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(原标题)软实力超级大国

Global trends in cultural engagement and influence

(副标题)全球文化参与与文化影响力变化趋势

Author: Alistair MacDonald

作者:阿利斯泰尔·麦克唐纳


United Kingdom
As well as being a globally significant economic and military power the UK is, according to Portland Communications34 latest league table at least, the world’s leading soft power in 2018.

【英国篇】
英国不仅是全球重要的经济和军事强国,根据波特兰公关公司的最新排行榜,英国也是2018年全球主要的软实力大国

In a very real sense it is the gold standard against which others measure themselves. But despite its many strengths the UK’s current soft power advantage is no reason for complacency. There are areas of weakness and as we have seen above other states are investing substantial sums in soft power to expand their international influence. There are lessons to learn from other countries that are adopting increasingly innovative approaches to growing their global influence. There is no guarantee that the UK will maintain its leading global position as the Eurasian Century proceeds and leading states across the Global South continue to grow in importance. The UK will need to work hard to retain and grow its international relevance and influence.

英国确实是其他国家衡量自己的黄金标准。不过,尽管坐拥着诸多优势,英国目前拥有的软实力优势,是没有任何理由去自鸣得意的。是存在弱势的方面的,而且正如我们在前文中所看到的,其他国家为了扩大其国际影响力,正在大举投资软实力。可以借鉴和学习其他国家的做法,后者为了扩大其国际影响力正在越来越多地采取创新性的手法。随着欧亚世纪继续推进以及全球南方国家的重要性持续提升,完全无法保证英国还能继续保持其国际领先地位。英国必须要尽力保持并提升其在国际上的重要性乃至国际影响力。

The UK’s status as a soft power superpower depends on the country’s near-universal diplomatic network and globally recognised institutions like the BBC World Service and British Council, all of which receive funding from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO). The UK is also noted for consistently outperforming other G20 states for its contributions to international development and for working constructively with partners to meet major global challenges like climate change and to promote free trade. The UK also benefits in soft power terms from its significant strengths in culture and education, the English language and its strong historic and cultural connections with the English speaking world which includes major G20 powers like the US, Canada and India. The UK’s membership of the Commonwealth presents potentially significant opportunities in the years ahead, especially as developing economies like Kenya and Bangladesh realise their massive economic potential.

英国的软实力超级大国地位,有赖于该国几乎遍布全球的外交网络以及诸如BBC全球服务和英国文化协会等得到全球认可的机构,所有这些机构都会从英国外交和联邦事务部(FCO)得到资金支持。另一个让英国很出名的方面是:该国对国际发展的贡献以及与伙伴国家开展建设性的合作以应对诸如气候变化和推进自由贸易等重大全球挑战方面,表现得比G20国家好。英国的软实力也受益于该国在文化和教育领域的巨大优势、英语,及其与英语世界强有力的历史和文化联系,这其中包括了G20中的主要大国如美国、加拿大和印度。特别是随着诸如肯尼亚和孟加拉国等发展中国家实现其巨大的经济潜力,英国的英联邦国家成员身份在今后一些年里可能会给该国带来重大机遇。



The UK’s top spot in the soft power league tables depends in large part on perceptions of the country as an open, liberal, democratic country that upholds the rules-based international system and acts for the common good. The UK is seen as supporting the political freedoms and other values that the peoples of the world find attractive. Humanitarian interventions, like the action the UK undertook to combat Ebola in West African nations, have enhanced the UK’s international reputation. As the UK looks to define its new role in the world there may be merit in offering greater support for multilateral initiatives like UN peacekeeping – additional UK expertise and technical capability would be welcomed on UN humanitarian missions around the world. The Department for International Development and the FCO have made laudable advances in the promotion of the rights of women and girls and this work must be maintained. The promotion of universal human rights is the absolute responsibility of free and democratic states but it is also essential to their international influence and appeal. Some have argued that the UK has in recent years been somewhat muted in its criticism of the worst abuses of authoritarian states. If it prioritises economic pragmatism over principle it could risk undermining its soft power and influence in global fora like the UN General Assembly and the court of global public opinion. A continued emphasis on values and the common good will be crucially important going forward. Indeed it is essential for both restoring the trust and confidence of European allies and for reaching out beyond the EU to the rest of the world. An increase in the resources available to the Westminster Foundation for Democracy and the Magna Carta Fund for Human Rights and Democracy would, for example increase the impact and visibility of the UK’s human rights work with consequential gains in soft power.

英国在软实力排行榜上占据首位在很大程度上有赖于世界对该国的看法:一个开放的、自由的、民主的国家,维护着基于规则的国际体系,并会为了共同利益而采取行动。认为英国会去支持对全世界人民都有吸引力的政治自由和其他一些价值观。人道主义干预,比如英国为了抗击埃博拉病毒而在西非国家采取的行动,已经提升了其在全世界的声望。由于英国寻求定义其在世界中的新角色,也许会在给诸如联合国维和等多边倡议提供更大支持方面有上佳表现,英国在这方面高人一等的特长和技术能力,会在全世界范围内展开的联合国人道主义任务中受到欢迎。国际发展部以及外交和联邦事务部在促进妇女权益方面已经取得了足以让人赞赏的进展,而且这方面的工作必须坚持下去。促进全世界的人权绝对是自由民主国家的责任,但这对于它们的国际影响力及其在国际上的吸引力也是至关重要的。有些人主张过,在对专制国家的批评方面,英国近些年是有些缄默了。如果该国在优先级上把经济实用主义置于原则之前,在全球论坛比如联合国大会和全球舆论法庭中,可能就会存在其软实力和影响力遭到削弱的风险。在前进道路上继续强调价值观和共同利益将是至关重要的。让欧洲盟友恢复对英国的信任和信心,以及把影响力延伸到欧盟以外乃至全世界其他国家,这两者确实都是至关重要的。增加威斯敏斯特民主基金会和《大宪章》人权与民主基金能动用的资源,会提升英国人权工作的影响和能见度,并间接地对软实力产生助益。

Socio-cultural and educational ‘assets’ are a key part of the UK’s international attractiveness. The UK’s universities are globally recognised and draw students from around the world to the UK. Having recently lost its long-held position as the number two global destination for international students to Australia it is very much in the UK’s interest to learn from its rivals and review its immigration policies with regards to students and researchers. Australia’s success in growing market share can be traced to the changes made to immigration policy following the Knight Review of 2011 – just as the comparatively flat performance of the UK since 2010 is consistent with the tightening of its visa regulations.

社会文化和教育领域的“资产”是英国国际吸引力的一个关键组成部分。英国的大学得到了全球的认可,并把全世界的学生吸引到了英国来。最近,英国把自己长期把持的第二大国际学生目的地国输给了澳大利亚,向对手学习,并重新审视其针对学生和研究人员的移民政策,是非常符合英国的利益的。澳大利亚在扩大市场份额方面的成功,可以追溯到2011年奈特评估之后对移民政策作出的改变,相较之下英国就表现平平了,从2010年起,英国自始至终都在收紧其签证政策。

(译注:the Knight Review(奈特评估)即Strategic Review of the Student Visa Program 2011(2011年学生签证方案战略评估),由迈克尔·奈特组织进行)



(译注:迷你硅谷位于伦敦东区的肖尔迪奇(Shoreditch),2010年英国政府颁布了一项支持“迷你硅谷”发展的计划,将包括奥林匹克公园在内的东伦敦建造成高科技产业中心,命名为“东伦敦科技城”)

If the ambitions for the BBC World Service are matched with investment in the other engines of the UK’s soft power the UK’s status as a soft power superpower can be secured for the medium and long term, with all the benefits that entails for the UK’s prosperity and security in the years ahead. However, that status depends on more than just funding. The UK needs the right kind of Brexit, an open Brexit and a vision beyond that which looks outward rather than inward, that rejects the traps of popularism and nativism and reinvents the UK as a more global nation. The UK’s soft power depends on it being continued to be viewed as stalwart of liberal values and the rules-based international system; as a champion of universal human rights, free trade and freedom of expression; and as a reliable friend committed to the common good and the betterment of other peoples. The Brexit negotiations are textbook example – they are anything but a zero sum game with success reliant on trust and goodwill on both sides. Morality, values and being seen as acting for the common good have long been at the heart of the UK’s soft power but in the world today they are absolutely essential to its success.

如果BBC全球服务的雄心,能匹配上对驱动英国软实力的其他引擎的投资,就能在中长期内确保英国作为一个软实力超级大国的地位,在未来的年代里,所有这些优势都是英国的繁荣与安全所必需的。然而,撑持这种地位的可不只是提供资金而已。英国需要的是正确的脱欧方式,一次开放的脱欧,以及一种超越前者的视野,须得是外向而不是内向的,并拒绝掉进民粹主义和本土主义的陷阱,还能把英国重塑为一个更全球化的国家。英国的软实力有赖于它继续被视为自由价值观和基于规则的国际体系的忠诚拥护者,一个普世人权、自由贸易和言论自由的冠军,一个致力于共同利益以及让其他人变得更好的可靠的朋友。脱欧谈判就是教科书式的范例,它们绝对不会是零和游戏,其成功有赖于双边的信任和善意。道德,价值观,以及被看成能为共同利益而行动,长久以来一直是英国软实力的核心,但在当今世界,它们对于英国的成功绝对是至关重要的。