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本文作者来自曼彻斯特城市大学,攻认知心理学、通灵学方向~

Mind reading and the ability to predict thefuture are not skills people generally associate with the human race. Yet,research shows many people genuinely believe in the existence of psychicpowers.

大体上,人们不会把读心术和预言未来的能力和人类这个种族联系在一起,而研究显示有很多人真的相信通灵力量的存在。



The believers

信徒们

A recent report may help to shed some lighton why people continue to believe in psychic powers. The study tested believersand sceptics with the same level of education and academic performance andfound that people who believe in psychic powers think less analytically. Thismeans that they tend to interpret the world from a subjective personalperspective and fail to consider information critically.

最近的一份报告可以帮忙搞清楚为什么人们会继续相信通灵之力。该研究测试了具有同等教育程度和学业成绩的信徒和怀疑论者,然后发现相信通灵力量的人在思考时更不注重分析。这就意味着他们倾向于从主观的个人视角出发去解读世界,并且无法批判性地看待信息。



This is known as The Barnum effect, acommon psychological phenomenon whereby people tend to accept vague, generalpersonality descxtions as uniquely applicable to themselves.

而这被称为巴纳姆效应,是一种很普遍的心理现象,即人们倾向于接受含糊不清、笼统的性格刻画,并将其视为符合他们自身特征的独特刻画。

Research for example, has shown thatindividuals give high accuracy ratings to descxtions of their personalitythat supposedly are tailored specifically to them, that are in fact vague andgeneral enough to apply to a wide range of people. The name references thecircus man Phineas Taylor Barnum, who had a reputation as a masterpsychological manipulator.

举例来说,研究已经发现:对他们性格特质的刻画,个体会给出很高的准确度评分,这些刻画本该是特别为他们量身定制的,而实际上则是含糊不清且笼统的,完全可以适用于各种不同的人群。该名称取自马戏团人士泰勒·巴纳姆,他因为精通心理操纵而名声在外。

Impossible to validate

无法验证



Mixed evidence

互相矛盾的证据



Whether this is down to lack of analyticalskills, genuine experiences, or just in a bid to make the world a little bitmore interesting, it seems believers will continue to believe – despite scienceindicating otherwise.

无论这种情况是否要归咎于缺少分析技能,是真的有过体验,还是仅仅为了力图让这个世界更有趣一点,看起来信徒们还是会继续相信的,哪怕科学指明的是相反的情况。