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A company that spurned talent it badly needed couldn''t thrive. The same is true for a country.

一个将自己所需的人才拒之门外的公司是无法发展壮大的,一个国家也是如此。

But that isn''t stopping the Trump administration from blithely driving foreign students into the open arms of other countries with its ill-advised immigration policies.

但这并不能阻止特朗普政府轻率地用不明智的移民政策将外国学生推向其他国家的怀抱。

For three years in a row, the number of new foreign students enrolling in American universities has fallen. In the 2015-16 academic year, 300,743 new foreign students enrolled. That number dropped to 269,383 in 2018-19, a decline of 10.4 percent as per the data of Open Doors, the Institute of International Education''s (IIE) annual report that tracks university enrollments. Nor is the situation likely to improve in the academic year currently underway given that a snapshot survey of 500 universities by the IIE this fall found declining enrollment — although full stats won''t be available until later in 2020.

美国大学的外国新生入学人数连续三年出现下降。2015至2016学年,共有300743名外国学生入读美国大学。根据国际教育协会追踪大学入学情况形成的年度报告Open Doors,这一数字在2018-2019年间下降到了269383人,下降了10.4%。鉴于今年秋季国际教育协会在对500所大学进行的一项快速调查中发现外国学生入学率下降,当前学年的情况也不太可能有所改善——尽管完整的统计数据要到2020年晚些时候才能出炉。



In particular, America is losing Chinese students while Australia is gaining them. One likely reason is that Trump has called them all spies (an absurd accusation given that that 9 out of 10 would prefer to stay on and work in America) and threatened to ban them from the country in a naked bid to force Beijing to succumb to his trade demands. Trump didn''t make good on that threat but, in 2018, he capped their visa stay to one year at a time rather than allowing them to stay for the maximum time allowed. This not only made Chinese students feel unwelcome in the United States but also made it more precarious for them to pursue an education here lest they lose their visas before finishing their program.

特别是,美国失去了中国学生,而澳大利亚却得到了他们。一个可能的原因是特朗普声称他们都是间谍(这一荒谬的指控源于90%的中国留学生宁愿留在美国工作),并威胁要禁止他们入境,赤裸裸地迫使中国屈服于他的贸易需求。特朗普没有兑现这一威胁,但在2018年,他将留学生的签证单次停留期限缩短为一年,不再允许他们享受签证规定的最长停留时间。这不仅让中国学生觉得自己在美国不受欢迎,也让他们在美国的求学之路变得更加坎坷:他们担心签证会在自己完成学业前失效。

In addition, his travel ban has of course barred foreign students from Iran and various Muslim countries.

此外,他的旅行禁令也禁止了来自伊朗和其他穆斯林国家的外国学生。

He has also proposed rules that would make it easier to brand foreign students as being "unlawfully present" and to ban them from the country for 10 years. The courts have put this rule on hold for now but the uncertainty can hardly make American universities attractive.

他还提出了一些规定,以便更容易给外国留学生安上“非法入境”的罪名,并在十年内禁止他们入境。法院暂时搁置了这一规定,但这种不确定性很难让美国大学具有吸引力。

Trump has also doubled down on sting operations to crack down on visa fraud. Last year ICE arrested 250 foreign students, mostly from India, whom it lured into the University of Farmington, a fake university that it set up in metro Detroit. For tuition fees much lower than normal, this university handed these students transcxts to satisfy the terms of their visas and, more importantly, obtain CPT (Curricular Practical Training) status. This status lets the foreign students sign up for a paid internship off campus and offset their steep tuition costs, a tempting deal because it enables them to work for more than 20 hours and get off-campus jobs. Many foreign students quit legitimate universities to join this fake one only to get caught in ICE''s dragnet.

特朗普还加大了打击签证欺诈的力度。去年,美国移民海关总署逮捕了250名外国学生,其中大部分来自印度,他们被诱骗到法明顿大学(一所建在底特律市区的野鸡大学)。这所大学的学费远低于美国大学正常水平,还为这些学生提供成绩单,以满足他们的签证条件,更重要的是,它还获得了CPT(课程实践培训)资格。这种条件让外国学生能在校外报名参加带薪实习、抵消他们高昂的学费成本,这是一笔诱人的交易,因为他们可以工作20多个小时,并获得校外工作。许多外国学生离开了合法的大学,入读了这所野鸡大学,结果却被美国移民海关总署抓获。

But it''s not just draconian enforcement tactics that are turning away foreign students. The administration''s immigration policies are also making an American education an unattractive value proposition compared to other countries.

但是,令外国学生望而却步的不仅仅是严厉的执法手段。与其他国家相比,特朗普政府的移民政策也让美国教育成为一个没有吸引力的价值主张。



Turning away foreign students is particularly stupid — not only because we need their skills but also their tuition dollars. Over 66 percent of them, especially undergraduates, pay top dollars for their education from out-of-pocket or through outside sources, allowing universities to subsidize tuition costs for American students. Many international graduate students, meanwhile, provide teaching and research services in exchange for a tuition reprieve, especially in STEM fields, something that allows universities to offer a more cost-effective education than if they had to hire faculty for the same jobs.

拒绝外国学生非常愚蠢——不仅因为我们需要他们的技能,还因为我们需要他们缴纳的学费。其中超过66%的外国学生,尤其是本科生,自掏腰包或通过外部渠道支付高额学费入读美国大学,这使得这些大学可以为美国学生提供学费补贴。与此同时,许多国际研究生提供教学和研究服务,以换取学费的减免,尤其是在STEM领域,这比雇佣教员做同样的工作更划算。

Furthermore, foreign students contribute $37 billion to the American economy and create or support 450,000 jobs, according to the National Association of Foreign Student Advisers, an outfit that promotes the professional development of American college officials. Indeed, without them, the shortage of Americans in STEM fields would become even more acute because there wouldn''t be enough people to train Americans, generating a downward spiral of STEM scarcity.

此外,据全美外国学生顾问协会的数据,外国学生为美国经济贡献了370亿美元,创造或支持了45万个就业岗位。事实上,如果没有他们,美国人在STEM领域的人才短缺将变得更加严重,因为没有足够的人来培训美国人,从而造成STEM人才短缺的恶性循环。

But the most vital contributions of international students are intangible. Had it not been for them, America may not have spearheaded the IT revolution. That''s because 57 percent of Silicon Valley''s STEM workers were born outside the country and many of them came to the United States as students and stayed on. Many iconic IT companies such as Microsoft and Google are currently being headed by foreigners who came to America as graduate students.

但是国际学生最重要的贡献是无形的。如果没有他们,美国可能就不会成为IT革命的先锋。这是因为硅谷57%的STEM工人出生在国外,他们中的许多人是作为学生来到美国并留在美国的。许多标志性的IT公司,如微软和谷歌,目前都是由作为研究生来到美国的外国人领导的。

Instead of draining the swamp, Trump is draining talent from America that other countries are eagerly sucking up. This is a formula for making them great, not America.

特朗普并没有排干华盛顿这片沼泽的水,相反,他在赶走美国的人才,而其他国家正在急切地吸收着这些人才。这是在让他们变得伟大,而不是让美国变得伟大。