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Why does China have a lower GDP per capita than countries like Mexico, Brazil, Turkey, Argentina, and Chile, despite having better technology and broader coverage of various technologies?
为什么中国的人均GDP低于墨西哥、巴西、土耳其、阿根廷和智利等国,尽管中国拥有更好的技术和更广泛的技术覆盖面?

Lucas Karl Hahn, 2012年去过中国6周。.
On what basis are you arguing that China has better technology than these countries? Is there some empirical evidence you can cite or is this just a subjective statement? I don't even know what statistics we can use to assess the technology level of an entire country. 4G penetration? Devices connected to the Internet per capita? High-speed rail travel per person per year? Engineers and scientists graduated every year per capita? Technology seems to be a rather fuzzy concept, something difficult to uate and compare across different countries.
NationMaster gives the Technology Index, comparing countries on "companies' spending on R&D, the creativity of its scientific community, personal computer and internet penetration rates". This is good, but imperfect, as things like R&D spending can be manipulated (a deft accountant might expense items such as office space and office supplies as R&D spending for tax purposes). This index puts all 5 countries above China, although the numbers are a bit dated (2005).
Countries Compared by Economy > Technology index. International Statistics at NationMaster.com
China does have a lot of advanced technology, including Maglev trains in Shanghai, which to my knowledge are the only Maglev trains in the world currently operational (Berlin had some around the time of the reunification). This is really cool. China graduates a lot of talented scientists and engineers, and is catching up to the rest of the world in emerging technology industries such as biotechnology, 3D printing, cloud computing and Big Data, the Internet, and renewable energy. In some fields it might actually be leading. This should all be welcomed, as this has the potential to speed up humanity's technological progress. Global brainpower is growing as countries like China and India go from agriculture to manufacturing/basic services to high-tech. The more scientists and engineers, the better, and the faster our leap from a Type 0 Civilization to a Type I Civilization (planetary society).
But for all this, most of the Chinese labor force is very low-tech in the technology they use. There are hundreds of millions in rural areas, and additional tens of millions in the cities as migrant laborers doing things such as washing dishes, using 19th century technology (water pipes and sinks). China's factory workers basically use their hands, assembling tiny electronic components. The fraction of the labor force involved in high-tech is still very small.
As long as China doesn't use its technological prowess for causing trouble (which goes for all countries) this is a good thing.

你凭什么说中国拥有比这些国家更好的技术? 你能举出一些经验证据吗? 或者这只是一个主观的陈述? 我甚至不知道可以用什么数据来评估整个国家的技术水平。4G普及率?人均上网设备数? 人均每年乘坐高铁旅行?每年工程师和科学家人均毕业数? 术似乎是一个相当模糊的概念,很难在不同的国家进行评估和比较。

NationMaster给出了技术指数,比较了各国“企业在研发上的支出、科学界的创造力、个人电脑和互联网普及率”。这很不错,但并不完美,因为像研发支出这样的数据是可以操纵的(出于税收目的,一个熟练的会计可能会将办公空间和办公用品等项目作为研发支出)。该指数将所有5个国家都排在中国之前,尽管数据有点过时(2005年)。



Martin Andrews
China changes rapidly in just 1 year so this is highly outdated.

中国在短短一年内就变化很大,所以你说的是非常过时的。

Quora User
Global innovation index And bloomberg innovation index,China rank no.29 And No.21,Even higher Than many developed countries.2005 data is very old.

全球创新指数和彭博创新指数显示,中国分别排在29和21位,甚至高于许多发达国家,2005年的数据太过陈旧。



Ko Chikit
2005………it’s really dated…China has developed really fast these year

2005年……它真的过时了……中国今年发展真的很快。

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Richard Bourne, 我在中国生活和工作了四年多,为各种跨国公司和当地公司工作。
What does “Better technology and broader coverage of various technologies” mean?
You mean how in China millions of people still live without running water?
You mean how in China nearly a third of the population still uses outhouses to go to the bathroom?
How about how most food is still transported to market without refrigeration causing massive spoilage?
China has some amazing cities that are the envy of the world. It also has some of the poorest, least developed rural areas in the world. It’s a huge gap between urban and rural, much much larger than any of the countries listed. It’s largely a result of the Hukou system, which separates Chinese into 2 different welfare/social systems at birth. It’s been likened to Apartheid, which is probably a little harsh; but it isnt something to be envied.

“更好的技术和更广泛的技术覆盖面”是什么意思?
你的意思是在中国数百万人没有自来水的生活?
你的意思是在中国近三分之一的人口仍然使用户外厕所吗?
在没有冷藏的情况下,大多数食物仍然被运到市场上从而导致大量的变质?
中国有一些令人羡慕的城市。它还拥有世界上一些最贫穷、最不发达的农村地区。这是城乡之间的巨大差距,远远大于所有列出的国家。这在很大程度上是户口制度的结果,户口制度将中国人在出生时分为两种不同的福利、社会制度。有人把它比作种族隔离,这可能有点苛刻;但这是不值得羡慕的。

Larry Chao
It's very easy to answer your question. China population is 1.4 billions, almost 5 times bigger than America population. So no matter how big its national GDP is, divided by 1400000000, GDP per capita will be lower than most country.

回答你的问题很容易。中国有14亿人口,几乎是美国人口的5倍。所以无论一个国家的GDP有多大,除以1400000000,人均GDP都会低于大多数国家。

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Shuo Yang, 码农和民间经济学家
China is poorer than these countries in GDP per capita, namely the numbers.
In reality, China may not be poorer than these countries. Let me give you some comparison:
1) Mexico: mexico-labor-cheaper-than-china/ Chinese poor poeple in poor villages live a better life than Mexican slumdogs.
2) Turkey: in ordinary cities, monthly salary for ordinary people is about 1000-1100 Turkish lira (1 Lira = 2.7 RMB = 0.45 US dollar), in big cities: 1500-2000 lira, and there are also many poor villages. In China, the salaries for ordinary poeple are nearly the same as Turkey. But in China, experienced professionals in relatively big cities earn much more than Turkey.
3) Malaysia: salaries of white collars/professionals is a few higher than China except for experienced professionals in China's big cities. But the salary for lower-end factory jobs in Malaysia is lower than China. That's why some factories would like to move from China to Malaysia these years.
I think reasons for low GDP per capita of China
Larger countries tend to have relatively lower GDP per capita. For example, the salaries in Monaco are similar to France and the salaries in Macao are less than France, but the GDP per capita of Monaco is 3 times of France while for Macau it is more than 2 times that of France.
The economic activities of China's rural population (mostly old people and kids) are largely mis-counted, coz they grow food for themselves and exchange business takes place in local rural market. But their life could be better than those slumdogs in Brazil and mexico.



William Wang
How's the living cost at Turkey an Malaysia? At least at Shanghai, it's super expensive.

土耳其和马来西亚的生活费用是多少?至少在上海是非常贵的。

Shuo Yang
Turkey is more expensive than China while Malaysia is relatively cheap, but not that much except houses.

土耳其比中国更贵,而马来西亚相对便宜,但也没便宜多少,除了房价。

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Anonymous
Three main reasons for that:
China’s population is enormous and GDP per capita means GDP / #population
The wealth inequality in China is extremely high with a few really rich people and loads of people in poverty. The people under poverty line unfortunately contributes little to GDP due to lack of resources but raise the population variable above
Although this is changing faster, China is still a massive producer of less value aggregated sectors to the rest of the world such as labour intensive and natural resources industries e.g clothing, toys, cheap electronics, etc.
But you’re right about China having better tech than most other developing countries although this is recent phenomenon. See the evolution of the Chinese commercial balance with its biggest partner in Latin America: Brazil.

主要原因是:
中国人口众多,人均GDP就是GDP 除以人口。
中国的财富不平等非常严重,只有少数真正的富人,但有大量的穷人。不幸的是,由于缺乏资源,处于贫困线以下的人对GDP的贡献很小,但却增加了上述人口变量。
尽管这种情况正在加速改变,但中国对世界其它地区而言,仍是一个价值较低的综合行业(如劳动密集型产业和自然资源产业)的大规模生产国。服装、玩具、廉价电子产品等。
但是你说的对,中国比大多数发展中国家拥有更好的技术,尽管这是最近的现象。

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Chen Zhigong (陳治功), lived in Tianjin, China (1997-2015)
You should know that:
China’s area is 9.6 million km^2, slightly smaller than the entire EUROPE(10.2 million km^2)
China's territory is from the tropical to the cold.
China’s population is 1.38 billion, 4 times of USA’s and 1.7 times of the entire Europe.
So as u can see, China is a very unique country, with both incredible area and incredible population.
So I think those countries you mentioned, are not in the same scale with China. China is more comparable with the entire Europe.
In Europe, there are countries with highly developed economy and advanced technologies, like the UK, France, Germany, etc.
In Europe. there are also poor and backward countries like Moldova, Ukraine, Albania, etc.
In China, the tier 1,2,3,4 cities’s metropolitans, all together have a population about 400-500 millions (about 1/3 of the total population of China), the people live there have a living standard not worse than the West European and American, their income and health care are good, their cities are super beautiful and modern, they enjoy the amazing infrastructure even better and moderner than Western Europe’s or US’s. For those areas, China is a developed, rich and advanced country.
While there are poor provinces like Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Tibet, Yunnan,etc, most ppl there live in the countryside and some of them even cannot afford 3 meals of a day. For those areas, China is an undeveloped, poor and backward country.
Always consider: China is a huge country with huge population.



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Pavel Kuznetsov
Like others have already said, low GDP per capita is the reason of huge population.
Second reason - why do you think everyone decided to produce in China? Because labor force there is cheap. But low wages = low GDP
What is important to understand, Chinese provinces are very different.
And there are places, where GDP per capita is relatively big.
Examples are Tianjin and Beijing, where GDP per capita weighted by purchasing power parity is 25 and 21 thousand USD.

正如其他人已经说过的,低人均GDP是人口众多造成的。
第二个原因——你认为为什么每个国家都决定在中国生产? 为那里的劳动力很便宜。但是低工资=低GDP。
重要的是要了解,中国各省份之间的差距是很大的。
还有一些地方,人均GDP相对较高。
以天津和北京为例,按购买力平价计算,这两个城市的人均GDP分别为2.5万美元和2.1万美元。

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Quan Cheng, works at Cairo University
You know Lybia has a GDP per capita over 20,000 dollars right? It still doesn't stop Lybia from becoming an undisirable country to live in. And you know why Lybia has such a high GDP per capita? The oil, of course.
So now you look at Brazil for example, China is Brazil's main export destination, which mainly consisted of raw minerals, agricultural products and ores. But Brazil imported basically everything from China. Plus, Brazil has the highest GINI index of the whole world, which means it has the biggest gap between rich and poor. I think poor Brazilians are living worse than poor Chinese, even Brazil almost doubles China's GDP per capita.

你知道利比亚的人均GDP超过2万美元,对吧? 它仍然没有阻止利比亚成为一个无法生存的国家。你知道为什么利比亚的人均GDP如此之高吗?当然是石油。
以巴西为例,中国是巴西的主要出口目的地,主要由原材料、农产品和矿石组成。但巴西基本上从中国进口所有东西。此外,巴西的基尼指数是全球最高的,这意味着它的贫富差距最大。我认为巴西穷人的生活比中国穷人差,即使巴西的人均GDP几乎是中国的两倍。

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Anonymous
You can think about what is wealth. Wealth is not just a number on paper of your bank account. Wealth is real staff, such as food, land, water, electricity and oil etc. China has 20% of world population, but only 7% of arable land. It is poorer than world average on every metric of per capita resources. If China has only a small population and happen to be an US ally, it would be easily solved by trading with US to share its global trade power, but China is big and unfortunately not considered as an US ally.
A simple example, each US farmer has 10000 acres of land, while each Chinese farmer has 4 acres of land. It doesn't matter how hard they work, what kind technology they use, their productivity is bounded by resources.

你可以想想什么是财富。财富不仅仅是你银行账户上的数字。财富是真实的东西,如粮食、土地、水、电、油等。中国有20%的世界人口,但只有7%的耕地。人均资源的每一个指标都低于世界平均水平。如果中国人口较少,恰巧是美国的盟友,那么与美国进行贸易,分享其全球贸易实力,就很容易解决问题。但不幸的是,中国很大,不被视为美国的盟友。
举个简单的例子,美国农民人均拥有1万英亩土地,而中国农民人均拥有4英亩土地。不管他们工作多么努力,使用什么样的技术,他们的生产力都受到资源的限制。

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James Kielkopf, 经济学家,公共政策顾问,农民
Because, despite China's very recent, intentional shift to embrace urbanization, a large part of its population is still rural based and not participating in China's exchange-based economy from which GDP's can be calculated. The other countries have been part of the capitalist world for a lot longer, so more of their economy has been brought into the urban, market economy and is counted in GDP calculations. China's urban economy -- its economic elite -- is quite large however --larger in scale than many advanced capitalist economies entirely, providing a technological infrastructure for the Chinese elite that can easily surpass the scale and depth of all of the other mid-income developing countries.

因为,尽管中国最近有意转向城镇化,但其很大一部分人口仍是农村人口,不参与中国的以汇率为基础的经济,而中国的GDP可以从这种经济中计算出来。其他国家长期以来都是资本主义世界的一部分,因此他们的经济更多地进入了城市经济和市场经济,并计入了GDP计算中。中国的城市经济——它的经济精英——规模相当大——比许多发达资本主义经济体的规模都要大,这为中国精英提供了一个技术基础,可以轻易地超越所有其他中等收入发展中国家的规模和深度。

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Anonymous
Populations (around numbers)
Mexico: 118 million
Brazil: 201 million
Turkey: 76 million
Argentina: 43 million
Chile: 17 million
Malaysia: 30 million
The total number of population of these countries: 485 million
GDP (PPP) by country
Mexico: $1.927 trillion. $16,111 per capita.
Brazil: $2.505 trillion. $12,526 per capita.
Turkey: $1.426 trillion. $19,080 per capita.
Argentina: $404.483 billion. $18,917 per capita.
Chile: $335.579 billion. $19,067 per capita.
Malaysia: $555.912 billion. $18,509 per capita.
Now let's look at China.
Population: 1.350 billion
GDP: $14.625 trillion. $10,695 per capita.
As you can see China isn't poorer than any of those countries, it's the other way around. It is poorer "per capita" and it's the result of population and the size of China. China has a lot more population than all those countries combined and also the fourth largest country in the world by area.

人口(大约数字)
墨西哥:1.18亿
巴西:2.01亿
土耳其:7600万
阿根廷:4300万
智利:1700万
马来西亚:3000万
这些国家的总人口:4.85亿
按国家划分的GDP(PPP)
墨西哥:1.25万亿美元。人均9304美元。
巴西:1.759万亿美元。人均9895美元。
土耳其:7614万亿美元。人均10512美元。
阿根廷:5895亿美元。人均14467美元。
智利:2509亿美元。人均15070美元。
马来西亚:3924亿美元。人均9813美元。
现在让我们看看中国。
人口:13.5亿
GDP:13.17万亿美元。人均8643美元。
正如你所看到的,中国并不比其他任何一个国家更穷,情况恰恰相反。它的“人均”更穷,这是人口和中国面积的结果。中国的人口比所有这些国家加起来都要多,而且是按面积计算的世界第四大国家。

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Donghwan Kim, College Student. Korean Canadian.
Not many answers explain the two core reasons:
GDP per capita should be compared, not with the “total national technology”, but with “technology per capita”, whatever the criteria is. For example, Sweden has fewer technology than Germany, but per capita basis Sweden has more technology, and Sweden has higher GDP per capita than Germany.
GDP per capita is very dependent on that of your trade partners, mostly neighbors. This is because trade partners often have FTA that decreases the cost of import/export, and hence GDP per capita converges to some degree. Also, close proximity decreases transportation cost, further supporting the converge. Of the three major export markets of China(excluding Hong Kong), only South Korea had recently signed FTA, and USA and Japan are in hostile terms to China. To make things worse, most of the other Chinese neighbors have GDP per capita lower than that of China.



Anonymous
just compare the GDP per capita while ingoring the scale and population of a country is meaningless. you can imagin that if there is a city country with no much technology ,one day found enough oil under its ground. so the GDP per cpita can quickly rise to a developed country level… or a city country with good management focus on developing its port business and travelling …it is much easier to become rich..but for a huge scale country. things get more difficult !

只比较人均GDP而忽略一个国家的规模和人口是没有意义的。你可以想象一下,假如一个城市国家没有太多的技术,突然有一天在地下发现了足够的石油。它们的人均GDP可以迅速上升到发达国家的水平,或者是一个管理良好、注重发展港口业务和旅游的城市国家,变得富裕起来要容易得多。但对于一个巨大的国家来说。事情就变得困难了!

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Axel Zgaib
i dont think china has better technology, at least thats not what i see in in the products they make. im from Argentina and i have tried products from all of this coutries, argentinean, chilean, mexican and brazilian products have variable quality but they are ALWAYS better than their chinese equivalents, the few turkish products that i have access to are also much better than the Chinese

我不认为中国有更好的技术,至少我从他们的产品中看不出来。我来自阿根廷,我尝试过所有这些国家的产品,阿根廷、智利、墨西哥和巴西的产品质量各不相同,但它们总是比中国的同类产品好,我接触到的少数土耳其产品也比中国的好得多。

Wang Xing
Have you ever tried Brazilian High speed railway? or Argentinean smart phone? Or Mexican super computer? Or Chilean mix-power car? Do you have a Turkish fourth generation nuclear power plant in your country?

你试过巴西高铁吗?还是阿根廷的智能手机?还是墨西哥超级计算机?还是智利混合动力汽车?你们国家有土耳其的第四代核电站吗?

Axel Zgaib
we bought regular chinese trains about a year ago and many of them broke almost immediately, while we have argentinean trains made in the 50s that still work perfectly. in my privince theres a company called INVAP that makes satellites and nuclear plants (among many other things) that have been exported to countries like Australia and the Netherlands, also im tiping this in an argentinean smartphone, as for the other countries: chile has little industries because of their extremely free market, but the ones that exist are very competitive. Mexico is an industrial power. personally i own a hatsan air rifle and it is WAY better than any of the chinese ones that i have owned or tried.

大约一年前,我们购买了普通的中国列车,其中许多几乎立刻就坏了,而我们在50年代制造的阿根廷列车仍然运行良好。在我的省,有一家名为INVAP的公司,生产卫星和核电站(还有许多其他的东西),这些卫星和核电站已经出口到澳大利亚和荷兰等国家,我也用阿根廷的智能手机,和其他国家一样:智利的工业很少,因为它们的市场非常自由,但是剩下的那些是非常有竞争力的。墨西哥是一个工业大国。就我个人而言,我拥有一支哈特桑气枪,它比我拥有或尝试过的任何一支中国气枪都要好得多。

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Chris Chen
One thing I would like to share with you is that among all those countries, China has the highest manufacturing value per worker followed by Chile. It means China has the most advanced industrial capability among all those countries.
By the way, China has surpassed the USA to become the country that filed the most international patents in 2018.

我想和大家分享的是,在所有这些国家中,中国的人均制造业产值最高,其次是智利。这意味着中国在所有这些国家中拥有最先进的工业能力。
顺便说一下,中国已经超过美国成为2018年申请国际专利最多的国家。

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Sarp Keskin, International Trade and Supply Chain Management Professional, Consultant
It is already mentioned in many great answers. To add, I can say that I do not believe GDP is a sign of anything regarding the development of the country.
For a extremely large country like China, you may check some other points such as geographic GDP distribution rather than per capita, and also purchasing power parity (PPP). Gini Coefficient is another point to be considered and I believe it is the real trouble for China rather than GDP per capita.

答案已经在许多回答中说了。此外,我不认为GDP是国家发展的标志。
对于像中国这样一个非常大的国家,你可以查看其他一些数据,比如地理GDP分布而不是人均GDP,以及购买力平价。基尼系数是另一个需要考虑的因素,我认为它才是中国真正的问题,而不是人均GDP。

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Gustavo Benatti, lives in Brazil
Mathematics. There is simply too many people in China.
Iceland has a much higher GDP per capita than Brazil. You think that means Iceland has better technology than Brazil? The number of students in my university makes it’s main campus more populous than Iceland’s 2nd most populous city.

中国人太多了。
冰岛的人均GDP比巴西高得多。你认为这意味着冰岛拥有比巴西更好的技术吗?我大学主校区的学生数量比冰岛第二大人口城市都多。