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The United States is set to overhaul how it handles illegal migrants after a young boy and girl, both from Guatemala, died while in US custody in December.

去年12月,一对来自危地马拉的小男孩和小女孩在被美国拘留期间死亡后,美国才着手对其处理非法移民的方式进行全面改革。

Their deaths coincided with a spike in the number of young migrant families apprehended at the border. Many of them come from Guatemala.

他们的死亡恰逢在边境逮捕的年轻移民家庭数量激增,而其中许多人来自危地马拉。

To find out what is driving young families to the US, the BBC's Patricia Sulbarán went back to the village of one of those children, Felipe Gomez Alonzo.

为了了解是什么驱使年轻的移民家庭前往美国,BBC 记者帕特里夏 · 索尔巴恩追访了其中一个追逐美国梦而死掉的孩子菲利普 · 戈麦斯 · 阿隆索的(老家)村庄。

Of all of Central Americans trying to cross the border to the US, Guatemalans are the ones doing it the most.
There has been a vast increase in the number of women, children and families from Guatemala migrating to the US.
Most people from Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, travel in caravans.

在所有试图越过边境进入美国的中美洲人中,危地马拉人是实践得最多的。 近年来从危地马拉移民到美国的妇女、儿童和家庭数量大幅增加。 多数来自洪都拉斯、萨尔瓦多、尼加拉瓜的人都是坐着大篷车去的美国。

The BBC's Patricia Sulbarán has been to remote Guatemalan indigenous communities where people are using people smugglers to make it to the US

英国广播公司的帕特里夏 · 苏巴尔普经去过危地马拉偏远的土著社区,那里的人们利用走私者偷渡到美国。

Video journalist: Ed Ram

视频记者: Ed Ram

零.序言

​A wake for an eight-year-old boy.

为一个八岁的男孩守灵。

It really hurts me.

这真的很伤我的心。

Felipe Gomez Alonzo died in US custody Last Christmas Eve, after falling ill.

去年生蛋前夜,菲利普 · 戈麦斯 · 阿隆索病死于美国边界拘留所。



Ten hours drive from the capital city,near the Mexican border Our journey starts in Yalambojoch,Felipe’s hometown In one of the poorest parts of Guatemala.

距离首都十小时车程,靠近墨西哥边境,我们的旅程始发于亚拉伯乔齐村 ,那是菲利普的家乡,属于危地马拉最贫穷地区之一。

二.采访菲利浦的姐姐卡塔琳娜

I meet his sister,Catarina The day before his body returns to the village.

在他的尸身回到村里的前一天,我见到了他的姐姐卡塔琳娜。

I feel sad about my brother.

我为我弟弟感到难过。

I loved him a lot .

我非常爱他。

And ,to be honest It really hurts me...

说实话这真的让我很伤心。

That his death was like this.

他就这样死了。

Without saying goodbye.

没有道别。

三.采访超度现场

The coffin arrives early next morning.

灵柩第二天一大早就到了。

Felipe’s father borrowed 5000 dollars to get to the US.

菲利普的父亲借了5000美元来去做美国梦。

Three Years‘wages here.

三年的工资。

Catarina told me it was Felipe’s dream To study in the us and come back to his family.

卡塔琳娜告诉我,菲利普的梦想是去美国学习光宗耀祖。

As the village grieves,the ceremony carries on late into the night.

伴随着村民的悲痛,仪式一直持续到深夜。



Pedro Gomez teaches at the only primary school in the village.

佩德罗 · 戈麦斯在村里唯一的一所小学教书。

Here are all of his documents for the years that he came to this school.

菲利普来学校上学这些年的所有文件全在这里了。

This is his diploma from elementary school.

这是他的小学毕业证书。

Pedro is worried about his students.

佩德罗很担心他的学生。

At the end of last year,in December,was the time when most of the kids left.

去年年底,也就是12月,班上多数孩子离家乡而去。

The first ones managed to get into the us.

第一批成功进入美国。

And then the second family left,and a third.

然后第二个家庭、第三个家庭相继闻风离去。

They all made it.

离去成功进入美国。

I warned [the parents.]

我警告[那些为人父母]

I feel for those kids,but even now [the parents] don’t learn.

我同情那些孩子,但是即使是菲利浦进入美国失败猝死在拘留所里的如今,(家长们)也不长记性。

They keep taking them.

家长们之志坚可谓舍不得孩子套不着美国梦。

Twelve children from the school have [left for the us].

学校里已有十二名孩童做上了美国梦。

This is the only secondary school in the village,But now it remains empty.

这是村里唯一的一所中学,但现在还是空空如也。

Last year it had to close due to lack of funding.
去年,由于资金缺乏,不得不倒闭。

Children here stop studying When they turn 13.

这里的孩子到了13岁没学上了。

六.采访村里失去孙女音信的老妇玛丽亚

Of the 1400 who live here More than 80 people left for the us in 2018 alone.

全村1400人中仅2018年就有80多人离开村里身赴美国。

I was surprised to find out these numbers Are typical of indigenous towns is the region.

我对在该典型的原住民城镇地区的统计出的这些数字感到吃惊。

People leave unannounced and families can lose track of their loved ones.

人们突然离开,家人随时可能会失去亲人的音讯。

Maria’s 22-year-old granddaughter Has been missing since October.

玛丽亚22岁的孙女在去年10月就失踪了。

I didn’t know if she was killed or if someone took her.

我不知道她是被杀了还是被人拐带走了。

The last Maria heard from her granddaughter was that she had crossed the us border.

玛丽亚最后一次听到她孙女的消息是她已经越过了美国边境。

I feel sad about my granddaughter.

我为我的孙女感到难过。

七.采访村里偷渡美国失败的青年马特奥

I wanted to understand the struggles That young people face here.

我想了解年轻人在村里面临的困境。

I meet 22-year-old Mateo.

我遇到了22岁的马特奥。



But now he’s home,he earns around six dollars a day and can’t pay back his debt.

但是现在他回到家乡,每天大约挣个6美元,哪里还得起债务。

I am feeling a bit desperate,like i am stuck here.

我感觉有点绝望,好像我被困在这里面了。

Democrats are inviting caravan after caravan, isn’t that nice?

疯王:民主党人邀请了一个又一个的敞篷车队,香吗?

Of illegal aliens to flood into our country and overwhelm your communities.

非法外国人涌入我们的国家和淹没你的社区。

Central Americans like Mateo are at the centre of Trump’s flagship anti-immigration policy.

像马特奥这样的中美洲人身处于特朗普那重要的反移民政策的中心。

What gives you the right to work in a foreign country without having legal documents?

是什么让你在没有法律文件保障权利的情况下去国外工作?

we are going Because of poverty.

我们是因为穷才去的。

We’re not going to steal from them.

我们又不会偷他们美国佬的东西。

八.危地马拉的打工外汇现实

It seemed to me that it was the future of this country that wanted to leave.

在我看来,是这个国家的未来想要离开家乡去追逐美国梦。

Despite Trump’s stance on migration,people here seem to aspire to an American dream.

尽管特朗普在移民问题上立场坚定,但危地马拉的人们似乎渴望实现美国梦非常。

This house was built with money sent back by relatives who left to find work in the US.

亲戚离开村里去美国找工作,之后就用寄回来的钱造了这所大房子。

A visible reminder of the difference that dollars can make.

这是一个清楚地提醒我们,打工美元在危地马拉可以带来多大的贫富差距。

Last year, Guatemalans living in the United States sent a record nine billion Dollars back to their families.

去年,生活在美国的危地马拉人向他们的家人们寄回了创纪录的90亿美元。

That’s 10% of Guatemala’s GDP.

这相当于危地马拉 GDP 的10% 。

I wanted to understand the risks and danger that Felipe and his father went through as they started their 2000 mile journey north through Mexico.

我想了解菲利普和他的父亲在他们开始穿越墨西哥北部2000英里的旅程时所经历的风险和危险。

We decided to leave the village and find the migrant trail.

我们决定离开这个村子,去找寻移民的踪迹。

To take this route,most migrants use coyotes,people smugglers who transport them to the us.

为了重走这条线路,大多数移民利用郊狼,人口走私者把他们运送至美国。

九.墨危边境采访郊狼

We had heard of one coyote who was willing to speak to us.

我们听说有一只郊狼愿意和我们对话。

So we travel closer to the Mexican border to track him down .

于是我们去墨西哥边境找到了他。

Where this mountain ends ,then you go down,and that’s the border between Mexico and Guatemala.

这座山的尽头,然后下山,那是墨西哥和危地马拉的边界。

He agrees to talk about his criminal operation,but only if we disguise his identity.

他同意谈谈他的犯罪活动,但前提是我们要隐瞒他的身份。

Out of 100 people working here,maybe 30 of them are coyotes.

在此处边界附近工作的100个人中,可能有30个是郊狼。

How do you manage to get through security and checkpoints?

那你是如何设法通过安全检查站的?

Scouting them out,paying officials,looking for people that live close to the checkpoints.

反侦查,付钱给官员,寻找住在检查站附近的人。



People smuggling has only been illegal since 2015.

人口走私直到2015年才属于非法行为。

If found guilty coyotes could face prison sentences of six to eight years.

如果被判有罪,郊狼们可能面临6至8年的监禁。

But so far, there have only been seven convictions.

但是到目前为止,只有7个人被定罪。

十.直击偷渡现场

The next morning, we leave early.

第二天早上,我们很早就离开了危地马拉和墨西哥的边境。

I want to meet a migrant on the move.

我想去认识一位正处在偷渡过程当中的移民。

We head to a town named Canibal,near the Mexican border.

我们前往墨西哥边境附近一个名叫卡尼巴尔的小镇。

Towns like Canibal act as processing terminals where migrant children and their parents are moved on to the next stage of their journey and north to the US.

像卡尼巴尔这样的城镇充当着中继站(处理终端)的角色,移民的孩子和他们的父母可以在那里继续他们下一阶段的旅程,北上去美国。

These are pickup trucks that leave from Guatemala to Mexico And I‘ve been told this is one of the spots where migrants jump in to cross illegally.

这些是从危地马拉开往墨西哥的小货车。有人告诉我,卡尼巴尔这里是移民非法越境的地域之一。

Here they are telling me that they’re just going to work in Mexico,no one is migrating to the US.

他们告诉我,他们只是去墨西哥工作,没有人会移民到美国。

I started to get the feeling migrants had been warned not to reveal where they were going.

我开始有种感觉,有人警告过移民不要透露他们行程要去的目的地。

We are just going to the border,the Mexican border.

我们正要去边境,墨西哥边境。

Twenty minutes drive through a valley is the border crossing into Mexico.

二十分钟的车程穿过一个山谷就是进入墨西哥的边境。

We meet a man migrating with his 16-year-old daughter.

我们看到一个男人带着他16岁的女儿迁徙。

He agrees to speak to us,but only because his coyote hadn’t shown up.

他同意和我们说话,只是出于因为他的蛇头郊没有如约出现。

He wanted to be interviewed anonymously.

他想要匿名接受采访。

I work planting corn and beans,and now that the season is over there’s no work anymore.

我的工作是种植玉米和豆子,现在季节已经过去了,工作也没有了。

My daughter’s been begging me:’Dad let’s go’.

我女儿一直在求我: ‘爸爸,我们去美国吧’。

There are people who criticise illegal immigration to the us and you want to do exactly that.

有不少人批叛偷渡去美国的非法移民,你却恰巧还想要去移民。

What drives us is necessity,our country is poor and life is full of problems.

驱使我们的是刚需,我们的国家贫穷,生活充满了问题。

We’re not liars,that’s the truth.

我们不是骗子,这是事实。

In 2018,the number of Guatemalan families apprehended at the us border Doubled to more than 50000.

2018年,在美国边境逮捕的危地马拉家庭数目翻了一番,超过50000个。

Many more than from Honduras,EL Salvador and Mexico.

远远超过洪都拉斯、萨尔瓦多和墨西哥。

And almost half of the unaccompanied minors apprehended at the border last year Were Guatemalan.

去年在边境逮捕的无人陪伴的未成年人中,几乎有一半是危地马拉人。

That’s 22000 children.

有2万2千儿童。

Many migrants believe it is easier to stay in the US if they are under 18 or arrive with a child.

许多移民认为,如果他们未满18岁或者带着孩子去美国,那么留在美国会更容易。

We’d heard of a border town where migrants get transferred through whole networks of coyotes.

我们听说有一个边境城镇,移民通过整个郊狼网络被转移到了那里。

十一.重走菲利普偷渡路线



Migrants are at the mercy of smugglers and police say they’re not in control here.

移民受到走私者的摆布,警察说他们在这里不受控制。

We’ve just crossed the border from Guatemala into Mexico and there are no mandatory checkpoints.

我们刚刚从危地马拉越过边境进入墨西哥,压根没有强制性的检查站。

We’re just passing right through.

我们没有受到检查,就这样穿过边境。

This crossing is also used to facilitate the trade of drugs and guns.

这个过境点也被用来便利毒品和枪支的交易。

Human rights activists say Guatemala has always neglected its poor indigenous population,a major factor forcing young people to leave.

人权活动人士说,危地马拉一直在忽视其贫穷的土著居民,这是迫使年轻人离开的一个主要因素。

The state is not interested in protecting indigenous territories.

国家对保护土著居民的领地不感兴趣。

Its focus is on economic interests.

它的眼里只有经济利益。

The government has never paid attention to the indigenous communities And development programmes should be created to help them.

危地马拉政府从来没有关注过土着社区,应该制定发展计划来帮助他们。

In Guatemala City, the foreign minister is in charge of migration.

在危地马拉城,外交部长负责移民事务。

What is the Guatemalan government doing exactly so people don’t go to the US?
We are starting to create campaigns and what we want to do through the integral development programmes,is to create precisely those sources of work.

危地马拉政府到底在做什么呢,禁止人们去美国?
我们正开始发起运动,希望通过整合发展项目来创造工作来源。

It’s very easy to say:’you haven’t done anything.’or ’You have abandoned the communities.’

说得倒是轻松:‘你什么都没做。’ 或者“你抛弃了这个社区”

Migration is the top priority in this country’s international policy.

移民是这个国家国际政策的首要任务。

十二.轮回
Back in the mountains,life for Felipe’s family has changed forever.

话说回到山里,菲利普家人的人生从此永远被改变了。

Since Felipe’s funeral,at the end of January,at least ten more families have left this town to start their journey to the US.

自从菲利普的葬礼算起,在一月底,至少又有十多个家庭已经离开这个城市开始他们的美国梦之旅程。