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查尔斯·达尔文:《人类的起源》,《与性别有关的选择》(伦敦:企鹅出版社,2004年,再版,伦敦:约翰·默里出版社,1879年)。

Western intellectual life today ischaracterized by a marked schizophrenia. On the one hand, virtually everyoneaccepts the scientific theory of Charles Darwin concerning the emergence and evolutionof the various species in the world, including humanity, through the processnatural selection. The only exceptions to this rule are a few Creationisthold-outs. On the other hand, our culture denies the biological reality of raceand the relevance of hereditarian thinking to human societies. Our egalitarianculture rejects heredity’s implications intoto — both the descriptive (in-born human differences betweenindividuals and races) and prescriptive (e.g. eugenics). Given how tabooracialist thinking still is, it is then useful — in order to think freely — togo back to the roots of evolutionary thinking by looking at what Darwin himselfhad to say about human evolution and racial differences.

今天西方知识分子的生活以明显的精神分裂症为特征。一方面,几乎每个人都接受达尔文的科学理论,即通过自然选择的过程,世界上包括人类在内的各种物种的出现和进化。这条规则的唯一例外是一些坚持神创论的人。
另一方面,我们的文化否认种族的生物学现实和遗传思想与人类社会的相关性。我们的平等主义文化拒绝遗传在“toto”中的暗示——无论是描述性的(个体和种族之间与生俱来的人类差异)还是说明性的(例如优生学)。
鉴于种族主义思想仍然是禁忌,那么,为了自由思考,通过观察达尔文本人对人类进化和种族差异的看法,回到进化思维的根源上来,是很有用的。

The concept of race or lineage is central toDarwin’s evolutionary thinking. His classic The Origin of Species is indeed subtitled By Means of Natural Selection of thePreservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. In oneplace, Darwin defines a race as the “successive generations” of a particularpopulation (102). Darwin’s model for evolutionary change is simple andpowerful: every species will tend to bear too many offspring, leading tooverpopulation, a huge percentage of these will die before reaching maturity orin competition with others (whether of the same species or not), those whosurvive this struggle will be those with the traits best suited for theirparticular environment. The constant generation and culling of “races,” that isto say new of populations with different traits, is then central to his system,which also applies to human evolution.

种族或血统的概念是达尔文进化思想的核心。他的经典著作《物种起源》的副标题确实是通过自然选择的方式,在为生存而斗争的过程中保留了所喜爱的种族。在一个地方,达尔文把一个种族定义为一个特定种群(102)的“后代”。
达尔文的进化模型简单而强大: 每一个物种都会倾向于生育过多的后代,导致物种数量过剩,其中很大一部分会在成熟前死亡,或者在与其他物种竞争(无论是否属于同一物种)时死亡, 那些在这场斗争中幸存下来的将是那些最适合他们特定环境的。
不断产生和淘汰“种族”,也就是具有不同特征的新种群,是这个系统的核心,这也适用于人类进化。



Darwin takes differences in intellectualability for granted, both between individuals and races: “The variability ordiversity of the mental faculties in men of the same race, not to mention thegreater differences between the men of distinct races, is so notorious that nota word need here be said” (45). Furthermore: “The individuals of the samespecies graduate in intellect from absolute imbecility to high excellence”(100). He had no doubt that psychological traits such as personality andintelligence were heritable:

达尔文认为智力上的差异是理所当然的,无论是个体之间还是种族之间:同种族的人智力的多变性或多样性,更不用说不同种族的人之间更大的差异,它是如此臭名昭著,在此无需赘述
此外,“同一物种的个体在智力上从绝对低能到卓越”(100)。他毫不怀疑,人格和智力等心理特征是可以遗传的:

Inregard to mental qualities, their transmission is manifest in our dogs, horses,and other domestic animals.[2] Besidesspecial tastes and habits, general intelligence, courage, bad and good temper,&c., are certainly transmitted. With man we see similar facts in almostevery family; and we now know through the admirable labours of Mr [Francis]Galton, that genius which implies a wonderfully complex combination of highfaculties, tends to be inherited; and, on the other hand, it is too certainthat insanity and deteriorated mental powers likewise run in families. . . .
Domesticatedanimals vary more than those in a state of nature; and this is apparently dueto the diversified and changing nature of the conditions to which they havebeen subjected. In this respect the different races of man resembledomesticated animals, and so do the individuals of the same race, wheninhabiting a very wide area, like that of America. We see the influence ofdiversified conditions in the more civilised nations; for the members belongingto different grades of rank, and following different occupations, present agreater range of character than do the members of barbarous nations. (45–46)

就精神素质而言,它们的传播在我们的狗、马和其他家畜身上表现得很明显。除了特殊的品味和习惯,一般的智力、勇气、坏脾气和好脾气,等等。,当然是可以传递的。对于人类,我们在几乎每个家庭中都看到了类似的事实;我们现在通过(弗朗西斯)高尔顿先生令人钦佩的努力知道,天才意味着高级官能奇妙而复杂的结合,往往是遗传的; 另一方面,可以肯定的是,精神错乱和退化的精神力量同样存在于家庭之中……

家养动物比自然状态下的动物变化更大;这显然是由于他们所受条件的多样性和不断变化的性质。在这方面,人类的不同种族就像驯养的动物一样,当人类居住在一个非常广阔的地区时,就像美国一样,同一种族的个体也是如此。我们看到,在文明程度更高的国家,多样化的环境产生了影响;对于属于不同等级、从事不同职业的成员来说,他们比野蛮民族的成员具有更广泛的特征。(第45 – 46页)

Humanity’s Moral Improvement Through PerpetualTribal Warfare
Darwinasserts that the same relentless struggle for survival was the driver forhumanity’s evolution into a more intelligent, social, and even moral being.Human tribes spread across the globe, reproduced beyond the ability of theirenvironment to sustain them, and entered into relentless competition andwarfare with other tribes.
Darwinconsiders the emergence of pro-social traits such as sympathy, love of kin,shame, and regret to be central to human evolution. These feelings werecertainly not universal however. He observes that prehistoric tribes, likemodern savage tribes, were perpetually at war with one another. “It is noargument against savage man being a social animal, that the tribes inhabitingadjacent districts are almost always at war with each other; for the socialinstincts never extend to all the individuals of the same species” (132).

达尔文断言,为了生存而进行的不懈斗争,同样是也推动了人类进化成为一个更聪明、更社会化、甚至更有道德的存在。人类部落遍布全球,繁衍生息超出了环境的承受能力,并与其他部落展开了无情的竞争和战争。
达尔文认为,诸如同情、亲情、羞耻和遗憾等亲社会特征的出现是人类进化的核心。然而,这些感受肯定不是普遍的。他观察到史前部落,就像现代的野蛮部落一样,永远处于战争状态。“居住在邻近地区的部落几乎总是互相打仗,这并不是反对野人是一种社会性动物的理由;因为社会本能从来不会延伸到同一物种的所有个体"



亚马逊的一个“与世隔绝的部落”对直升机做出反应。

Darwinfirmly believes that group selection was the mechanism by which many humanpsychological traits emerged. Group selection means that traits not necessarilybeneficial to the individual but rather to the group (such as altruism) spreadthrough competition between groups (forinstance: one tribe defeats and exterminates another tribe through itsindividuals’ superior willingness to sacrifice themselves). The group selectionhypothesis is considered controversial today in some evolutionary circles.Darwin for his part wrote:
A community which includes a large number of well-endowedindividuals increases in number, and is victorious over other less favouredones; even although each separate member gains no advantage over the others ofthe same community . . . [Certain mental] faculties have been chiefly, or evenexclusively, gained for the benefit of the community, and the individualsthereof, have at the same time gained an advantage indirectly. (83)



When two tribes of prim man, living inthe same country, came into competition, if (other circumstances being equal)the one tribe included a great number of courageous, sympathetic and faithfulmembers, who were always ready to warn each other of danger, to aid and defendeach other, this tribe would succeed better and conquer the other. Let it beborn in mind how all-important in the never-ceasing wars of savages, fidelityand courage must be. . . . Selfish and contentious people will not cohere, andwithout coherence nothing can be effected. A tribe rich in the above qualitieswould spread and be victorious over other tribes: but in the course of time itwould, judging from all past history, be in its turn overcome by some othertribe still more highly endowed. Thus the social and moral qualities wouldslowly to advance and be diffused throughout the world.
Darwin also argued that humans had an in-bornproclivity for other pro-social behaviors, such as language and religiosity.

当两个原始部落的人,生活在同一个国家,进入竞争,如果一个部落(其他情况不变)包含大量勇敢,同情和忠诚的成员,他们时刻准备着互相警告危险,互相帮助和保护,这个部落会取得更大的成功,并征服对方。
让它诞生在脑海中,在野蛮人永不停息的战争中,忠诚和勇气是多么的重要……自私和有争议的人不会团结一致,没有团结一致,什么也办不成。一个拥有以上品质的部落将会扩张并战胜其他部落,但从过去的历史来看,随着时间的推移,它将会被其他更有天赋的部落所征服。这样,社会和道德品质就会慢慢提高,并扩散到世界各地。
达尔文还认为,人类天生具有其他亲社会行为的倾向,比如语言和宗教信仰。

Adaptive Traditional Culture
Mankind’sspecificity is also in being both a genetic and profoundly cultural being. Our individual andcollective behavior are powerfully influenced by both our genetic inheritanceand our particular, highly-fungible cultural norms and practices. We wouldexpect the tribes with both a genetic propensity and a culture favoringgroup-solidarity and organization to overcome less well-endowed tribes.
[A]n increase in the number of well-endowedmen and an advancement in the standard of morality will certainly give animmense advantage to one tribe over another. A tribe including many memberswho, from possessing in a high degree the spirit of patriotism, fidelity,obedience, courage, and sympathy, were always ready to aid one another, and tosacrifice themselves for the common good, would be victorious over most othertribes; and this would be natural selection. (157)

自适应传统文化
人类的特殊性还体现在它既是一种遗传的存在,又是一种深刻的文化存在。我们的个人和集体行为受到我们的遗传和我们独特的、高度可替代的文化规范和实践的强烈影响。我们期望那些具有遗传倾向和文化倾向的部落能够战胜那些不那么富裕的部落,这些部落更倾向于群体团结和组织。

增加有天赋的人的数量和道德标准的提高肯定会给一个部落带来巨大的优势。一个包括许多成员的部落,由于具有高度的爱国主义、忠诚、服从、勇气和同情精神,总是乐于互相帮助,为了共同的利益牺牲自己——将战胜大多数其他部落。这就是自然选择。



Nature’s Communitarian Ethos
Darwinpersonally adhered to a liberal, high-minded and humane Christian-inspiredmorality typical of the Victorian middle classes. Yet, he cannot help butobserve that nature’s law is extremely cruel, with the proverbial “favoredraces” often triumphing through a ruthless ethos brutally subordinating theinterests of the individual to that of the group. Darwin takes the example ofbees, an even more social animal than humans, who when under resource pressureexterminate superfluous individuals:
In the same manner as various animals have some sense of beauty,though they admire widely different objects, so they might have a have sense ofright and wrong, though led by it to follow widely different lines of conduct.If, for instance, to take an extreme case, men were reared under precisely thesame conditions as hive-bees, there can hardly be a doubt that our unmarriedfemales would, like the worker-bees, think it a sacred duty to kill theirbrothers, and mothers would strive to kill their fertile daughters; and no onewould think of interfering.

达尔文个人坚持自由、高尚和人道的“基督教启发的道德典型”的维多利亚中产阶级。然而,他不得不注意到,自然法则是极其残酷的,众所周知,“受欢迎的种族”往往通过一种无情的风气取得胜利,这种风气残酷地将个人的利益置于群体的利益之下。达尔文以蜜蜂为例,蜜蜂是一种比人类更社会化的动物,当面临资源压力时,它们会消灭多余的个体:

就像各种动物都有一定的美感一样,虽然它们欣赏的对象千差万别,所以它们可能也有对与错的感觉,尽管在这种感觉的引导下,它们的行为举止大相径庭。举个极端的例子,如果男人在和蜜蜂完全相同的环境下长大,毫无疑问,我们的未婚女性会像工蜂一样,认为杀死她们的兄弟是神圣的责任,而母亲会努力杀死她们能生育的女儿;没有人会想要干涉。

Darwinadds in a footnote that primitive human patterns are quite similar: “many ormost savages [solve] the problem by female infanticide, polyandry andpromiscuous intercourse” (122). (From a strictly evolutionary point of view, ahuman community under pressure from other tribes and a poor environment maybenefit from fewer females, preferring to dedicate scarce resources to fightingmales.)
Darwin’scritics were quite cognizant of the potential threat posed by his theory toliberal and Christian ethics. He writes:
Miss Cobbe, in commenting (‘Darwinism and his Morals’ ‘TheologicalReview’, April, 1872, pp. 188-191) on the same illustration, says, the principles of social duty would bethus reversed; and by this, I presume, she means that the fulfillment of socialduty would tend to the injury of individuals; but she overlooks the fact, whichshe would doubtless admit, that the instincts of the bee have been acquired forthe good of the community. She goes so far as to say that if the theory ofethics advocated in this chapter were ever generally accepted, ‘I cannot butbelieve that in the hour of their triumph would be sounded the knell of thevirtue of mankind!’ It is to be hoped that the belief in the permanence ofvirtue on this earth is not held by many persons on so weak a tenure.

达尔文在脚注中补充说,原始人类的模式非常相似:“许多或大多数野蛮人通过杀害女婴、一夫多妻制和滥交来解决这个问题。”(从严格的进化观点来看,一个处于其他部落压力和恶劣环境下的人类社区可能会从女性这里受益更少,而更愿意将稀缺的资源投入到与男性的战斗中。)
达尔文的批评者非常清楚他的理论对自由主义和基督教伦理的潜在威胁。他写道:

科布小姐在评论(《达尔文主义和他的道德》,《神学评论》,1872年)同一幅插图时说,社会责任的原则将因此而颠倒; 我想,她的意思是,履行社会责任往往会对个人造成伤害;但她忽略了一个事实,她肯定会承认,蜜蜂的本能是为了群体的利益而获得的。她甚至说,如果本章所提倡的伦理理论曾经被普遍接受,“我不得不相信,在他们胜利的时刻,将敲响人类美德的丧钟!” ……

Darwin observes that animal communities arecollectivist and hierarchically organized, with different roles according tothe nature of each individual, so as to optimize collective well-being andsurvival. When threatened, bull bison form a ring around the herd, protectingthe young and females in the center (124). Put another way, the herdinstinctively and collectively discriminates againstmales, putting their security at risk, so that the herd as a whole benefitsfrom their superior strength and the sacrifice of their reduced reproductivue (sperm is far more easily replaced than ovaries).

达尔文观察到,动物群落是集体主义的、层级化的组织,根据每个个体的性质有不同的角色,从而优化集体的福祉和生存。当受到威胁时,野牛会围成一圈,保护中心的幼崽和母野牛。
换句话说,野牛群本能地、集体地歧视雄性,使它们的安全处于危险之中,因此,作为一个整体,受益于它们的强大力量和牺牲它们相对廉价的生殖价值(精子比卵巢更容易被取代)。

Darwinadds that both herd animals and human tribes exterminate weaker members topromote the survival of the group:
[Animals] will expel a wounded animal from their herd, or gore orworry it to death. This is almost the blackest fact in natural history, unless,indeed, the explanation which has been suggested is true, that their instinctor reason leads them to expel an injured companion, lest beasts of prey,including man, should be tempted to follow the troop. In this case theirconduct is not much worse than that of the North American Indians, who leavetheir feeble comrades to perish on the plains; or the Fijians, who, when theirparents get old, or fall ill, bury them alive.

达尔文补充说,群居动物和人类部落都灭绝较弱的成员,以促进群体的生存:
动物会把受伤的动物赶出他们的兽群,或者把它弄得鲜血淋漓,或者把它折磨致死。这几乎是自然史上最令人发指的事实,除非所提出的解释是正确的,即他们的本能或理性促使他们驱逐受伤的同伴,以免包括人类在内的猛兽受到引诱而追随他们的队伍。在这种情况下,他们的行为并不比北美印第安人差多少,北美印第安人把他们软弱的同伴留在平原上自生自灭;或者斐济人,当他们的父母老了,或者生病了,把他们活埋。



Today, even seven decades after World War II,in the background of all this looms the legacy of Adolf Hitler. Evolutionaryand hereditary principles were widely accepted in the early twentieth century.In that intellectual and cultural context, Hitler transformed his nationpolitically and culturally, believing that a zealous, communitarian, warlike,expansionary, racial, and ethno-nationalist ethos would enable Germany’ssalvation and the biological and spiritual improvement of mankind. Hitlerbelieved his leadership and politics adhered closely to what he called “the lawof life.”[6] It is indeed an uncomfortable fact formany evolutionists that many of passages in Mein Kampf are eerily reminiscent of Darwin’s ownaccount of human history, in particular the emergence of morality through eonsof tribal warfare.

今天,甚至在第二次世界大战结束70年后,在这一切的背景下,阿道夫·希特勒的遗产依然隐约可见。进化和遗传原则在20世纪早期被广泛接受。在这样的知识和文化背景下,希特勒在政治和文化上改变了他的国家,他相信一个热心的、社群主义的、好战的、扩张的、种族主义的和民族主义的精神将使德国获得救赎,使人类的生理和精神得到改善。希特勒相信他的领导和政治严格遵循他所谓的“生命法则”。 对许多进化论者来说,《我的奋斗》中的许多段落都令人毛骨悚然地回忆起达尔文对人类历史的描述,尤其是通过亘古的部落战争而出现的道德,这确实是一个令人不安的事实。

Inthe end, Darwin seems to endorse a communitarian ethic moderated and informedby reason (my emphasis):
In the case of the lower animals it seems much more appropriate tospeak of their social instincts, as having been developed for the general goodrather than for the general happiness of the species. The term, general good, may be defined as the rearing of the greatest numberof individuals in full vigour and health, with all their faculties perfect,under the conditions to which they are subjected.As the social instincts both of man and the lower animals have no doubt beendeveloped by nearly the same steps, it would be advisable to take as thestandard of morality, the general good or welfare of the community, rather thanthe general happiness; but this definition would perhaps require somelimitation account of political ethics.



The ideas of Locke and Rousseau — extollingequality, rights, and the popular will as ends-in-themselves — have led to perpetualconfusion among our people and to our inexorable collapse since the beginningthe twentieth century. In 1914, we essentially dominated the world and made upa third of human population. Before 2100, a blink of an eye in historical letalone evolutionary terms, we will have lost control not only of our colonialempires but even of our own homelands, being reduced to minorities in not onlyNorth America but even Western Europe. We will make up less than 5 percent ofthe global population. The triumph of liberal-democracy’s individualist andegalitarian principles have coincided with Europeans’ evolutionary suicide.

自20世纪初以来,洛克和卢梭的思想——颂扬平等、权利和人民的意愿,认为它们是终极目标——已经在我们的人民中间造成了永久的混乱,并导致了我们不可阻挡的崩溃。1914年,我们基本上统治了世界,占世界人口的三分之一。在2100年之前,我们不仅会失去对殖民帝国的控制,甚至会失去对自己家园的控制,不仅在北美,甚至在西欧,我们都将沦为少数民族。我们将占全球人口不到5%。自由民主的个人主义和平等主义原则的胜利与欧洲人的自杀式进化不谋而合。