟中的一个搬运工,但是他依旧坚持在写诗

I think you identify with him much more than before because you see him as a helpless pawn in the way of the great events of happening around him. he couldn''t help writing

我觉得现在你会比以前更加感触他的作品,因为你看到他作为一个小人物,对发生在身边的大事感到无助

he had to write to say all the things he wanted to say and I think it was that is time that his artreally grows to be more than just an ordinary persons

他必须用写作来说出自己的所有想法,我认为他的诗歌艺术就在这个时期得到了突破,超越了一个普通的人

he becomes a great poet through the experience of war and suffering

他通过战争和苦难的经历成为了伟大的诗人

yeah I think without the Anlushan we would have to for as as we know him now

我认为如果没有安禄山,我们就不会有诗圣杜甫

it was at this time that Dufu wrote one of his most celebrated poems still known to all Chinese people today

就是这个时候,杜甫写下了他最著名的诗歌之一,这首诗歌如今仍被中国人所熟知

the state is destroyed but the country remains

国破山河在

in the city in spring grass and weeds grow everywhere

城春草木深

grieving for the times even the blossom sheds tears

感时花溅泪,(恨别鸟惊心)

fires have been burning for three months now

烽火连三月

a letter from home would be worth ten thousand in gold

家书抵万金

eventually Dufu escaped through the rebel lines and was reunited with his family, and then in winter 759 driven by starvation they headed out west to Qinzhou today''s Tianshui, and in midwinter as the war came closer they turned south a terrible journey over the forbidding mountainous divide of central China down to Sichuan and the city of Chengdu

最终,杜甫从叛军中逃离,与家人重聚,随后到了759年的冬天,饥寒所迫,他们向西前往秦州,即今天的天水,在仲冬时节,随着战乱逼近,他们又转而向南,最终到达四川成都

you can feel his relief to be down south

你能够感受到他到达南方的如释重负

suddenly I''m under a new corner of the sky he wrote

我行山川异,忽在天一方

among the mulberries and Elms the Sun shines on my travelers clothes

翳翳桑榆日,照我征衣裳。

the city is bustling full of new people a splendid houses the trees

曾城填华屋,季冬树木苍。

though I miss my home it''s a beautiful place here

自古有羁旅,我何苦哀伤。


ever since it''s been china''s most famous place of literary pilgrimage as each dynasty has reimagined Dufu in its own way

从那时开始,这里就成为了最著名的文化朝圣地,而且每个朝代都会对杜甫进行重构

Dufu has evolved to beat the great poet the mother which dynasty he''s been in for 1200 years

在1200年之间,杜甫一直都是伟大的诗人,不管是在哪个朝代

these poetry reflects an experience and transforms it and so this becomes part of the vocabulary of emotional vocabulary of the culture

他用诗歌反映并转化自己的经历,这种经历也成为中国文化中情感辞典的一部分

and today poetry lovers young and old come here from all over China

今天,诗歌爱好者们,无论男女老少都慕名而来,前来朝圣

so she likes Dufu already ?

所以这个小女孩已经喜欢上了杜甫吗?

in the garden I met one Dufu fan who''d started very young indeed

在花园里我遇到了一位很小就开始读杜甫的小粉丝

When I was young, I was influenced by ancient poets. Now, that I have a daughter ,I want her to be influenced by our ancient culture .

我小的时候就受到很多古代诗人们的影响,现在有了孩子也就像熏陶一下,喜欢诗歌的韵律和古代诗人们
so that was very good(译注:夸赞一个小女孩读诗)
非常好

thank you thank you

非常感谢你们
oh thank you(译注:小女孩回以英语)
也谢谢你

that''s wonderful

你太棒了

so why do the Chinese people love Dufu still so much

那么为什么到现在还是有很多中国人喜欢杜甫呢?


Firstly, his poems are really beautiful, and he loved his nation deeply. and that''s something that we can all learn from.

他的诗歌非常的优美,同时他又非常的爱国,这些精神都是非常值得去学习的

so you have been to this place before

你以前经常来这里吗

often very ofen perhaps once a month

常来,经常来,大概一个月一次吧

once a month you come

你每个月都要来一次

why is Dufu so important to you?

为什么对你来说杜甫这么重要?

he wrote many poems to express meaning of the general people the common people

他为很多平民百姓写了诗,表现了当时那些普通人的生活情景

especially for the poor

特别是那些穷人

here outside the city there are a few worldly affairs beside us there''s a clear stream to dispel a strangers grief

已知出郭少尘事,更有澄江销客愁

clouds are dragonflies hover rising and falling the pair of ducks dive and swim together

无数蜻蜓齐上下,一双鸂鶒对沉浮。

I''ve chosen a place to grow old far from the capital I have become a farmer

卜宅从兹老,为农去国赊。

on a long summer day everything has a secret beauty

清江一曲抱村流,长夏江村事事幽。

The swallows and the roof come and go as they please

自去自来堂上燕,相亲相近水中鸥。

my wife makes a chessboard by painting paper my boys make fishhooks by bending needles

老妻画纸为棋局,稚子敲针作钓钩。

man who''s often sick needs meds what else should an ordinary person see

但有故人供禄米,微躯此外更何求。


the Chinese critics in the Song said he never for a moment forgot the Empire of the suffering people

宋代的批评家称他“一饭未尝忘君也欤”

I beg to differ when he was having a good meal he forgot completely about the Empire he concentrated entirely on the meal

我对此提出异议,当他生活宽裕时,他完全忘记了皇帝,他只关心他的美餐了

he worte palms on food than any port before him and there''s a sensuality in that which is missing in Confucian era our story

他的诗歌比之前的任何诗歌都更加关注食物,这体现了“儒家传统叙事”中缺失的杜甫对感官上的追求的感受

in Chengdu he became a poet farmer finding beauty in nature and in the intimacy of the everyday

在成都,他成为了一位农民诗人,在自然和日常的生活中寻找美

Dufu writes about it as if it were a needle but at the same time he says I keep finding myself grieving bitterly

杜甫如田园诗一般的书写着自己的生活,但与此同时,他也持续感受到了痛苦

and to understand why maybe an analogy from Western culture is helpful right in the middle of the first world war Sigmund Freud wrote an essay on grieving in which he says that one may grieve as intensely for an ideal or a civilization as for a loved one

为了理解其原因,来自一个西方的类比能够帮助你来理解,在第一次世界大战期间,西格·蒙德·弗洛伊德写下了一篇关于伤感的文章,他说一个人可能为了一种理想或者文明而感到深深的悲痛
,就像是为了自己所爱的人一样(译注:感觉这也是很多西方汉学家推崇杜甫的原因,他们很难理解中文诗的韵律之美,所以更加注重诗人的个人背景上)

and I think that''s what Dufu is experiencing a cultural sorrow

我认为这就是杜甫所经历的来自文化的悲痛

in the face of total war all the certainties of the old world had gone

在全面战争爆发的时候,所有的旧世界开始崩塌

in spring 762 with the war still raging the new emperor died

在762年春天的时候,战争依旧持续着,新的皇帝却去世了


Dufu took to the road again now in increasingly

杜甫身体越来越差,但是不得不重新上路

bad health the life of a poor refugee had taken its toll

贫穷的难民生活对他的健康造成了严重的影响

he headed down to the Yangtze hoping to find a way out on the one safe route still open the river

他沿着长江顺流而下,希望找到出路,而水路是当时唯一还能够畅通的道路

the road ahead is blurred and lost he wrote where is the capital now he would never see it again

他写道:前路茫茫,首都已不再,再无机会回京了

so now we follow his track onwards on what the Chinese call the Great River

所以现在我么沿着他的足迹继续向前,在这条被中国人称为“扬子江”的河流之上

leaving the heartland of China behind he heads east on the Yangzi still a great artery of communication and commerce as it was in his time

将中国的腹地抛在了后面,沿江一路东行,这条河和当时杜甫的时代一样,依旧是商业的主干道

right the little glimpse of the old fashioned travel on the River Yangzi

看看这条古老的大江之上的旅行方式

in the Tang Dynasty they say thousands of ships are going up and down every day and the nation would come to a halt if the ships stopped

在唐朝,他们会说每天都有数以千计的船只在江上航行,如果这些船只停运,国家将陷入停滞

over the next few months he sails 400 miles downriver to Kuizhou today''s the city of Baidi

在接下来的几个月,他沿江而下,行了400英里,到达夔州,今天的白帝城

down here doof who found himself outside the civilization he knew the indigenous people spoke a completely different dialect

在这里,杜甫发现他自己处于一个全新的世界,这里的人有着不同的文明,说着他听不懂的方言

it was a new world to him physically and mentally

对他来说这是一个全新的世界,不管是身体上还是精神上

and this is where he stopped the
entrance to the Yangzi gorges as a landscape it could hardly be more different from the beautiful gardens of the fetched cottage in Chengdu

这就是他停留的地方,长江三峡的入口,这种地方与成都草堂的美丽花园相比,的确是太不一样了

here the giant gorges the great river as powerful as an ocean as Dufu said and he got himself a little farm stirred up in the hills grew vegetables kept chickens and he wrote and wrote every day in an incredible outpouring of poetry hundreds of poems

在这里,正如杜甫所说,巨大的峡谷和宽广的大江就像大海一样有力,他在山坡上为自己修建了一个小房子、种菜、养鸡、写诗,这段时间他创作了数百首诗歌,令人难以置信的数量


the autumn wastes are each day Wilder cold in the river the blue sky stares

秋野日疏芜,寒江动碧虚

I have moored my boat to the well roped star of the barbarians

系舟蛮井络,卜宅楚村墟

my ambition was to be seen in the unicorn Hall but my ears decline

身许麒麟画,年衰鸳鹭群

on the great river autumn is soon inspect in the empty Gorge the night is full of noises

大江秋易盛,空峡夜多闻。

long wanderings will be my fate he wrote but he wasn''t afraid

他写道:自己的一生都在漂泊,但我并不惧怕

for as another exiled Dante would say our fate cannot be taken from us it is a gift

另一位流浪者但丁说过,我们的命运不能被带走,因为它是对我们的馈赠

and in the gorges though at great cost to himself Dufu''s gift was creative and imaginative freedom

在峡谷之中,虽然对自己的身体造成了很大的伤害,但是杜甫却得到了创造力以及自由的想象力的馈赠

I can''t imagine a more interesting place to be stuck it was a world of immense motion and change and transformation

我很难想象还有哪里比这儿更适合隐居,这是一个不断运动、时刻都在发生改变的世界

and the language was forced to do things you didn''t think the Chinese language could ever do

情不自禁地就能够书写出语言所不能表达出来的境界

here is art struggling with the contingency of the everyday and trying to make sense of it

这就是挣扎于日常的偶然性并试图从中发现意义的艺术

what you feel to hear in the deep gorges is the power of nature the Great River the crushed strata of rocks towering above you

你会感觉到,这里深深的峡谷象征的是大自然的力量,这条大江、那些在你头顶高耸入云的破碎岩石

Chinese scientists in the Tang dynasty unlike people in the West knew very well that the earth was very very old

唐代中国的科学家不像西方人一样知晓地球的古老历史

and maybe living among these kind of landscapes go the great nature poet another handle on the relationship between human beings and time and the cosmos

人们居住在这种地貌之中,会不自觉地赋予伟大自然诗歌另外一种理解人和时间、宇宙关系的思路


in the Three Gorges the river of stars reflection stirring shaking weeping in the wilderness

五更鼓角声悲壮,三峡星河影动摇。

how many families know of war loss the people''s songs rise from fishermen and woodcutters

野哭千家闻战伐,夷歌数处起渔樵。

tales of sleeping dragon and beeping horse the old heroes who have turned to dust all word of events in the human world lost in these fast silent spaces

卧龙跃马终黄土,人事音书漫寂寥。

closer now to his mentor Libai''s love of nature Dufu had come to terms with the limits of human action in the face of the immensity of nature and time

如今,杜甫已经在风格上有了李白歌颂自然时的影子,杜甫面对自然和时间的广阔以及人力的极限之间进行了妥协

his poems from the gorges have influenced chinese poets ever since and in the West artists from the modernists to Pink Floyd

他在三峡时期的诗歌对中国的诗歌历史影响非常深远,在西方,也影响了从现代主义者到平克·弗洛伊德等一批艺术家

they are the greatest poems of the Chinese language

这些诗歌是最伟大的汉语诗歌

they do what could not have been imagined before and they do things that people try to do again later but never could quite do

他们的成就是此前根本无法想象的,他们做的事情被后人不断地重复,但是很难被超越

it was the summer the early medi Chinese thought and poetry

这些诗歌是对中国古代时代思想和诗歌的集大成之作

he is a brilliant mind and when you see that mind at work it''s a kind of joy

他的头脑变幻莫测,当你看到这种头脑正在运转时,这无疑是一种乐趣



on November the 15th 767 I saw the lady Li from Lin Ying to form the sword dance

太历二年十月十九日,见临颍李十二娘舞剑器

marveling at her agility I asked who her teacher was

壮其蔚跂,问其所师

I''m a pupil of Gongson she says and I remembered that there when I was still a child

曰:“余公孙大娘弟子也。”开元三载,余尚童稚,记于郾城观公孙氏

since then more than 50 years have passed so fast like the turning of a palm stormy waves of war have unfolded our royal house in gloom

五十年间似反掌,风尘澒洞昏王室。

the pupils of the peach garden the royal dance school have scattered like disappearing mists

梨园弟子散如烟,(女乐馀姿映寒日)

the brilliant feasts the music and the songs have ended and I''m now an old man who does not know where he''s going

玳筵急管曲复终,(乐极哀来月东出。)
老夫不知其所往,(足茧荒山转愁疾。)

Dufu who saw that through her pupil lady Gongson''s art had lived on but what of him would his art survive

杜甫从她的弟子身上看到了公孙大娘的艺术得到了传承,但是他的艺术该如何传承呢?

in spring 768 Dufu gave his cottage to a neighbor and moved on

在768年春天,杜甫将他的小屋送给了一个邻居,然受启程

we don''t know why

我们并不知为什么

I''ve given up on official service he wrote blown by the winds unlike a seagull circling between heaven and earth

他写道“官应老病休”飘飘何所似,天地一沙鸥

he''s just a wanderer travelling along the river with his wife and kids couple of servants and a boat man

他只是一位流浪者,带着他的妻儿、几个仆人和一个船夫在江上航行

with all their worldly goods on their little boat and the precious Scrolls of his poems

以及那些世界性的财富,他珍贵的几卷诗集就承载在这坐小船当中

over the next year they went on downriver and then turned south across Dongting lake till they reached the city of TanZhou today''s Changsha

第二年,他们继续顺流而下,在洞庭湖转向南方,直达他们的目的地潭州,即今天的长沙

away from the conflicts in the north for now Changsha was a safe haven like casablanca after the fall of France in World War two

远离北方的战乱,现在的长沙就像是天堂一样安全,就像二战法国沦陷后的卡萨布兰卡

so that pavilions built on the spot where Dufu supposed to have stayed he left the boat on the shore and rented a room upstairs in one of the tenements looking over the fisherman''s market just outside of town

这座阁楼建在大家认为杜甫曾经驻留的地方,他将小船系在岸边,在城郊一栋能够俯瞰渔夫码头的楼上租了一个房间

for so long I''ve had no fixed abode he wrote my children have grown up on the road in every place I''ve left a house and a garden but Changsha offered a fresh start

他写道,这么长时间我都居无定所,我的孩子在道路上也都长大了,无论到何处,我都得留下一栋房子和一个花园,但是长沙给了他一个全新的开始

today at Dufu''s pavilion Changsha locals exercise sing and dance and play music first thing in the morning and again after work and here do Fu''s mood lifted

如今,本地人早上起床和下班以后都会在杜甫江阁锻练、唱歌、跳舞,在这里,杜甫的心情好了起来

what he found here was a refugee community of artists musicians and poets

他在此地发现了一个避难的艺术家、音乐家和诗人群体

some of whom he''d known in the north and he stayed here for that winter regaining his strength

其中的一些人是他在北方的旧识,他在这里过冬,恢复了生命中的能量

for professor Yangyu it was a creative period for Dufu even though his life was still hard

对于杨雨教授而言,这是杜甫非常具有创造力的一段时期

But starvation was always on the horizen His family was always hungry and suffering from the cold.But people, especially the young. appreciate that depite this he often shows a very happy side as well.His ability to find happiness in the midist of suffering really moves people. It gives them hope for the future.

他写过好几首诗,他经常会陷入一种很饥饿的状态,而且他经常是一家人,都处于挨饿受冻的状态,我想很多年轻人非常欣赏他的是,在那样一种痛苦的状态下,他还经常表现出很快乐的一面,我觉得这种痛苦
当中的快乐的火苗很容易感染别人,特别能让人感受到生活的希望。

his revived spirits came in part from collaborating with other artists together they set his poems to music and professor Jung and her students are trying to work out how the poems might have sounded on tongue instruments

他的复苏的精神在合作中与其他艺术家融为一体,杨雨教授和他的学生正在试图复原这首诗歌在唐代乐器的演奏中可能的样子

in this famous poem Dufu describes meeting an old musician once a star of the imperial court but now like him a refugee in the south

在这首著名的诗中,杜甫描述了他与一名老音乐家的会面,但现在就像杜甫一样,他也只是南方的一个难民

Chinese poetry and music are often inseparable, in fact poetry is often used as lyrics in popular songs.This poem written in Changsha is called ''metting Li Guinian South of the River,Li Guinian was the best singer at the time.The poem Dufu wrote for him were probably made to fit with the musical setting

在中国的诗歌很多时候和音乐是不可分离的,其实诗就是歌词,其实杜甫所在的唐朝,其实同学们现在演奏的这些乐器就已经非常流行了,他们刚刚唱的这首就是杜甫在长沙写的《江南逢李龟年》,而李龟年就是那个时代最好的歌手,他给李龟年写诗的时候,我想他也是一定按照可以唱的方式来写的

so Changsha was a good time for him the local governor admired his poems

长沙的日子,对他来说是一段非常美好的时光,当地的官员很仰慕他的诗歌

they were creative people to work with their time here in Changsha gave the family a chance to get their feet on dry land after all those months in the boat they celebrated the Chinese New Year and on the first of February they had the birthday of their youngest son little bear

这儿有一群可以一起工作的充满创造力的朋友,在过了这么多月的船上漂流生活以后,他们在长沙的日子终于给了这个家庭一个定居陆地的机会,他们庆祝农历新年,在二月初一为小儿子”小熊“庆祝了生日

there''s a sweet poem in which doufu describes teaching the boy about poetic composition and most of all they celebrated the birth of another child a baby daughter

有一首诗歌就是讲述杜甫教儿子作诗的故事,最重要的是诗中他们庆祝了另外一个孩子的生日,这是一个女孩,

but then in early May the governor for whom Dufu had built up a real affection was murdered by a rival general and the city was plunged into chaos

不过,在五月初,和杜甫建立了深厚友谊的地方官员被一个对方将军杀死了,整座城市陷入了混乱

the family were left with no alternative but to get back in the boat and travel on upstream as Dufu wrote his line of life was running to an end

这个家庭别无选择,只有回到小船上继续漂泊,正如杜甫所说的”他的生命走到了尽头“

he''d been driven from every place he''d made his home and now with new tides of violence sweeping the South he tried to take his family upriver where an uncle was an official

他被迫离开了他定居的每一个地方,现在,随着新的战乱浪潮席卷南方,他试着将自己的家庭带到湘江的上游,哪里有他的一位当官的叔叔

heavy rains forced him to turn back longer suffer from asthma and diabetes his health collapsed

暴风雨迫使他转航,长时间的哮喘和糖尿病的折磨,导致他的健康状况日益下降

his last poem is from the winter of 770 a thousand leagues from home as he said

他的最后一首诗歌创作于公元770年的冬天,他写道”离家千万里“

written on a sick bed in the boat his final words are a valedictory unlike that of any other great artist

在船里的病榻上,他写下最后的诗句一段于任何其他伟大艺术家都不一样的告别词

on my journey I''m sick and time closes in on me

羁旅病年侵

this watery land engulfs the simple cottages in a mist maple Shores layer green summits

水乡霾白屋,枫岸叠青岑

excitement gone now nothing troubles me

兴尽才无闷,愁来遽不禁。

my ragged clothes have been patched every inch

乌几重重缚,鹑衣寸寸针。

I''ve got to know the customs of all the nine regions of China

畏人千里井,问俗九州箴。

and still the blood of battle flows as it has for so long sounds of our minister to this day

战血流依旧,军声动至今。

I have achieved nothing and my tears fall like rain

家事丹砂诀,无成涕作霖。

Dufu died in 770 in complete obscurity not yet 60 but old before his time

杜甫于公元770年在默默无闻中去世,此时他已经六十岁了,在那个年代这已经算是长寿了

his sons had hoped to take him back to the clan cemetery near Luoyang

他的儿子想将他归葬洛阳附近的家族的墓群当中

but with the war they couldn''t so they settled here to tend his grave but they saved the scrolls of his poems and within a decade of his death a sextion was published to great acclaim

但是由于战乱,这个愿望也没能实现,于是他们停留在此地,照看他的坟墓,但是他们保留住了杜甫的诗卷,在他死后的不到十年,一部广受称赞的杜甫诗选出版了

since the dawn of poetry one critic wrote there is no one like him and over the next two centuries he would be acknowledged by common consent as China''s greatest poet

”诗从歌的黎明以来“一位批评家写道,在接下来的两个世纪中,他将会被大众公认为中国最伟大的诗人


there''s no comparable figure in Western culture someone who by chance as it turned out came to embody not only the feelings but the moral sensibility of a whole civilization

在西方文化中,没有人可以和他相比较,事实证明,某些人在某种机缘下,不仅仅可以展现自己的感情,还能够象征整个文明在道德上的感悟能力

here at his grave near Pingjiang in Hunan they hold a ceremony for him on the traditional day when the Chinese commemorate the ancestors tomb sweeping day

在湖南平江他的墓周围,人们为他举办了一场仪式,在这个中国人传统的缅怀先祖的节日里——清明节

today every child in China learns DuFu''s words in school

如今,每个中国的孩子都在学校里学习杜甫的诗词

the meeting with the old musician the spring scene in the ruined Capitol the dancer lady Gongsun his wife standing alone in the moonlight window

这场和老音乐的会面,在首都残垣断壁的春色中,公孙大娘这位舞者,他那站在月光的窗户下的妻子

they talked about his love for the common people and also of course his loyalty to the state in his ambition to save the nation through a career in government Dufu was a complete failure

他们学到了杜甫对人民的爱,当然,还有对国家的忠诚;在他试图做官以拯救国家的雄心壮志中,杜甫完全失败了

but through his poetry he did more thanany Emperor to help shape the nation''s values

但是在他的诗歌中,他所构建的国家的关于国家价值观方面的东西比任皇帝做的都要多


poetry was my family''s business

诗是吾家事

the early writers first made poetry take wings and saw

前辈飞腾入,馀波绮丽为。

later ones have enriched their works each generation produces its own fruits

后贤兼旧列,历代各清规。

writers stand in different ranks a true fan surely is no random favor

作者皆殊列,名声岂浪垂。

great literature is for a thousand ages whether it succeeds or not you know in the heart

文章千古事,得失寸心知。