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A US-based expert has said that the upcoming Lok Sabha elections of 2019 will be the most expensive in Indianhistory.

一位美国专家表示,即将到来的2019年印度人民议院选举将是印度历史上最昂贵的选举。



"If the 2014 Lok Sabha elections costan estimated $5 billion, here is little doubt the 2019
election will easily surpass that MilanVaishnav, a senior fellow at a top American think-tank

“如果2014年的印度人民议院选举花费了50亿美元,那么毫无疑问,2019年的印度大选会轻松的超过这个数字,米兰.瓦什纳夫,一个来自美国顶级智囊团的高级研究员说道。

The upcoming general elections in Indiawill be the most expensive in Indian history and perhaps one of the mostexpensive ever held in any democratic country, a US-based expert has said.

即将到来的大选可能是印度历史上最昂贵的一次选举,而且也有可能在所有抿主国家里面是最昂贵的,美国专家说道。

The Election Commission of India is soonexpected to announce its schedule for the polls to be held to elect 543 membersof the Lok Sabha.

印度选举委员会很快就会宣布举行选举的时间表,选举543名人民议院议员。



Noting that the 2014 general electionscosted USD 5 billion, Vaishnav said it was not inconceivable that overallexpenditure will double again this year.

注意到2014年印度大选花费了50亿美元,瓦什纳夫说,让人不敢想象的是,今年的竞选总开支将再次翻倍。

"The exorbitant cost of Indianelections has become a cardinal fact of the Indian political economy that iswidely acknowledged and lamented - including by politicians and their donors.But it is not simply the material outlays that grab one's attention, it is themanner in which the money flows," he said.

“印度选举的高昂成本已经成为印度政治经济的一个基本事实,这一事实得到了广泛的承认和批评,包括政治家和他们的捐助者。但吸引人们注意力的不仅仅是物质支出,还有资金流动的方式,”他说道。

Vaishnav rued that in India there isvirtually zero transparency when it comes to political contributions.

让瓦什纳夫感到遗憾的是,在印度,政治捐款几乎没有透明度。

It is next to impossible to either identifywho has donated money to a politician or party or to figure out from where apolitician has obtained his or her campaign funds, he said.

他说,几乎不可能确定是谁向一个政治家或政党捐款,也不可能确定一个政治家从哪里获得了竞选资金。

Very few donors are willing to disclosetheir political giving for fear of retribution should their preferred party notcome to power, he noted.

他指出,很少有捐助者愿意公开他们的政治献金,因为他们担心如果他们支持的政党没有上台,他们会受到报复。

The system of electoral bond, brought in bythe current government, has not helped either, he argued. The system lackstransparency, he said.

他认为,由现任政府引入的选举资金制度也没有起到任何作用。他说,该系统缺乏透明度。

Specific data can be hard to pin down, butcosts are rising in general as constituency sizes increase and more candidatesjoin the fray, said Simon Chauchard, a Columbia University lecturer who hasfollowed elections in India.

哥伦比亚大学教授西蒙乔查德表示,具体的数据可能难以确定,但随着选区规模的增加以及更多候选人加入竞争,总体上成本是正在上升的。

Social media spending is likely to bedramatically higher, surging to about 50 billion rupees from 2.5 billion rupeesin 2014, Simon said. His group-which bases its projections on field interviews,government data, contracts given out, and other research-also expects a jump inthe use of helicopters, buses and other transportation by traveling candidatesand party workers.

西蒙认为,在社交媒体上的支出可能会大幅增加,从2014年的25亿卢比飙升至约500亿卢比。他的团队根据实地采访、政府数据、合同和其他的研究做出了这项预测,他们还预计,候选人和党务工作者在使用直升机、公共汽车和其他交通工具方面会有一个飞跃提升。

Indian politicians feel "you've got todo new things, and crazier things, and bigger things and louder things,"Mr Chauchard said. "It's a bunch of panicky candidates throwing moneyaround to voters but also to vendors selling all kinds of stuff useful in apolitical campaign."

西蒙.乔查德说,印度政客们觉得“你必须做一些新奇的事情,更疯狂的事情,更大的事情,更容易引起轰动的事情。”人心惶惶的候选人把钱投向选民,他们出售在政治竞选中有用的各种东西。

Here's a look at where some of the moneygoes:

下面是一些竞选资金的去向:

Can Goats Help Win Votes?

山羊能帮助候选人获得选票吗?



To attract a crowd, some politicians mayneed to offer a box of food filled with biryani or chicken curry that can betoo expensive for average citizens. That's not to mention money needed forfirecrackers, chairs, microphones, security and vehicles to ferry theparticipants back and forth.

为了吸引人群,一些政客可能需要提供一些包括印度菜或咖喱鸡的食物,这对普通公民来说太昂贵了,而且还得有为鞭炮、椅子、麦克风、安保和车辆往返接送参与者花费的钱。

Dummy Candidates

假的候选人

India's Election Commission has long warnedabout dummy candidates: nominating someone with the same name as a front runnerto confuse voters and split the vote.

印度选举委员会早就对假的候选人提出过警告:提名一位与竞选领跑者一样名字的候选人,以迷惑选民并分裂选票。

In populous states like Uttar Pradesh,where a name can identify the caste or clan of a particular candidate, thistrick can be especially helpful. In 2014, actress Hema Malini was up againsttwo other Hema Malinis, the Hindustan Times reported.

在北方邦这样人口稠密的州,一个名字可以识别出某个特定候选人的种姓或家族,这种伎俩特别有用。《印度斯坦时报》报道说,2014年,女演员赫玛马利尼与另外两位同样叫做赫玛马利尼的人进行竞争。

But even fielding dummy candidates costmoney. The expense can go as high as 120 million rupees, according to aninvestigation by India Today magazine in 2016. Parties also register multiplecandidates to get around legal caps on how much an individual can spend, withthe most popular member getting most of the resources.

但即使是派出假的候选人也是要花钱的。据《今日印度》杂志2016年的一项调查显示,这笔费用可能高达1.2亿卢比。各个政党还会登记多个候选人,以避开关于个人可以花费多少资金的法定上限,最受支持的候选人会获得大部分的资源。

Campaign spending by political partiesaccounts for almost all India's election outlays. But the Election Commissionhas also faced large costs organising an election with polling stations runningfrom 15,000 feet above sea level in the Himalayas and one for a sole hermitdeep in the jungles of Western India.

政党的竞选开支几乎占了印度选举开支的全部。但是选举委员会也面临着巨大的成本,他们组织了一次选举,在喜马拉雅山海拔15000英尺的地方设立投票站,在印度西部丛林深处设立一个独立的投票站。

India's budget has allocated 2.62 billionrupees to the Election Commission this fiscal year, a new high. Some of thatmay be used for elephants to carry electronic voting machines to relativelyinaccessible regions, and boats to ferry men and materials across the mightyBrahmaputra river in the northeast.

印度预算部门今年向选举委员会拨款26.2亿卢比,创下了新高。其中一些可能被用于携带电子投票机到相对难以接近的地区,以及用船只运送人员和物资穿过东北部的雅鲁藏布江。