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Diego Garcia: The "UnsinkableCarrier" Springs A Leak

迭戈加西亚:“永不沉没的航空母舰”漏水了

备注:这是ZR新转载的文章,但是实际此事发生在二月份。



Most Americans have never heard of DiegoGarcia for a good reason: No journalist has been allowed there for more than 30years, and the Pentagon keeps the base wrapped in a cocoon of nationalsecurity. Indeed, the UK leased the base to the Americans in 1966 withoutinforming either the British Parliament or the U.S. Congress.

大多数美国人从来没有听说过迭戈加西亚,这里有一个很好的理由:30多年来,没有一个记者被允许去那里,五角大楼以国家安全的理由把基地封锁。事实上,英国在1966年没有通知英国议会或美国国会就把基地租给了美国人。

The February 25 Court decision has put adent in all that by deciding that Great Britain violated United NationsResolution 1514 prohibiting the division of colonies before independence. TheUK broke the Chagos Islands off from Mauritius, a former colony on thesoutheast coast of Africa that Britain decolonized in 1968. At the time,Mauritius obxted, reluctantly agreeing only after Britain threatened towithdraw its offer of independence.

2月25日的法院裁决削弱了这一切,因为英国违反了联合国第1514号决议,该决议禁止在独立前分割殖民地。英国将查戈斯群岛与毛里求斯分开,后者曾是非洲东南海岸的一个殖民地国家,1968年英国让其独立。当时,毛里求斯反对被分割,在英国威胁要撤回其独立提议后才勉强同意。

The Court ruled 13-1 that the UK hadengaged in a “wrongful act” and must decolonize the Chagos “as rapidly aspossible.”

法院以13比1裁定英国具有“不法行为”,必须“尽快”解除查戈斯群岛的殖民地化。

While the ruling is only “advisory,” it comes ata time when the U.S. and its allies are confronting or sanctioning countriesfor supposedly illegal occupations - Russia in the Crimea and China in theSouth China Sea.

虽然这项裁决只是“咨询性的”,但它是在美国及其盟国对抗或制裁据称非法占领的国家时做出来的——俄罗斯在克里米亚以及中国在南海。【译注:南海永远是中国不可分割的一部分】

The suit was brought by Mauritius and someof the 1,500 Chagos islanders who were forcibly removed from the archipelago in1973. The Americans, calling it “sanitizing” the islands, moved the Chagossians more than 1,000 miles toMauritius and the Seychelles, where they’ve languished inpoverty ever since.

这起诉讼是由毛里求斯、以及一部分查戈斯群岛居民提起的,他们在1973年被强行从该群岛赶出去。美国人称之为“净化”这些岛屿,他们将查戈斯人迁移到1000多英里以外的毛里求斯和塞舌尔,从此他们就在那里饱受贫困之苦。

Diego Garcia is the lynchpin for U.S.strategy in the region. With its enormous runways, it can handle B-52, B-1 andB-2 bombers, and huge C-5M, C-17, and C-130 military cargo planes. The lagoonhas been transformed into a naval harbor that can handle an aircraft carrier.The U.S. has built a city — replete with fast food outlets, bars, golf courses and bowlingalleys — that hosts some 3,000 to 5,000 military personnel and civiliancontractors.

迭戈加西亚是美国在该地区战略的核心。它拥有巨大的机场跑道,可以搭载B-52、B-1和B-2轰炸机,以及大型C-5M、C-17和C-130军用运输机。泻湖已被改造成一个可以操控航空母舰的海军港口。美国已经建成了一座拥有快餐店、酒吧、高尔夫球场和保龄球馆的城市,拥有大约3000到5000名军事人员以及民间承包商。

What you can’t find are anynative Chagossians.

但你找不到任何本地的查戈斯人。

The Indian Ocean has become a major theaterof competition between India, the U.S., and Japan on one side, and the growingpresence of China on the other. Tensions have flared between India and Chinaover the Maldives and Sri Lanka, specifically China’s efforts touse ports on those island nations. India recently joined with Japan and theU.S. in a war game — Malabar 18 — that modeled shutting down the strategic Malacca Straits betweenSumatra and Malaysia, through which some 80 percent of China’s energysupplies pass each year.

印度洋已经成为一个主要竞争舞台,一边是印度、美国和日本,而另一边的中国地位也在不断提高。印度和中国在马尔代夫和斯里兰卡问题上的紧张局势已经爆发,特别是中国在这些岛国使用港口的努力。印度最近与日本和美国一起参加了一场战争游戏——马拉巴18号演习——模拟封锁苏门答腊和马来西亚之间的战略性的马六甲海峡,中国每年80%的能源供应都通过这个海峡。

A portion of the exercise involvedanti-submarine warfare aimed at detecting Chinese submarines moving from theSouth China Sea into the Indian Ocean. To Beijing, those submarines areessential for protecting the ring of Chinese-friendly ports that run fromsouthern China to Port Sudan on the east coast of Africa. Much of China’s oil andgas supplies are vulnerable, because they transit the narrow Mandeb Strait thatguards the entrance to the Red Sea and the Strait of Hormuz that overseesaccess to the oil-rich Persian Gulf. The U.S. 5th Fleet controls both straits.

演习的一部分涉及反潜战,旨在探测中国潜艇从南中国海进入印度洋。对北京来说,这些潜艇对于保护从中国南部到非洲东海岸苏丹港这一系列与中国关系不错的港口至关重要。中国的许多石油和天然气供应都很脆弱,因为它们通过狭长的曼德布海峡(曼德布海峡是红海的入口)和霍尔木兹海峡(霍尔木兹海峡是石油资源丰富的波斯湾的入口)。美国第五舰队控制着这两个海峡。



China is indeed trying to secure its energysupplies and also sees the ports as part of its worldwide Road and BeltInitiative trade strategy. Most the ports would be indefensible if a war brokeout.

中国确实在努力确保其能源供应,并将港口视为其全球“一带一路”贸易战略的一部分。但如果爆发战争,大多数港口将无法进行防御。

An “Historic” Decision
Diego Garcia is central to the U.S. war inSomalia, its air attacks in Iraq and Syria, and its control of the PersianGulf, and would be essential in any conflict with Iran. If the currenthostility by Saudi Arabia, Israel, and the U.S. toward Iran actually translatesinto war, the island will quite literally be an unsinkable aircraft carrier.

“历史性”决定
迭戈加西亚是美国在索马里战争、伊拉克和叙利亚空袭以及控制波斯湾的核心,而且在与伊朗的任何冲突中都将是至关重要的。如果沙特阿拉伯、以色列和美国目前对伊朗的敌意真的转化为战争,那么这个岛屿就真的是一艘不沉的航空母舰。

Given the strategic centrality of DiegoGarcia, it’s hard to imagine the US giving it up — or rather, theBritish withdrawing their agreement with Washington and de-colonizing theChagos Islands. In 2016, London extended the Americans’ lease for20 years.

鉴于迭戈加西亚的战略中心地位,很难想象美国会放弃它——或者更确切地说,英国撤回与华盛顿签订的协议,并取消查戈斯群岛的殖民地状态。2016年,伦敦延长了美国人的租期20年。

Mauritius wants the Chagos back, but atthis point doesn’t obxt to the base. It certainly wants a bigger rent check and theright eventually to take the island group back.

毛里求斯希望查戈斯群岛能够回归,但并不反对军事基地的存在。它当然想要一张更大的租金支票,并且最终有权收回这个岛。

It also wants more control over what goeson at Diego Garcia. For instance, the British government admitted that theAmericans were using the island to transit “extraordinaryrenditions,” people seized during the Afghan and Iraq wars between 2002 and2003, many of whom were tortured. Torture is a violation of international law.

它还希望更多地控制迭戈加西亚的局势。例如,英国政府承认,美国人正利用这个岛来运送“非凡的引渡品”,2002年至2003年阿富汗和伊拉克战争期间被抓获的人,其中许多人受到了折磨。这是违反国际法的。

As for the Chagossians, they want to goback.

至于查戈斯人,他们想回去。

Diego Garcia is immensely important forU.S. military and intelligence operations in the region, but it’s just oneof some 800 American military bases on every continent except Antarctica. Thosebases form a worldwide network that allows the U.S. military to deploy advisorsand Special Forces in some 177 countries across the globe. Those forces createtensions that can turn dangerous at a moment’s notice.

迭戈加西亚对美国在该地区的军事和情报行动非常重要,但它只是美国除南极洲外所有大陆大约800个军事基地之一。这些基地构成了一个全球网络,允许美国军方在全球177个国家部署顾问和特种部队。这些力量造成的紧张局势会在一瞬间变得危险。



The fight to de-colonize the Chagos Islandswill now move to the UN General Assembly. In the end, Britain may ignore theGeneral Assembly and the Court, but it will be hard pressed to make a crediblecase for doing so. How Great Britain can argue for international law in theCrimea and South China Sea, while ignoring the International Court of Justiceon the Chagos, will require some fancy footwork.

查戈斯群岛去殖民化的斗争现在将转移到联合国大会。最终,英国可能会忽视联合国大会和法院,但很难就此提出可信的理由。英国如何在克里米亚和南中国海主张国际法,而忽视国际法院对查戈斯的审判,这需要一些狡猾的手段。

In the meantime, Mauritius Prime MinisterPravind Jugnauth calls the Court decision “historic,” and onethat will eventually allow the 6,000 native Chagossians and their descendants “to returnhome.”

与此同时,毛里求斯总理贾格纳特称法院的裁决是“历史性的”,最终将允许6000名土著查戈斯人及其后代“回家”。