in our time right across the planet the past is receding from us at an ever-faster rate and that''s especially so here in China。

在我们的时代,历史正无比迅速的离我们而去,而这在中国尤为明显

but the travel our searching for the meaning of China''s ancient culture can still find it in China''s

但这位探寻中国古典文化的意义的旅行者,却依然能在当代中国找到历史的痕迹


China has the oldest living tradition of poetry in the world while the 3,000 years old older than Homer''s Iliad and Odyssey and for the Chinese poets have always been the ones who most truthfully express the feelings of people

中国有着世界上现存最古老的诗歌传统,其历史长达3000多年,比荷马的《伊利亚特》和《奥德赛》更加古老,对中国人来说,诗歌一直是最能真切的抒发人们的情感的文体

as Chinese that greatest poet is Dufu. Dufu lived in the 8th century the age of Beowulf in Britain was the tongue dynasty a time of extraordinary cultural accomplishment that ended in horrendous warfare and the death of millions and out of that suffering Dufu created his art.

他们最伟大的诗人就是杜甫,杜甫生活在公元八世纪,是英国产生《贝奥武夫》的时代,(译注:讲述了斯堪的纳维亚的英雄贝奥武夫的英勇事迹。是迄今为止发现的英国盎格鲁—撒克逊时期最古老、最长的一部较完整的文学作品,也是欧洲最早的方言史诗),这就是中国的唐朝,一个有着灿烂文化成就,却在可怕的战乱和横尸遍野中终结的时代,在这种苦难中,杜甫创造了他的艺术。

Dufu belongs to a very special category we have Dante Shakespeare and Dufu these poets create the very values by which poet is judged in the east he''s one of the Immortals in the West few people have even heard of him

杜甫是非常特殊的一类人,这类人包括但丁、莎士比亚和杜甫,这些人创造的价值,成为了后世诗歌的评判标准,在东方,他永垂青史,在西方,大多数人甚至没有听说过他。

This is a journey in the footsteps of China''s greatest poet.

这段旅程中,我们将沿着中国最伟大的诗人的足迹


it was the greatest city on earth with more than a million people rich powerful and open to the world for the Chinese that time was their golden age

这座地球上最伟大的城市人口超过百万,富饶、强大、对外开放,对中国人来说,这是他们的黄金时代

the catalyst for it all was the Silk Road along which people Goods and ideas flowed from India Iran and Central Asia into the crowded streets of the capital

这一切的催化剂就是丝绸之路,联系了来自印度、伊朗和中亚人们各自的货物、观念,借此流入首都熙熙攘攘的街市之中,如波斯的无花果、撒马尔罕的金桃

the Tang was a cosmopolitan Empire of many cultures and languages in its markets you could find a dazzling mix of foreign fashions and food Persian pistachios and the golden peaches of Samarkand

唐朝是多文化、多语言的世界帝国,在唐朝的市场中,外国时尚和美食的结合会让你在这里迷醉

Du Fu''s extraordinary life story would be entwined forever with the tale of this city and the fate of Dufu China itself

杜甫壮丽的一生将与这座城市的传说和唐代自身的命运息息相关

only a year after Dufu was born a new emperor came to the dragon throne Xuanzong who was nicknamed the brilliant the Emperor would oversee China''s most glorious period of culture and above all its greatest age of poetry and for the Chinese people it''s poetry which gives the truest history of the human heart

就在杜甫刚刚出生一年,一位新的皇帝登基了,唐玄宗,也被称为“唐明皇”,这位皇帝将会俯瞰着中国文化最辉煌的时代和中国诗歌最伟大的时代,唐代的诗歌记录着人类心灵最真实的历史

Chinese people really value the recording of history, And DuFu is better than anyone at reflecting that history in his poeaty

中华民族是一个比较注意历史记载的民族,那么杜甫的诗歌是诗歌当中与历史结合最好的作品

That''s because historical events are mirrored in Dufu''s own life and spiritual journey.

同时这个记录还把他个人生活史和个人精神史也记录在了诗歌当中。

the Du''s family were an old upper-middle-class clan of officials and poets in Imperial China the two went together

杜甫的家庭是位于社会中上层的古老诗书仕宦之家

you couldn''t be a Mandarin without proving your literary skills

你不能证明自己有文学上的才华,就不能当官

the family house is long gone this is all that''s left but tradition says that he was born here in this room

这个家庭原有的房屋早已经消失,这就是所有的遗迹,依照传统记载,他就出生在这个房间里


so maybe even as a child he felt as if he had the mark of Destiny on him

所以,可能在幼儿时,杜甫已经感觉到自己身上的“天命”

more than 1,400 of his poems survived a uniquely intimate autobiography

他现存的诗歌有1500多首

years later as an old man he wrote the story of his childhood and youth in a poem

多年以后,已经垂垂老矣的他在诗中写下了他年少时期的故事

spoken by Ian McKellen

这首诗由伊恩·麦克莱恩朗读


I find that portrait of the artist as a young man written by the older Fufu

我发现老年杜甫描写的这位年轻诗人的形象非常真实

many authentic he obviously felt even by the age of 14 that he was different from his schoolmates and his contemporaries

即使在仅仅十四岁时,他就已经明显感觉到了自己和同学、同辈的区别

maybe also already looking at the world as it ought to be rather than as it actually is

可能他看待世界的方式已经是“它应该是怎样的”,而非它实际上是怎么样的


I remember when I was still a child aged five I saw the famous dancer GongSon who formed the sword dance

昔有佳人公孙氏,一舞剑器动四方(译注:出自《观公孙大娘弟子舞剑器行》)

watching her you felt heaven struggling against the earth

观者如山色沮丧,天地为之久低昂


the clouds when she advanced you expected thunder and lightning from a Gathering Storm

来如雷霆收震怒

and when she stopped you saw the soft light over a vast calm sea

罢如江海凝清光


in his late teens the family were rich enough to allow him to go travelling

在他青少年时代的末期,他的家庭有了足够的财力供他漫游

China then was at the height of its glory under the brilliant emperor

此时,中国在贤明皇帝的统治下达到了辉煌的巅峰


no other civilization in the world was so refined so cultured

世界上没有任何其他文明能像唐朝一样如此的优雅而文明

traveling across the Empire doofer gathered stories visiting the legendary sites of heroes and dragons immersing himself in China''s ancient traditions

在漫游帝国的过程中,杜甫收集着故事,参观与英雄豪杰相关的名胜古迹,将自己沉浸在中国的古老传统之中


but for Dufu there was one special place of pilgrimage cheerful the birthplace of the philosopher Confucius born over a thousand years before do first day Confucius had shaped the core values of Chinese civilization for him

对于杜甫来说,还有一个特别的朝圣之地——曲阜,儒学大家孔子的出生地,出生于杜甫之前的1000年,他创造了中华文明的核心价值观

the main goal of life is social harmony and stability under a virtuous ruler and each person has a role to play in helping the Emperor achieve that common good

对他来说,人生的主要追求是仁政之下的社会和谐与稳定,为了协助皇帝达成共同的利益,每个人都扮演着自己的角色

teachings of Confucius were dufus guiding principles all his life virtue benevolence service to the state in a sense you could say that like much of the Chinese political tradition from ancient times even to today

孔子的教诲是杜甫一生所贯彻的生存理念,善、仁、忠,在某种程度上可以说,就像许多从远古延续到现在的中国政治传统一样

his thought was utopian

他的观念是乌托邦式的

so he went to the capital ChangAn today''s Xian are expecting to become a government official it was his chance to serve the brilliant emperor and help continue the new age of wisdom

于是他前往首都长安,就是今天的西安,希望能够成为一名政府官员,这是他为圣明的君主服务并延续这个新的开明的时代的机会


he came here to sit the Imperial examinations confident but a glittering career lay ahead of him

他来到这里参加帝国的考试,自信地认为一条闪着金光的仕途正在迎接他

in the prime of lifeI was sent by my home Prefecture to sit the state examinations

甫昔少年日,早充观国宾

I feared no rival among the competing scholars nor any difficult questions that might be put to me

读书破万卷、下笔如有神

I thought of course that I was extraordinary

自谓颇挺出,立登要路津

and should immediately climb to the top and restore the purity of culture and civilization

致君尧舜上,再使风俗淳

but unfortunately the Board of examinations thought otherwise they failed me all my hopes were shattered

此意竟萧条,行歌非隐沦

why does he fail do you think

你觉得他为什么会失败?

yeah most important Christian many scholars discussing about this

其中最重要的原因,许多学者已经讨论过了

The most convincing explanation was by the author William Hong

我想关键的原因,比较有说服力的说法是洪业提出的

He thinks that Dufu was caught up in some mid of scandal that affected many students that year

洪业认为杜甫可能涉及到他参加科举考试那一年的“科考风波”当中,这场风波影响了那一年参加考试的很多考生

He rejection had little to do with his exam results.

杜甫不幸被卷进去了,这个恐怕和她参加考试的个人才能关系不是很大

The other explanation is that Dufu''s talent for property was greater than his ability to write for the imperial examination.

第二种解释是杜甫在写作方面的才能要远胜于他在考试方面的能力

He was too much of a poet.

他的主要才能在于写诗


and exam failure cut him loose from the career ladder

科举落第则断绝了他入仕的途径

so for a while he wondered picking up jobs where he could and hating himself for living on the coattails of the rich

所以他漫游了一段时间,在一些存有机会的地方寻找工作,为了生计向富人卑躬屈膝


I trailed my hands wherever sweet hair was and drank myself sick

曳裾置醴地,奏赋入明光

then when he was about 30 came the meeting that changed his life with the poet Li Bai

随后,当他大约30岁的时候,一次与诗人李白的会面改变了他的一生

LiBai was a great poet at the time Dufu calls him the star of the Golden Gate

李白是那个时代最伟大的诗人,杜甫称他是“太白星”

charismatic drunkard brawler frequenter of the blue houses as the Chinese call him he killed men in fights

在中国人眼中,他魅力十足,经常醉酒,斗性十足,是青楼的常客

but he was a brilliant innovative scintillating poet

但是他是一位天才的富有创造力的诗人

and Dufu who fell under his spell what wonderful verses he writes said Dufu I love him like a brother

杜甫拜倒在了他的魅力之下,杜甫感叹道:李侯有佳句,往往似陰鏗,余亦東蒙客,憐君如弟兄

those nights we traveled we slept under the same quilt and every day we walk together hand in hand we didn''t think about jobs in the government we only thought of other worldly things

醉眠秋共被,攜手日同行……不愿论簪笏,悠悠沧海情。

Libai with Dufu''s most important creative relationship ,Dufu saw LiBai as a teacher,He was the older, senior poet and inspired Dufu in the art of poetry. Dufu learned from Libai how to put detail into storytelling.

杜甫和李白的友情是杜甫最重要的创作关系,杜甫呢把李白当作是自己的老师,这不仅仅是年龄上的问题,还因为,李白在诗歌艺术上,对杜甫有启发,这样的启发呢,我们今天能找到的,证据非常明显的表现在叙事艺术细节的刻画上

for a time the friendship was close at least from doufu side but then they split up and he never saw Libai again

在一段时间内,这段友情非常亲密,至少杜甫是这么认为的,但两人分开以后,杜甫从此再也没有见到过李白

although he still dreamed of him

虽然他依旧会梦到李白

separation by death in the end you get over separation and life is a continuing grief

死别已吞声,生则常恻恻

no word from your old friend that you''ve been in my dreams as if you know how much I miss you

故人入我梦,明我长相忆

I feel as if you are no longer mortal the distance between us is so great

恐非平生魂,路远不可测

the waters are deep the waves are wide don''t let the river gods take you

水深波浪阔,无使蛟龙得

it was an eerie premonition for Libai I would drown on a drunken boating trip

这是一个可怕的语言,传说李白正是在喝醉时乘船而溺亡

but he showed doufu what poetry could be

但是他向杜甫展示了诗歌的可能性



but his poetry is not at all like that of Libai

但是他的诗歌则与李白的诗歌完全不一样

there''s almost died Nicean versus Apollonia

就像酒神之于日神,我们会用这样的希腊语评价

he was very keen on ability to be at one with nature and Dufu was much more concerned with people and to people and how you must live according to Confucianism and particularly you had to be loyal to your Emperor or to the leader you chose any

李白很热衷于他物我两忘的能力,杜甫则更能关注人与人之间的关系,以及如何按照儒家理论来生活,特别地,你必须对君主或者你选择的领导人尽忠

then the leadership was very important to Confucianism

领导关系在儒家伦理中非常重要

and very important to Dufu still hoping to serve the Empire he settled in the capital he failed the exams again but he kept writing and through a friend he sent some of his work directly to the Emperor here at the darling palace

对杜甫非常重要的是,他在首都定居了下来,仍然希望能为皇帝服务,他再次科举落第,但他笔耕不辍,并且通过一名朋友的帮助,将这些作品进献给了皇帝,就是当时的大明宫

and to his an astonishment the Emperor read them and summoned him

出乎意料的是,皇帝读过之后召见了他

the son of heaven summoned me to his presence he says and the officials came in their carriages and their state robes and I was amazed in a single day my reputation had become brilliant

天子废食召,群公会轩裳,许与必词伯,赏游实贤王

so at last he had a job at court his meager stipend enabled him to marry and start a family

最终,他在朝廷中得到了官位,他微薄的俸禄使得他得以娶妻成家

but the job was a dead end and he soon became disillusioned

但是他的仕途是一条死胡同,他很快就迎来了梦想的幻灭

I''ve no role at all in court discussions he wrote

他写道:我在朝廷中根本没有地位

just one of thousands who attended every whim of the son of heaven

仅仅是数千名为皇帝一时之兴而服务的官僚罢了


he wouldn''t her about whatever he had to and however much he wanted to be a very important person who could influence the Emperor in fact he was completely helpless

他不会向任何事情屈服,在很大程度上,他想要的是成为一个十分重要的人,一个能够影响到皇帝的人,事实上,他陷入了完全的无助

the brilliant Emperor was in his sixties now was a model of enlightened rule he become negligent infatuated with his concubine Yang rewarding her family and promoting corrupt ministers

这位圣明的皇帝已年过六旬,他曾经是开明统治的模范,现在开始变得疏忽大意并开始痴迷于他的杨贵妃,奖赏杨贵妃的家人并提拔腐败的官员

for Dufu the closer he got to the throne the clearer he saw the reality of power

对杜甫来说,他离皇权越近,就能够越清楚的看到权力的真正面目

it was a time in the path we''ll indulged in murder and plunder the military used up the tax crane in the stores the Imperial Fighting Cocks had to be fed

朱门任倾夺,赤族迭罹殃。国马竭粟豆,官鸡输稻粱。

many warnings could have been obtained from history about why dynasty of Falls

举隅见烦费,引古惜兴亡。


and it was at this point that Dufu had a disturbing experience what almost sounds like a sudden seizure

就在此时,杜甫有了一次令人不安的经历,听起来就像是一次突然的疾病发作

Dufu came with three friends here to the wild goose pagoda in Xi''an they went inside and climbed up to the top to take the view at sunset

杜甫在这儿和三个朋友登上了西安的大雁塔,他们进入其中并爬到了塔顶以观赏日落的景色

but when he looked out Dufu was seized by a kind of existential panic the mountains of the north began to dissolve the way River disappeared and then the Imperial City itself vanished in a kind of haze and the wild geese flew away

但是当他举目眺望的时候,杜甫感受到了一种关乎存在的恐慌,秦山忽破碎,泾渭不可求。俯视但一气,焉能辨皇州。黄鹄去不息,哀鸣何所投


only the rich and powerful may bathe here ,but the silk they were was woven by poor people women whose husbands are beaten for their taxes, the halls are full of ladies as fair as goddesses ,scent of perfume moves with each captivating figure

赐浴皆长缨,与宴非短褐。彤庭所分帛,本自寒女出。中堂舞神仙,烟雾散玉质。

clothed in the warm furs of sable and to tend with the finest music fed with camel hump soup
and oranges ripened in the frost behind the red lacquered gates, wine is left to sour meat to rot outside the gates lie the bones of the frozen and starved

暖客貂鼠裘,悲管逐清瑟。劝客驼蹄羹,霜橙压香橘。朱门酒肉臭,路有冻死骨。

but when Dufu got to the village ,his worst fears had come true

但当杜甫来到村子的时候,他最担忧的事情却成为了现实

when I reached home I heard wailing in the house my infant child had died of hunger

入门闻号咷,幼子饥已卒。

I am ashamed of being a father so poor that I cost my son to die for lack of food

所愧为人父,无食致夭折。

but I am one of the privileged if my life is so bitter and how much worse is the life of the common people

生常免租税,名不隶征伐。抚迹犹酸辛,平人固骚屑。


755 is the data always tell everyone when the whole of childhood collapse

公元775年是我常常告诉别人的,真个中国分崩离析的一年

I think the rebellion flawed the apart completely the Emperor resigned and his son took over and there was a lot of infighting the country was completely Lutnick off and there was a huge dr recruitment of soldiers either side and it was very hard for ordinary people to live and to survive

我认为这次叛乱彻底摧毁了这个王朝,皇帝退位,他的儿子继位,这其中存在很多暗斗,国家彻底失控在双方政权都出现了对新兵招募的巨大需求,普通人在这种条件下是很难生存的


and from this time Dufu whose poetry conjures images from later Chinese history when order breaks down and chaos rises like a storm

从这时开始,杜甫的诗中涌现了其后唐历史的图像,这是社会秩序崩溃,混乱如暴风雨一般德出现

as the rebels closed in on the capital du feu and his family took to the road heading north to escape the fighting

随着动乱逼近首都,杜甫带着一家人向北出发以躲避战乱

I remember when we first fled the rebels hurrying north over dangerous trails

忆昔避贼初,北走经险艰。

the whole family trudging endlessly begging without shame from the people we met

尽室久徒步,逢人多厚颜。

we walked for 10 days holy hands half in rain and thunder through the mud

一旬半雷雨,泥泞相牵攀。

we pulled each other on searching the horizon for a wisp of smoke that might lead us to a safe shelter

早行石上水,暮宿天边烟。

the war was the turning point in Du Fu''s life and the Great Divide in his poetry

这场战争是杜甫生命的转折点也是他诗歌的最大分水岭

now he knew what it meant to be a Shakespeare would put it a pour on accommodated man

现在他知道活着是意味着什么了,正如莎士比亚可能会说的,一个贫穷而无家可归的人

He was no longer the noble son no longer the young, previleged confident poet.

他不在是那个出生于书香门第的家庭,也不在是以前的那个年轻的、自信的、豪迈的诗人

He had become a common man struggling with countless hardships and tribulations.

它变成了无数个苦难人民的化身,一个最普通的经受挫折的老百姓。

So his poetry becomes much heavier by that I mean more realistic

所以他的诗歌变得越来越沉重,我的意思是更加的现实

in spring 756 the capital fell to Anlushan''s army

在756年的春天,首都沦陷在了安禄山的铁蹄之下

but when Dufu tried to join them he was captured on the road by the rebels too lowly to warrant execution he was taken as a captive to the capital

新的皇帝和他的朝臣已经逃亡南方,但当杜甫尝试加入他们时,他在路上被叛军抓走了,出于官位过低,他被俘虏带到了首都

once more separated from his family among the poems he wrote then were famous verses to his wife

又一次的更加与家人远离,在他的这个时期的诗歌中,有一首著名的写给妻子的诗歌

the moon shines in Fuzhou tonight in her chamber she watches alone

今夜鄜州月,闺中只独看。

a cloud like hair sweet with mist a jade arms cold in the clear moonlight

香雾云鬟湿,清辉玉臂寒。

when should we lean in the empty window together in brightness our tears dried out

何时倚虚幌,双照泪痕干。