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(原标题)软实力超级大国

Global trends in cultural engagement and influence

(副标题)全球文化参与与文化影响力变化趋势

Author: Alistair MacDonald

作者:阿利斯泰尔·麦克唐纳

Russia
Russia has adopted a complex international strategy drawing on a range of hard and soft power tools to realise its foreign policy obxtives.

【俄罗斯篇】
俄罗斯已经采用了一种复杂的国际战略,动用了一系列硬实力和软实力工具以实现其外交政策目标。

It sees soft power as an integral part of its national power strategy and can be seen as having been largely successful in its short-term aims of increasing Russian influence internationally. Russia has been able to utilize its extensive soft power assets to forge deeper socio-cultural lixs with countries in its near-neighbourhood across the former Soviet unx. In addition, its intervention in the Syrian Civil War has been accompanied by diplomatic, economic and socio-cultural efforts across the Middle East resulting in significantly increased Russian influence in the region and the deepening of ties with powers like Iran, Saudi Arabia and Turkey.
Hosting expensive global spectacles like the World Cup and the Sochi Winter Olympics is another key element in Russia’s strategic approach to soft power – the government sees the expenditure as essential for the projection of a positive image of the country to international audiences. Nevertheless while Russia’s standing on the global stage is certainly greater than it was even five years ago, there has been a cost. The Russian approach to power projection has antagonised many Western countries leading to diplomatic tensions and the imposition of sanctions and other measures that have adversely impacted on the Russian economy.

该国把软实力看成其强国战略不可或缺的一部分,而且可以认为软实力在达成其增强俄罗斯国际影响力的短期目标方面一直都在取得重大的成功。俄罗斯一直都能利用其丰厚的软实力资产,与整个前苏联范围内与其邻近的国家深化它们之间的社会文化联系。此外,该国对叙利亚内战的干涉,一直伴随着其在整个中东地区外交、经济和社会文化方面付出的努力,结果就是俄罗斯对该地区的影响力显著提升,也深化了与地区强国间的关系,比如伊朗、沙特阿拉伯和土耳其。主办耗资巨大的全球盛事比如世界杯和索契冬奥会,是俄罗斯增进软实力战略手法中的又一大关键组成部分,在该国政府眼中,这方面的支出对于把该国的正面形象投射给国际观众是至关重要的。尽管如此,虽然俄罗斯在全球舞台上的地位毫无疑问要比五年前要高,这也是有代价的。俄罗斯投射力量的手法已经引发了很多西方国家的反抗,导致了外交紧张,并被强加制裁,还有其他一些已经对俄罗斯经济产生不利影响的措施。



(译注:益普索(Ipsos)是由朱贤特先生(Didier Truchot)1975年在法国巴黎创立,是目前市场研究顾问行业中唯一一家独立的由专业研究顾问人员管理的全球性的上市公司)

Apart from the extensive investment in online activity and international broadcasting, Russia is also following the more conventional approach to soft power by investing in international cultural and educational initiatives. Russia has several state organisations that operate in the soft power sphere. The Cold War era ballet diplomacy of foreign tours by the Bolshoi is matched today by courses in Russian language and literature, international celebrations of Pushkin, Malevich, cosmonauts and contemporary Russian film, and high-level strategic dialogues. Its cultural institutions have increased their global representation from 82 offices just five years ago to 171 today, showing the high priority the Russian government is placing on developing cultural influence and relationships overseas.

除了对在线活动和国际广播进行大量投资外,俄罗斯也会按照更常规的方法来提高软实力,方法是通过对国际文化和教育计划进行投资。俄罗斯有若干个在软实力领域运作的国有机构。冷战时期波修瓦芭蕾舞团的外国巡回芭蕾外交,就相当于今天的俄罗斯语言文学课程、普希金/马列维奇等人的国际庆典、宇航员和当代俄罗斯电影,以及高级别战略对话。其文化机构已经增加了它们在全球的存在,从短短5年前的82间办公室增至今天的171间,展现出俄罗斯政府把在海外发展文化影响力和文化关系摆在了相当优先的位置。

(译注:波修瓦芭蕾舞团为全球顶尖的两大苏俄芭蕾舞团之一:基洛夫 ( KIROV )和 波修瓦(BOLSHOI);马列维奇(Kazimir Severinovich Malevich,1878-1935),俄国画家,至上主义艺术奠基人)

Founded in 2007 the Russkiy Mir Foundation has a rapidly expanding global network, including its newly opened centre in Tehran. Russkiy Mir offers Russian language courses – often through university departments – and an extensive programme of educational and cultural events including exhibitions and concerts. Established in 2008, Rossotrudnichestvo aims at the implementation of the state policy of international humanitarian co-operation and the international promotion of an ‘obxtive image’ of contemporary Russia. Rossotrudnichestvo is represented in 80 states of the world by 95 representative offices – 72 Russian centres of science and culture in 62 states plus 23 representatives of the Agency serving in Russian Embassies across 21 states. 22 The priority of Rossotrudnichestvo is co-operation with the state-members of the Commonwealth of Independent States – each state has a Russian science and culture centre. It also offers short-term study visits to the Russian Federation for young representatives of political, public, scientific and business fields of foreign states under its New Generation programme.

创立于2007年的“俄罗斯世界”基金会拥有一张快速扩张的全球网络,包括它在德黑兰新开的中心。俄罗斯世界提供俄语课程(通常是通过大学的科系),以及大量的教育和文化活动计划,包括展览会和音乐会。联邦独联体事务、海外侨胞和国际人道主义合作部创建于2008年,旨在执行国际人道主义合作的国策,以及当代俄罗斯“客观形象”的国际推广。该部门在全世界80个国家拥有95间代表处,由分布于62个国家的72家俄罗斯科学和文化中心,外加在21国俄联邦大使馆中提供服务的23个代表机构组成。该部门的优先事项是与独联体成员国展开合作,其中的每个成员国都有一家俄罗斯科学和文化中心。它也在其“新世代计划”中为政治、政府、科学和商业领域的外国年轻代表提供赴俄联邦的短期考察访问。



The Miracle on the Han River is a well-known story, the rapid reconstruction and development of the South Korean economy during the latter half of the 20th century took the state from a developing country to G20 stalwart. This is often overlooked in discussions about Korean soft power; the attractiveness of that dramatic economic progress to emerging economies is considerable. Other developing nations look to Korea as a trailblazer. Today it is exporting its model of community development, Saemaul Undong, to countries like Uganda looking to emulate Korea’s economic success. A major element in Korea’s success has come from its reputation for innovation and technology. Samsung, LG and the other chaebols at the forefront of the digital revolution not only dominate the South Korean economy but are celebrated global brands that enhance Korea’s international appeal.

“汉江奇迹”是一个广为人知的故事,二十世纪下半页韩国经济的快速重建和急速发展把该国从一个发展中国家变成了G20中的骨干。在有关韩国软实力的讨论中,这一点常常被忽视;经济急剧发展乃至成为了新兴经济体,这带来的吸引力是很可观的。其他发展中国家则将韩国视为先驱者。今天,它正将其社区发展模式,“新村运动”,出口到诸如乌干达等寻求效仿韩国经济成功的国家。韩国成功的一大要素来自于其创新和技术方面的声誉。三星,LG和其他置身数字革命最前线的企业集团不仅统治着韩国经济,也是享誉全球的品牌,增强了韩国的国际吸引力。

(译注:1970年4月,在全国地方行政长官参加的抗旱对策会议上,朴正熙提出了“建设新村运动”的构想,目的是动员农民共同建设“安乐窝”,主要内容包括农民自发修筑乡村公路、整治村庄环境、帮助邻里修建房屋、兴办文化事业、关心和照顾孤寡老人等,对韩国经济快速发展和推动社会和谐发展发挥了重要作用)

South Korea’s economic success has leaned heavily on soft power to open up opportunities for trade. Korea has invested in big ticket events, hosting the 1988 Summer Olympics, co-hosting the 2002 FIFA World Cup, holding the Expo 2012 and, most recently, presenting one of the most diplomatically significant Winter Olympics ever.

韩国的经济成功一直倚重于软实力,用它来打开贸易机会。韩国在大型赛事活动中投资,主办了88年夏季奥运会,合办了2002年世界杯,主办了2012年世博会,而最近的一次,是主办了迄今为止外交意义最为重大的冬奥会之一。

Korean culture is a global success story. Hallyu, Korean Wave, has brought interest and respect to the country. The growth in the popularity of Korean television drama, film and pop music has spread beyond East Asia, to South and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. In the UK Psy’s Gangnam Style remains the best known manifestation of the international phenomenon that is K-Pop, but Korean pop acts have a dedicated following in Continental Europe, Latin America and the Middle East. KCON, the Korean Wave convention, has taken place in LA, Mexico City, Paris, Sydney, Abu Dhabi, Chiba and other cities around the world. Galbi and kimchi are increasingly popular with culinary audiences. Korean films like Train to Busan, Snowpiercer and Oldboy have not only been huge global hits but have also influenced filmmakers in Hollywood, Bollywood and all the other major centres of the movie industry. A successful state-sponsored campaign to promote Taekwondo internationally saw the sport debut in the Opening Ceremony of the 1988 Seoul Olympics and become a full medal sport in the 2000 Sydney Games. The Korean state has cultivated the cultural assets with the highest international appeal and in the process delivered a masterclass in nation branding. People around the world are increasingly wearing, listening, eating, drinking, watching and dancing Korean.

韩国文化是一个在全球成功的故事。韩流已经给这个国家带来了别国的兴趣和尊重。韩国电视剧、韩国电影和韩国流行音乐的走红已经扩散到了东亚以外的地方,到达了南亚和中亚,乃至中东和北非地区。在英国,Psy的江南Style仍然是国际现象,也即K-Pop最有名的表现,但韩国流行音乐的演出团体在欧陆、拉丁美洲和中东都有一批很投入的追随者。KCON,即韩流大会,已经在洛杉矶、墨西哥城、巴黎、悉尼、阿布扎比、千叶以及全世界其他城市举办。韩国烤肉和泡菜正在烹饪界受众中日益走红。诸如《釜山行》、《雪国列车》和《老男孩》等韩国电影不仅在全球大获成功,而且已经对好莱坞、宝莱坞和其他所有电影工业主要中心的电影制作人们产生了影响。这项运动在88年汉城奥运会上的首次亮相,是一次由国家资助的向国际推广跆拳道的成功宣传,而且在2000年悉尼奥运会上成为了正式项目。韩国已经凭借其最高的国际吸引力培育出了文化资产,而且在这个过程中,韩国在宣传国家品牌时拿出了大师级的表现。全世界的人们正越来越多地穿韩国,听韩国,吃韩国,喝韩国,看韩国,和跳韩国。

As part of its international relations strategy Korea began a programme of opening Cultural Centres in 2009 as part of a global effort to introduce itself to the world and spread interest in diverse aspects of Korean culture. As of 2016 there were 31 Korean Cultural Centres in 28 countries. Like their European counterparts, the centres organise events and courses under the categories of arts, music, literature, language, film and cuisine. The Korea Foundation is a public diplomacy organisation of the Republic of Korea that serves to enhance understanding of Korea and promote global friendship through exchange activities. It has overseas offices in Washington DC, Los Angeles, Tokyo, Beijing, Moscow, Berlin and Hanoi reflecting the key priority places for Korean diplomacy. However, it also has a more extensive reach through international partnerships with Ministries of Foreign Affairs and cultural and educational institutions, including the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations and the Brazilian Ministry of External Relations. The state is also promoting the Korean language through the King Sejong Institute network. As of June 2018 there were 174 language schools, usually embedded in universities, in 57 countries. 23

作为其国际关系战略的一部分,韩国在2009年启动了一个开设文化中心的计划,这是把自己推介给全世界,并传播对韩国文化方方面面的兴趣所付出努力的一部分。截至2016年,在28个国家中有31家韩国文化中心。就像他们的欧洲同行一样,这类中心会组织艺术、音乐、文学、语言、电影和烹饪等类目范围内的活动和课程。韩国基金会是大韩民国的一个公共外交机构,旨在增进对韩国的理解,并通过各种交流活动增进全球友谊。它在华盛顿、洛杉矶、东京、北京、莫斯科、柏林和河内设有海外办公室,可以反映出这是韩国外交的主要优先事项。然而,它通过和外交部以及文化教育机构包括印度国际经济关系研究委员会和巴西对外关系部之间的国际合作关系,也拥有了更广阔的覆盖面。该国也正通过世宗学院的网络推广韩语。截至2018年6月,在57个国家拥有174所语言学校,通常是扎根于大学中。



Unlike the international broadcasting platforms of the UK or France, Arirang offers not only news from a Korean point of view but also markets Korea as a destination for tourists by promoting Korea’s cultural, gastronomic and sporting achievements. It’s a different model and focus to the BBC World Service but Korea’s priorities for the service are different to the UK, it wants to raise its profile, showcase its most attractive assets and tell its story. Arirang is part of the state’s deliberate, strategic exercise in nation branding.

与英法的国际广播平台不同的是,阿里郎电视台不仅提供从韩国视角出发的新闻,还通过推广韩国的文化、美食和体育成就,把韩国当成旅游目的地来营销。这是一种不同的模式,而且是向BBC全球服务看齐的,但韩国的优先级有别于英国,它要的是提升形象,展示其最吸引人的优点,并讲出它自己的故事。阿里郎电视台是该国在打造国家品牌中刻意为之的战略性实践的一部分。

The South Korean reputation for innovation and creativity coupled with both a traditional and cutting edge cultural offer boldly promoted by a nation seeking to build its international influence is making a real difference to global perceptions. The success of the Pyeongchang Winter Olympics, complete with the diplomatic coup of the North’s participation and subsequent There are similarities with the German approach with both states regarded as eschewing the zero-sum approach and being seen to act to build a consensus based on mutual benefits – and in so doing achieve their aims without antagonizing potential rivals.high-profile summit diplomacy and tentative moves towards the normalisation of relations between the nations, has further raised the profile and leverage of South Korea on the global stage. But this success is nothing new. Within the G20 and other international fora, South Korea has long been adroit at building alliances to shape the agenda and drive forward global policy to its advantage. There are similarities with the German approach with both states regarded as eschewing the zero-sum approach and being seen to act to build a consensus based on mutual benefits – and in so doing achieve their aims without antagonizing potential rivals.

韩国在创新和创造力方面的声誉,结合其既传统又前沿的文化被一个寻求构建其国际影响力的国家勇敢地推广了出去,这正在给国际认知带来真正的改变。平昌冬奥会的成功,连同让朝鲜参与的外交妙招,之后高姿态的峰会外交,以及为实现国家间关系正常化所作出的实验性举措,已经进一步提升了韩国在全球舞台上的受关注度和影响力。但是这种成功并不是新鲜事。在二十国集团和其他国际论坛中,韩国长期以来构建联盟的手法一直都很娴熟,以此来左右议程并向着对其有利的方向推动全球政策。这与德国的手法存在相似之处,这两国都被认为避免了零和的方法,并被视为会为了在互惠互利的基础上达成共识而采取行动,这样一来就能在不与潜在对手对抗的情况下实现其目标。