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Goats-for-votes pose India deficit risk aspoor lack toilets

当穷人还缺乏厕所时,山羊投票给印度带来了赤字风险



Clara Mary lights an oil lamp in herone-room shack, revealing a 14-inch colour TV sitting on a blue plastic chairthat she hasn’t been able to turn on since the Tamil Nadu government gave it toher three years ago.

克拉拉·玛丽坐在一把蓝色的塑料椅子上,她那间只有一个房间的小屋子里点着一盏油灯,里面有一台14英寸的彩色电视机,自从泰米尔纳德邦政府三年前把这台电视机给了她之后,她就从来没有打开过。

“I don’t have any electricity, so I don’t know what to do with thesethings," Mary, a forty-year-old mother of four, said from the slum insouthern India, where naked children played in garbage next to rats meanderingthrough raw sewage. “We just want basic amenities. We don’t want anyluxuries."

“我没有电,所以我不知道怎么处理这个事情,”作为四个孩子的母亲,40岁的玛丽在印度南部的贫民窟里说道。在那里,赤身裸体的孩子在垃圾堆里玩耍,旁边到处是在未经处理的污水中漫步的老鼠。“我们只想要基本的便利设施,我们不想要任何奢侈品。”



“It’s allabout instant gratification, and the voters are as culpable as the politiciansin all of this," said M.R. Venkatesh, a Chennai-based independent analystwho has written a book about Indian politics. “If you have to give everyoneclean drinking water and schooling, it’s not going to happen in an instant,whereas if I give you a fan, then it’s easier."

“这一切都是因为容易满足,在这里面选民和政客都是罪魁祸首,”曾写过一本关于印度政治书籍的金奈独立分析师卡塔什说。“给所有人提供干净的饮用水和学校教育,这是没法在短时间内做到的,但如果只是给你一个风扇,那就很容易了。”

India’s subsidy bill rose five-fold in thepast decade under Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s ruling Congress party toRs2.6 trillion ($43 billion) a year. In the same period, the Indian economy hasonly doubled in size, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

在印度总理辛格执政的国大党领导下,印度的补贴在过去十年里增长了五倍,达到了每年2.6万亿卢比(430亿美元)。据国际货币基金组织称,同一时期印度的经济规模只翻了一番。

Polls show Modi’s BJP winning the mostseats while falling short of a majority, which would make him reliant onregional parties such as AIADMK to form a government. The BJP, while saying itwill continue the world’s largest food programme providing cheap grain for thepoor, said in its manifesto that it would strictly implement fiscal discipline.

民调显示,莫迪领导的人民党在赢得最多席位的同时,并没有达到占据议会多数席位的标准,这使得他依赖于和像AIDMK这样的地区政党组建联合政府。印度人民党在其宣言中表示,将严格执行财政纪律政策,同时表示将继续实施世界上最大的为穷人提供廉价粮食的计划。



The AIADMK is projecting its leader, formerfilm actress J. Jayalalithaa, as a future prime minister. Campaign posters inthe state depict world leaders such as President Barack Obama and Sri Lanka PresidentMahinda Rajapaksa bowing down to her.

AIDMK计划将其领导人、前电影女演员贾亚拉利塔提名为未来的总理。该邦的竞选海报描绘了世界领导人,如奥巴马总统和斯里兰卡总统拉贾帕克萨向她鞠躬。

Every poor Indian household would get fourgoats, a cow, solar panels and cable television if the party takes power. Poorwomen will get electric blenders, fans and 4 grams of gold if they are gettingmarried.

如果该党掌握权利,每个贫穷的印度家庭都会得到四只山羊、一头牛、太阳能电池板和有线电视。贫穷的女人结婚后会得到电动搅拌机、电风扇和4克黄金。

“These are important welfare programmes because people at the lowerrungs of society cannot afford these things," said B.V. Ramanaa, an AIADMKleader and the state’s minister for revenue. Rural families spend longs daysworking hard in the fields. After work they need some comfort.

“这些都是重要的福利计划,因为社会底层的人负担不起这些东西,”AIDMK领导人、国家财政部长拉马纳弯说。农村家庭花了很长时间在田里辛勤劳动,下班后他们需要一些安慰。

The AIADMK is forecast to win as many as 21of Tamil Nadu’s 39 seats, making it the fourth-biggest party in the 543-memberparliament, according to an opinion poll published this month by CNN-IBN. TheBJP and its allies would win as many as 246 seats, short of the 272 needed fora majority, it said.

根据CNN-IBN本月公布的一项民意调查,预计AIADMK将赢得泰米尔纳德邦39个席位中的21个席位,成为拥有543名议员的议院中的第四大政党。印度人民党及其盟友将赢得多达246个席位,低于多数党所需的272个席位。

S. Subramaniam Balaji, a Chennai-basedlawyer, petitioned Election Commission of India (EC) and Indian courts to stopthe giveaways. “The handouts constitute bribes and are illegal because theIndian constitution says government spending must be for the public, notindividuals," he said.

一位来自金奈的律师,萨布拉曼尼亚.巴拉吉,请求印度选举委员会和印度法院禁止这些赠品。他说:“施舍构成贿赂,这是非法的,因为印度宪法规定政府开支必须是面向公共的,而不是面向个人。”

“The government doesn’t have an infinite amount of money,"Balaji said in an interview in Chennai, formerly known as Madras. “If we arespending on these programmes, we are neglecting far more important areas."

巴拉吉在金奈接受采访时说:“政府不可能有无限的资金。如果我们把钱花在这些项目上,我们就会忽略更重要的领域。”



“When we got the television, we thought that we would get electricityas well but it never arrived," Mary said, standing by her husband. “We arekeeping the television in the hope that one day we can turn it on. That wouldsignal we finally have a better life." Bloomberg

玛丽站在她丈夫身边说:“当我们拿到电视的时候,我们以为我们也能得到电力,但它没有。”“我们一直希望有一天我们能把电视打开。这意味着我们最终会过上更好的生活。