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International Women’s Day on March 8celebrates women’s achievements across the world and calls for action to speedup gender equality. Many alcohol companies also see it as an ideal opportunityto market their products to women. Diageo, the world’s largest spirits business,is an official supporter of this year’s international day. It has launched aseries of tie-in videos, mainly of senior female staff talking aboutprofessional and personal challenges they face as women.

3月8日的国际妇女节庆祝的是全世界妇女的成就,并呼吁为了加速男女平等而采取行动。很多酒业公司也将其视为把他们的产品卖给女性的大好机会。全世界最大的酒精饮料大亨帝亚吉欧(DIAGEO)是今年这个国际节日的官方支持者。它已经投放了一系列颇应景的视频,主要是女性高级职员谈论她们作为女性面临的职业和个人挑战。

Diageo’s Smirnoff brand is in the thirdyear of an Equalising Music campaign to increase women’s representation in themusic industry. Originally launched to tie in with International Women’s Day,Smirnoff recently unveiled BBC Radio One DJ Annie Mac to help spearhead thecampaign. For this year’s international day, it is co-launching a new Spotifyfeature called Smirnoff Equaliser that enables users to see what percentage offemale artists they have listened to in the last six months.

帝亚吉欧的斯米诺品牌参与Equalising Music(让音乐平等)运动已经是第三个年头了,该活动旨在增升女性在音乐产业中的代表性。发起该运动的本意是为了配合国际妇女节,最近斯米诺公开了BBC广播1频道的DJ安妮·马克为助力这场运动的先锋。为了今年的这个国际节日,它正在流媒体音乐平台声田(Spotify)上共同发起一个新的特别节目,能使用户看到他们在过去六个月听过的女性艺人的百分比。

(译注:斯米诺为全球销量第一的伏特加品牌)



Women are an important market to thealcohol industry. In the UK, for example, while men still drink significantlymore than women, and suffer more harm as result, the gap has shrunkdramatically. Men born in the early 1900s were 2.2 times more likely than womento drink alcohol; three times more likely to drink in a way that suggested problematicuse; and 3.6 times more likely to experience alcohol-related harms.

对酒业来说女性是重要市场。比如说在英国,虽然男人的饮用量仍远多于女人,也因此遭受了更多伤害,但这个差距已经急剧收缩了。生于20世纪初的男性喝酒的可能性比女性多2.2倍;有不良喝酒习气的比女性多3倍;而且体验过饮酒所招致伤害的比女性多3.6倍。

Men born in the late 1990s, on the otherhand, are only 1.1 times more likely to drink, 1.2 times more likely to drinkproblematically and 1.3 times more likely to experience alcohol-related harms.Many marketers will probably see the remaining gap as proof of growth potentialin women’s drinking.

然而,生于90年代末的男性喝酒的可能性只比女性多1.1倍,有不良饮酒习气的比女性多1.2倍,而体验过饮酒所招致伤害的只比女性多1.3倍。很多市场人员可能会把这种犹存的差距,看成女性饮酒增长潜力的证据。

The pitch

宣传投放

To appeal to women, alcohol companies havegradually developed different drinks, which tend to be sweet, pink, fruitflavoured or low calorie. Their marketing strategies evolved as well. Wherealcohol marketers used to regularly sexualise and objectify women to sellalcohol to men, they now often align brands with fun, sophistication, femalefriendship and empowerment. Baileys, for example, targets millennial girls –and their mothers – with its “Here’s To Us” campaign. This celebrates the“power of female friendship” and encourages women to get together and toast oneanother.

为了吸引女性,酒业公司逐渐创制出不同的酒品,倾向于做成甜的、粉色的、水果味的或是低卡路里的。他们的营销战略也是由此成形。酒类的市场人员以前常常会用突出女人的性特征以及物化女性来把酒卖给男人,现在他们常常会把品牌和乐趣、老于世故、女性间的友谊和自主绑到一起。比如说,百利甜酒瞄准的是千禧世代的女孩以及她们的妈妈,靠的是它的“Here’s to Us(这是给我们准备的)”广告战。赞美的是“女性间友谊的力量”,并鼓励女性聚到一起干上几杯。

(译注:百利甜酒属于爱尔兰威士忌,原料为新鲜优质的爱尔兰奶油、纯正的爱尔兰威士忌、马达加斯加的香草以及天然可可豆)

According to research I co-authored, thereis a clear link between alcohol and our gendered identity: both younger andolder women show people who they are by what they drink and how they drink it.The alcohol industry is well aware of this and exploits it fully in itsadvertising.

根据我参与撰写的一项研究,酒和我们的性别身份认同之间存在着很明显的联系:年轻的女性和年长些的女性都会通过向别人展示自己喝的酒以及喝酒的方式,来昭显自己是怎样的人。酒业相当清楚这一点,并在其广告中充分利用了这一点。

The industry’s pitch to women’s empowermentis particularly strong in poorer countries, which are often less regulated andhave lower advertising costs. For example, Diageo markets a fruit-flavouredalcohol drink called Snapp at women in parts of Africa. According to thestrapline, “Snapp celebrates today’s woman: she is empowered, confident andstylish.”

该产业对女性自主的宣传在穷国力度尤其大,那里往往监管不严,广告成本也更低。比如说,帝亚吉欧在非洲部分地区,向女性推广一款叫做“Snapp”的水果味酒精饮料。按照它标语说的,“Snapp赞美当今的女性:她是自主的,自信的,有范儿的。”

Researchers have argued that this doesn’tonly seek to attract female customers, but also to influence how alcohol isperceived by local women’s networks who might otherwise see female drinkers asdistasteful. This echoes tobacco marketing campaigns over the years: a goodexample is Virginia Slim’s “You’ve Come a Long Way Baby” campaign in the late1960s, which linked the product to women’s liberation.

研究者已经辩称,这不仅仅是为了追求吸引女性消费者,也是为了影响当地的女性关系网对酒的理解,她们可能会把喝酒的女性看成是令人厌恶的。这也呼应了多年来烟草的市场宣传:一个很好的例子是维珍妮牌香烟在60年代末的广告战,“亲爱的,你一路长途跋涉才到了这里”,这就把该产品和女性自由联系在了一起。

The tension in whether alcohol marketinghas women’s interests at heart is possibly most pronounced around“pinkwashing”, where companies engage in breast cancer awareness activitieslike the pink ribbon campaign while selling products that are known to becarcinogenic. For example, some Californian wine producers give money to breastcancer charities for every bottle of wine sold, fund clinical trials for womenwith breast cancer or pay for mammograms.

酒类营销是否真的把女性利益放在心上的不安,也许最能从“自我美化”中作出判断,那些公司会参加那些警惕乳腺癌的活动比如粉红丝带运动,同时卖着众所周知会致癌的产品。比如说,一些加利福尼亚红酒制造商每卖出一瓶红酒就会给乳腺癌慈善团体一笔小钱,以资助罹患乳腺癌女性的临床试验或是为乳腺造影买单。

A study from 2015 emphasised that alcoholis responsible for an estimated 8% of breast cancers worldwide. It raisedconcerns that pinkwashing “contributes to risk in the name of prevention” and“extends the marketing reach with links to charitable causes and access toyoung women, many of whom may already drink at risky levels”.

2015年的一项研究强调:预估全世界有8%的乳腺癌要归咎于饮酒。这就引起了对自我美化“以预防的名义增加了患病风险”的关注,以及“靠着勾连慈善事业和接触到年轻女性的机会来扩大营销范围,这其中的很多人的饮酒量已经到了危险水平”

Brand bandits

品牌强盗



A Diageo spokesperson said: “Diageo’scelebration of International Women’s Day is linked to the strong focus we put oninclusion and diversity as a business. Forty percent of Diageo’s executivecommittee are women; we’ve been ranked the fourth most diverse and inclusivebusiness in the world by Thomson Reuters; are listed in the Bloomberg GenderEquality Index; and have been ranked as the best company in the UK for genderequality by Equileap. Our communications activity is focused on celebrating thewomen and men throughout our business, with the primary objective of engagingpotential future employees.”

帝亚吉欧的一个发言人说过:“帝亚吉欧庆贺国际妇女节,是源于我们作为一家企业对包容性和多样性的高度注重。帝亚吉欧执行委员会中有四成是女性;我们也被汤森路透评为世界上最富多样性和包容性的企业第四名,位列彭博性别平等指数,而且已经被Equileap评为英国性别平等方面首屈一指的公司。我们交流活动的焦点是祝贺整个企业的女性和男性,主要目的是为了吸引潜在的未来员工。”