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Why a cat always lands on its feet

为什么美国加州山火烧个没完?



There have been nearly 5000 fires in California since the start of 2018. The fire season has been dominating the news.

从2018年初开始,加州已经发生了近5000起火灾,火灾消息一直占据着新闻头版。

“This has turned into another record-setting fire season.” “Now the largest in state history.” “Really there's no end in sight."It's hot. It's dry. It's windy. Just about everything on the ground is flammable.But there's one thing that's consistently making wildfires in California worse and worse and worse: Us.

这里已经变成另一个创纪录的火灾场。是加州历史上最大的,真的没有结束的迹象。很热,很干,风很大。地面上所有的东西都是易燃的,但有一个原因使得加州的野火不断恶化,而且越来越严重——我们人类自己。

At this point, even calling them “wild” fires might be a misnomer, because most of them are not natural. Humans are responsible for starting a whopping 84% of them.The northern California Carr fire for example, was started by sparks from a car tire' rim.And in southern California, the Holy Fire just outside of LA started after a suspected arson. These are just two of the fires currently active in the state.

根据这点来说,称为野火可能用词不当,因为大多数的野火都不是自然发生的。高达84%的野火都由人类承担责任,例如,加州北部的卡尔大火是由汽车轮胎轮圈上的火花引起的,而在加州南部,洛杉矶外面的霍利大火是在一场纵火案之后开始的。

So far in 2018 629,000 acres have burned. That's nearly 3 times as much compared to the same time period in 2017.What makes these fires so dangerous, damaging, and therefore costly is that more human-made infrastructure is getting caught in the flames.This map highlights the parts of California most prone to fires, and it's no surprise
that — yeah — that's where these fires are.

这还只是目前在该州活跃的两起火灾,到目前为止,在2018年间,有629000英亩土地被烧毁。这相当于2017年同期的3倍。
导致这些火灾如此危险、具破坏性,而且代价高昂的原因是:更多的人造基础设施陷入火海,这张地图标示出加州最容易发生火灾的地区,毫无意外,这就是火灾发生的所在地。



But compare it to this map, which shows population density growth projections. Put them together, and it's clear: California's population is growing out from urban centers directly into the areas at the highest risk for fire.Meanwhile, the state is spending more and more to fight fires each year, as more and more people move into areas that put them in harm's way. “It's up to all of us to protect and preserve the forests we have.” So, since we made this mess worse, what can we do?

但与这张人口密度增长预测的地图进行比较把两张地图放在一起,非常明显:加州的人口增长正从市中心直接发展到了火灾风险最高的区域。同时,国家每年花费越来越多金钱去灭火,由于越来越多的人进入那些让他们处于危险之中的地区。我们所有人都必须保护和维护我们拥有的森林。所以,既然我们把这个烂摊子弄得更糟糕了,我们能做什么?

“'That's a good job!' said Smokey the Bear.” Being mindful of how we spark these fires is a good start, but the bigger problems contributing to this — like man-made climate change — are unlikely to reverse.And despite the risks, humans keep moving into these areas. “Fires creeping real real close to some residences up here.” "By 2050 another 645,000 houses will be built at areas at very high risk for wildfires."

注意到我们是如何点燃这些火苗是一个好的开始,但更大的问题——比如人为的气候变化,不太可能逆转,尽管有风险,人类还是持续搬入这些火灾区。火灾蔓延到附近的住宅。到了2050年,另外会有645000栋房屋建在高危险性的野火地区。

We have the opportunity to get out of the way of wildfires, and let nature run its course. But will we? “Only YOU can prevent forest fires.”

我们有机会避开野火,让大自然顺其自然但我们会这么做吗?其实只有你可以预防森林火灾。

Why Do Animals Eat Their Own Poop

为什么兔兔那么可爱却是先天食便癖?



Bunny kisses might sound really cute until you find out that rabbits eat their own poop.If you own a dog, or a rabbit, or a dung beetle (no judgment), then you might have noticedthat unlike most humans, they love to eat poop.Their own poop, the poop of other animals, it’s like the world is their poop buffet.And as a responsible pet owner, you may be inclined to put a stop to this behavior, butit turns out: that would make YOU the poopy-head.

来自小兔子的吻听起来真地很可爱直到你发现兔子会吃它们自己的屎。如果你有养狗,或者是兔子,或者是屎壳郎,那么你可能发现了,不像大多数的人类,它们爱吃屎。
它们自己的屎,其他动物的屎,这就像整个世界都是它们的自助屎餐。作为一个有责任感的宠物主人,你可能倾向于制止这样的行为,但是事实却是:这样做将会让你自己惷成屎脑壳。



Cecotropes are produced in a different part of the digestive tract, and are coated with mucus so they survive the trip.And even though it still exits the anus, it is not technically considered “feces”,and so technically it’s not coprophagia.Either way, these animals are eating something that came out of their butt.But rabbits, rodents, and hares are not the only ones ordering poop for pickup.

盲肠便是在不同的消化道产生的,并且外面包裹着黏液,所以它们可以在肠道中幸存。并且尽管它仍然存在于肛门,学术上已不被认为是排泄物,因此学术上这就不是食便癖。不管怎样,这些动物吃的这些都是打它们自己的屁股来。


The dung beetle, as you can probably imagine, also eat, well, dung.They actually extract nutrients, specifically nitrogen, from animal excrement, and sometimes use the pile as a nest for their offspring.

但是兔子、啮齿动物以及野兔这类吃屎的动物并不孤单。屎壳郎,正如你所想,同样,也是吃粪便。事实上它们从动物的排泄物中提取营养物质,尤其是氮,并且有时用这些屎作为材料替子女建房。



In rare cases, it can potentially transmit a disease or cause vomiting and diarrhea.And, if they jump up to give you a kiss, it’s a definitely gross.Now, as for humans, eating poop isn’t quite so carefree.Coprophagia is usually associated with mental illness, and human poop, especially someone else’s, can contain bacteria such as shigella, campylobacter, salmonella and E.coli. Those can make you VERY sick.

然而在某些罕见的情况,这有可能会传播疾病或者引起呕吐和腹泻。并且,如果它们跳起来亲你,这必定是很恶心的。现今,对人类来说,吃屎不太能被人接受。食便癖通常会和心理疾病联系起来,而且人类的粪便,尤其是其他人的,会有细菌如志贺氏杆菌、湾区杆菌、沙门氏菌和大肠杆菌。这些细菌无疑可以让你生大病。

Long story short: rabbits, rats, and dogs eating poop: usually fine and healthy.Humans eating poop: Nope.Nope nope nope.If you’re into animal poop or just animals that start with P, you might like the show Panda Republic.Now you can watch that and all the other Animal Planet shows on Animal Planet Go.

长话短说:兔子、老鼠和狗吃屎:通常是好的并且健康的。人类吃屎:不行。不行,不行,坚决不行。如果你对动物屎感兴趣,你可能会喜欢Panda Republic这个纪录片。现在你就可以从动物星球上观看这个以及所有其他动物表演的节目(嘤嘤怪食屎?)。

Check out the link in the description or download it from your app store.So if your dog eats poop, should you let your dog lick your face?Or will you get a whole bunch of weird diseases?And what other weird animal habits do you want to know about?

查看简介中的连结或者从应用程市场店下载。如果你的狗吃屎,你应该让它舔你的脸吗?你会不会得一大堆奇怪的病吗?动物其他怪癖你还有什么想知道的吗?



Why a cat always lands on its feet

为什么猫咪从高空坠落却总是四脚落地?



This is the first live cat recorded on film, and it's being dropped to solve a physics problem: Why do cats always land on their feet?

这是第一个活着的猫的影像纪录,他被高高丢下的画面解决了一个物理难题:为什么猫咪总是可以四脚落地?



Essentially, all he does is block that light intermittently.A slot from the disc opens, and then there's darkness as the man moves, opens, darkness.This technique is called chronophotography, and the results show something human eyes will never see on their own: individual stages of motion.A couple of years later, Kodak introduced celluloid film and Marey updated his slot camera in a crucial way.

基本上,他做的就是间歇性的阻挡光线。光线进入狭缝时会制造出影像,接着人移动时光线便被阻挡,一明一暗不断交错。这种技术叫定时摄影,它可以让我们看见人眼看不到的东西:物体的个别运动阶段。几年后,柯达采用赛璐珞底片,Marey随后也将他的插槽式摄像机升级,这个转变十分关键。

He swapped the single glass plate with a roll of film that moved in between exposures.So, light: an image is made.Darkness, the film moves on.Light, an image — so it's a movie camera, is what it is.

他改用一卷底片代替单片玻璃来曝光。有光的时候,就会显现影像。暗的时候底片就会转动。

Marey made a lot of films for research purposes.And even tried dropping other animals to see if they'd land on their feet, specifically this rabbit and this chicken.

为了研究,Marey拍摄了许多影片。有光又出现影像,这就是电影照摄像机。甚至尝试让其它动物落下,看他们能不能以脚着地,像象是这只兔子和这只鸡。

Which brings us back to the cat.It seems to be able to right itself by flipping in the air without pushing off anything first, which would contradict the law of conservation of angular momentum.

这也让我们的主题回到猫咪。猫咪似乎可以不用对任何东西施力就在空中翻转身体,但这样会跟角动量守恒定律相冲突。

Sounds scary, but stick with me here.One of Newton's laws of motion says that something in motion can't just stop itself unless an opposing force acts upon it.Basically, you can't just change direction midair, Wile E. Coyote style.

听起来有点可怕,但请继续听我解释。其中一个牛顿运动定律说到:一个移动中的物体无法自己停下来,除非有反方向的力作用于他身上。基本上你不能像威利狼与哔哔鸟一样在半空中改变方向。

But to the naked eye, it looks like a cat can.Most people assumed the cat was "cheating" by kicking off the hands of the person dropping it.

但就肉眼看来,猫咪好像就是可以做到。多数人认为猫咪是用脚蹬人的手来做弊的。

But Marey's film showed what's actually happening.The first few frames prove right away that the cat doesn't start its rotation from a kick.But what it does do is arch its back.And by arching its back, it's divided its body into a front part and a back part, and the two parts can work independently.

Marey的影像说明了这段过程中到底发生什么事。前面几帧照片就证实了,猫咪一开始并没有用踢的方式来旋转方向。但它弓起了它的背部。弓起背部后,它将身体分为前半部与后半部,这两部分可以分开来活动。

You know how a figure skater pulls their arms in to rotate faster?That's whats happening here, too.

你知道花式滑冰员是如何借着收拢双臂来越转越快的吗?猫咪旋转的原理也是这样。



You might have seen another famous early example of motion photography.

你可能已经看到了另一个著名的运动摄影的早期例子。

In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge used 12 cameras connected to tripwires to prove that a horse lifts all four feet off the ground at some point in a gallop.

1878 年,Eadweard Muybridge用导线将 12台摄像机连接在一起,最后证明马只有在疾速飞驰时会才四脚离地。