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Manufacturingbelief

(人为)制造的信念



If the Apollo moon landingswere faked, serious questions ought to be asked about the NASA, to start with.Then, there is a need for some deep thinking about what has become of theUnited States since World War II. And beyond that, the moon hoax is the idealstarting point for reflecting on the hypnotic control that television and thenews media have gained over our mind. It is not just a political issue. It is abattle for our souls.

如果阿波罗登月计划是伪造的,那么首先应该对美国宇航局提出严肃的问题。其次,有必要深入思考一下美国自二战以来的状况。除此之外,“月球骗局”是我们反思电视和新闻媒体对我们的催眠控制的理想起点。这不仅仅是一个政治问题,这也是为我们的灵魂而战。

The first step is to grow outof our infantile beliefs about the NASA, and do some basic study on what it isall about. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was founded in1958 by President Eisenhower. Many people today commend Eisenhower for warningAmericans, on leaving office, against the growing threat of themilitary-industrial complex, and the “potential for the disastrous rise ofmisplaced power.” Ironically, the foundation of NASA was itself a giant leapfor the military-industrial complex. There is no question that NASA’s so-called“civilian space program” was first and foremost a cover for a military program.The NASA Act of 1958 made explicit provisions for close collaboration with theDepartment of Defense, and in practice, the Pentagon was involved in alldecisions regarding the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. Erlend Kennan andEdmund Harvey documented this point in Mission to the Moon: a critical examination of NASA and the spaceprogram, as early as 1969, andconcluded:

第一步是摆脱我们对NASA幼稚的信念,对它到底是怎么回事做一些基本的研究。1958年,艾森豪威尔总统建立了美国国家航空航天局。今天,许多人赞扬——艾森豪威尔在卸任时警告美国人,要警惕军工复合体日益增长的威胁,以及“错位权力灾难性崛起的可能性”。
具有讽刺意味的是,NASA的成立本身就是军工企业的一个巨大飞跃。毫无疑问,美国宇航局所谓的“民用太空计划”首先是一个军事计划的掩护。美国航空航天局1958年的法案明确规定了与国防部的密切合作,实际上,五角大楼参与了所有有关水星、双子座和阿波罗计划的决策。
早在1969年,Erlend Kennan和Edmund Harvey就在《登月任务:对NASA和太空计划的批判性研究》(Mission to the Moon: a critical examination of NASA and thespace program)一书中记录了这一点,并得出结论:



It fell upon Kennedy to sellthe moon program to the Congress and to the American public in order toincrease NASA budget dramatically. On May 25, 1961, a mere 43 days after YuriGagarin allegedly completed one orbit around the earth, Kennedy delivered before the Congress a special message on“urgent national needs.” He asked for an additional $7 billion to $9 billionover the next five years for the space program, for the purpose, he claimed, of“achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moonand returning him safely to the earth. No single space project in this periodwill be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-rangeexploration of space.”

为了大幅增加NASA的预算,肯尼迪不得不向国会和美国公众推销登月计划。1961年5月25日,也就是尤里·加加林据称完成绕地球一周后仅仅43天,肯尼迪就在国会发表了关于“国家迫切需要”的特别讲话。
他要求在未来五年内为太空计划额外拨款70亿至90亿美元,他声称,目的是“在这个十年结束之前实现将人类送上月球并安全返回地球的目标”。在这一时期,没有任何一个太空项目会比它更让人类印象深刻,或者对太空的长期探索更重要。”

Kennedycan be blamed for fooling the American public, but it is likely that he hadbeen fooled himself, just like he had been tricked by the CIA into thedisastrous Bay of Pigs invasion, a mere month earlier. Whatever the case, themoon was Johnson’s idea, not Kennedy’s. It is believed that Kennedy wasconvinced by a memorandum of Lyndon Johnson,titled “Evaluation of Space Program” and dated April 28, 1961, supposedly basedon deliberations with top NASA officials. The memo assured the president of thefeasibility of “a safe landing and return by a man to the moon” “by 1966 or1967”, if “a strong effort” is made. As for the benefit of it, Johnson put itthis way:

肯尼迪可以被指责愚弄了美国公众,但他很可能是被自己愚弄了,就像一个月前他被中央情报局(CIA)骗进了灾难性的猪湾入侵事件(一样。无论如何,月球是约翰逊的主意,而不是肯尼迪的。据信,肯尼迪是被约翰逊的一份备忘录说服的。这份备忘录名为《太空计划评估》(Evaluation of Space Program),日期为1961年4月28日,据称是在与NASA高级官员商议的基础上写成的。这份备忘录向总统保证,如果“付出巨大努力”,“在1966年或1967年之前”,“人类安全着陆并重返月球”是可行的。至于它的好处,约翰逊这样说:



That explains why Texanindustries were the greatest beneficiary of the space program, and why the NASAManned Spacecraft Center in Houston was renamed the Lyndon B. Johnson SpaceCenter in 1973.

这就解释了为什么德克萨斯州的工业是太空计划的最大受益者,以及为什么NASA位于休斯顿的载人航天中心在1973年更名为林登·b·约翰逊航天中心的原因了。

UnderEisenhower, Johnson was both the Senate Majority Leader, and a key player inthe Texan sector of the military-industrial complex. It is interesting to knowthat the original draft of Eisenhower’s farewell address, written by hisassistants Malcolm Moos and Ralph Williams, spoke of the “Military-IndustrialCongressional Complex”, but Eisenhower dropped “congressional”—in fear,perhaps, of Johnson. Johnson’s corruption aggravated after he becamevice-president and appointed his Texan friends at the head of the Navy: firstJohn Connally, then Fred Korth, who resigned in October 1963, after the JusticeDepartment (led by Robert Kennedy) implicated him for corruption in thecontract for the joint Navy-Air Force TFX aircrafts.

在艾森豪威尔执政期间,约翰逊既是参议院多数党领袖,也是军事工业联合体德州部门的关键人物。有趣的是,艾森豪威尔的助手Malcolm Moos和Ralph Williams撰写的告别演说初稿中提到了“军工国会复合体”,但艾森豪威尔却放弃了“国会”一词——或许是出于对约翰逊的恐惧。约翰逊成为副总统并任命他的德克萨斯朋友担任海军司令后,他的腐败问题进一步恶化:
先是John Connally,然后是Fred Korth。1963年10月,在肯尼迪领导下的美国司法部指控他在海-空军联合TFX(试验性战术战斗机)飞机合同中存在腐败行为后,Korth辞职。

NASA wasnot just a camouflage for military developments. It was a manufactured dream tokeep Americans looking up at the sky while their government was committingatrocities in Vietnam. And so, NASA had also close ties with the movieindustry. Its first boss, T. Keith Glennan (1958-1961) had a long experience inrunning film studios in Hollywood (Wisnewski 298).

NASA不仅仅是军事发展的伪装。当美国政府在越南犯下暴行时,让美国人仰望天空,这是一个人为制造的梦想。因此,NASA和电影业也有着密切的联系。它的第一任老板T. KeithGlennan(1958-1961)拥有在好莱坞经营电影制片厂的长期经验。



(1954年,沃特·迪斯尼与“火箭科学之父”沃纳·冯·布劳恩的合影)

During thetransition period between Johnson and Nixon, Apollo 8 allegedly carried threeastronauts ten times around the moon. Then, after two more testing missions(Apollo 9 and 10), six Apollo crew landed on the Moon from 1969 to 1972, allduring Nixon’s presidency. Wisnewski (130-139) provides a spectacular parallelshowing how breaking news related to the Apollo program conveniently turned theAmerican public’s eye away from Vietnam war crimes. Apollo 11 landed on themoon two months after the media revealed illegal bombardment in Cambodia, andthe Apollo program stopped just after the official end of America’s involvementin Southeast Asia. So, writes Wisnewski,
“while theUnited States of America was murdering thousands of Vietnamese people, burningdown one hectare after another of virgin forest and poisoning the land withpesticides, it was at the same time trying to fascinate—or should one sayhypnotize?—the world with a conquest of quite another kind.” (131)

在约翰逊和尼克松之间的过渡时期,阿波罗8号据说搭载了三名宇航员绕月十次。之后,又进行了两次测试任务(阿波罗9号和10号),从1969年到1972年,六名阿波罗宇航员登上了月球,这都是在尼克松担任总统期间。《Wisnewski 》(130-139页)提供了一个惊人的对比,显示了与阿波罗计划有关的突发新闻如何方便地转移了美国公众对越南战争罪行的注意力。
阿波罗11号在媒体揭露柬埔寨境内的非法轰炸两个月后登陆月球,阿波罗计划在美国正式结束对东南亚的干预后停止。所以,Wisnewski写道:

“For therest of the world the cultural and technological thrill caused by the lunarlandings must have been as overwhelming and disarming as the negative blow of September11. To this day the USA draws strength from the boundless admiration generatedby those lunar landings. And I still maintain that this ‘conquest’ of the moon,that ancient myth of humanity, elevated America to the status of a quasi-divinenation. / The moon landings fit in with the country’s overall psychologicalstrategy of self-aggrandizement coupled with subjugating, undermining anddemoralizing others.” (287)
“Civilianspace travel became a form of ‘opium for the people’, a promise of redemptionbringing a new and better future for the universe.” (63)



The deeperlesson is that it was made possible by television, and would have beenimpossible otherwise. Hardly anybody would have believed it if they hadn’t seenit with their own eyes.

更深层次的教训是,电视使这成为可能。如果不是亲眼所见,几乎没有人会相信。

In LewisCarroll’s Through the Looking Glass, Alicetells the White Queen “one can’t believe impossible things,” but the Queeninsists it is possible with enough practice: “When I was your age, I always didit for half-an-hour a day. Why, sometimes I’ve believed as many as siximpossible things before breakfast.” With television, believing in siximpossible moon landings came without effort.

在刘易斯·卡罗尔的《爱丽丝梦游仙境》中,爱丽丝对白皇后说:“人不可能相信不可能的事。”但王后坚持认为只要多加练习就有可能。为什么,有时候我在早餐前已经相信了多达六件不可能的事。有了电视,相信六次不可能登月的想法不费吹灰之力就实现了。

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