原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:骑着毛驴到处走 转载请注明出处



博客(一)

Key to China’s miracle: Nurturing talent and shunning quotas can bring prosperity and transform India

培养人才,减少配额制度,这两项秘诀造就了中国奇迹,我们也可以用这两项秘诀来改变印度

On the same day, ironically, the Rajya Sabha passed the constitutional amendment enabling the whacky 10% quota for the ‘poor’ in higher education and government jobs, an email arrived in my mailbox about an ongoing research project at Harvard comparing meritocracy in India and China. The Harvard project is based on the belief that the two largest and oldest societies in the world can learn from each other in managing talent despite their different political systems.

生活总是充满黑色幽默,就在印度议会通过宪法修正案,将高等教育和政府工作中10%的资源配额划定给“穷人”的同一天。哈佛大学向我发来了一封电子邮件,展示了他们正在进行的一个研究项目——比较印度和中国的精英制度。
这个项目的研究理念是:作为世界上最大、最古老的两个社会群体,尽管中国和印度政治体制不同,但他们在社会管理方面可以相互学习



We are amazed at the rise of China . The ideal of political meritocracy has existed in China from ancient times. More than 2,500 years ago Confucius said that those who govern should do so through merit and virtue, not inherited status. From the 10th century to 1905, Chinese officials were sexted primarily though competitive exams and promoted through rigorous performance assessments.

我们对中国的崛起感到惊讶。中国自古以来就有科举纳贤。2500多年前,孔子就说过,治理国家要靠德行,不能靠世袭地位。从10世纪到1905年,中国主要通过竞争性考试选拔部门人才,并通过严格的绩效考核晋升。



The rise of India after 1991 has also significantly reduced poverty and expanded the middle class. But its success pales in comparison to China’s. What the Harvard project is likely to confirm is that the difference between the two nations lies in meritocracy and state capacity. India’s advantage over China lies in giving its people voice through a vigorous democracy. But its relative failure lies in poorer governance and education. Had India diverted some of its political energy away from reservations and focussed more in enhancing state capacity and placing the most talented officials in the vital sectors of education and governance, the ordinary citizen would have been much better off. With better schools, the most disadvantaged would have had greater opportunities and there would have been greater upward mobility among the poor and low-born.

1991年后印度的崛起同样大大减少了贫困,扩大了中产阶级。但与中国相比,它的成功相形见绌。
哈佛大学的这一项目可能会证实,中印两国之间的差异在于任人唯贤和国家领导能力。印度相较于中国的优势在于,它是一个充满活力的民主国家,能让人民发出自己的声音。但它相较于中国的劣势在于其自身较差的政府治理能力和教育水平。
如果印度能够把部分政治精力从保守理念上挣脱出来,更多地集中于提高国家领导能力,将最有才华的官员安置在教育和管理等关键部门上,普通印度公民的生活境况可能会好得多。有了更好更多的学校,最弱势的群体将有更多的受教育机会,穷人和出身低微的人向上流动的机会也会更大。

i doubt if argumentative Indians will exchange their system for China’s. However, there is much to learn from China’s pursuit of meritocracy. Elected politicians in a democracy will usually privilege the interests of today’s voters at the expense of future generations . This is why a fair number of blockheads end up becoming teachers, policemen, and lower court judges. Bell shows how a relentless focus on merit in China both at the entry level and throughout an official’s career, even at the lowest levels of government, results in solving people’s daily problems and gives political leaders legitimacy in people’s eyes.

话虽如此说,但我怀疑喜好口舌之辩的印度人是否会学习中国的制度。
中国对精英制度的追求有很多值得借鉴之处。在一个民主国家,当选的政治家通常会以牺牲子孙后代的利益为代价,优先考虑当今选民的利益。这也就是为什么有相当多的白痴(受益于配额制度)最终成为了教师、警察和下级法院法官的原因。
而在中国,即使是部门的最基层,选拔和晋升都坚持了能力优先的原则。这样一来,中国群众日常生活中的问题得到解决,自然便有了执政合法性。

(2019年1月9日,印度议会上院审议通过了宪法修正案,允许各邦为经济落后群体制定特别条款,而这些特别条款指的正是为该经济落后群体保留在行政、教育等公共部门高达10%的工作和学习的名额。目前,该修正案将面临司法审查,进而判断其是否违宪。若通过司法审查,在该修正案正式实施前仍需得到全国半数邦以上的认可。
经济落后群体即低种姓贫困群体,由于种姓制度和观念的根深蒂固,低种姓群体难以通过自身的奋斗、努力改变自己的命运。印度议会上院通过的宪法修正案,意在确保低种姓贫困群体在高校入学和公务员选拔中占有10%的名额,以此促进社会公平正义。
印度新的10%配额政策具有明显缺陷,很可能经不起司法复核。即使它侥幸通过,印度也应该重新审视以种姓保留为基础的人才选拔和治国理政制度了。)

评论:



博客(二)

Let’s have a single national college entrance examination like China

印度也应该有一个像中国那样的高考

Professor Ashutosh Varshney has written an interesting piece yesterday questioning how meritocratic is China’s access to higher education. He argues that elite Chinese universities are biased towards students from big cities like Beijing and those from remote provinces are less likely to scrape through and need to score higher. He also compares this system with India which offers reservations for the marginalized to facilitate their access despite lower scores.

瓦什尼教授昨日发表了一篇有趣的文章,他在这篇文章中质疑中国高等教育的择优录取制度。他认为,中国的精英大学偏向于来自北京等大城市的学生,而那些来自偏远省份的学生不但考卷偏难,而且需要获得更高的分数。他还将中国的高考制度与印度进行了比较,他认为印度考试为边缘化人群提供了额外名额(配额制度),以便他们在分数较低的情况下也能上好大学。



评论:

Sain Pries
India is very backward in the higher education as compared to china as not a single university in the top 200 world best universities while China has ...

与中国相比,印度的高等教育非常落后,没有一所印度大学进入世界前200强,而中国有……

Shriniwas Mishra
Again copying without thinking the quality and needs to make India a worldpower will not do good.

不考虑印度的需求和环境,一味地照搬照抄不会让印度成为世界强国

博客(三)

What price India’s democracy versus China’s dictatorship?

印度人总说中国不好,那么印度引以为豪的民主又给印度带来了什么?

Thirty years ago, the Chinese economy and that of India were at par. Today, China has far outstripped India in economic terms, and is set to overtake the US economy, the world’s largest, within the next ten years.
Though India recently reclaimed its lead over China by once again becoming the world’s fastest growing economy, it’ll take decades for us to catch up with China in economic terms, if we ever do.

30年前,中国和印度的经济水平相当。如今,中国在经济方面已远远超过印度,并将在未来10年内超过全球最大的经济体-美国。
尽管印度最近重新夺回了对中国的领先地位,再次成为世界上GDP增长最快的经济体,但我们要想在经济总量上赶上中国,依旧还需要几十年的时间。



Politically, India is riven by the seemingly unbridgeable rift between so-called ‘Modi bhakts’ and their ‘sickularist’ opponents who are branded as anti-national traitors.
Rationalists and those accused of the ‘crime’ of being ‘intellectuals’ face murderous attacks in several parts of the country by right-wing fanatics.
‘Dynastic’ politics, institutionalised by the Nehru-Gandhi family have become a

在政治上,印度被所谓的“莫迪信徒”和逢“印”必反的“病态”恨国者之间的斗争撕裂。
在印度的好几个地区,理性主义者和知识分子遭受着右翼狂热分子的凶残攻击,并被扣上了“罪人”的帽子。
当尼赫鲁-甘地家族建立的制度化“王朝”政治,在印度已经成为一种司空见惯的现象时,我们引以为豪的民主却成为了封建制度的基石,真是一种讽刺。

Various supposedly autonomous organs of the state – from the RBI to the bureaucracy, from the police to the judiciary – are subject to increasing political pressure and control.
Multi-crore scams have become literally a daily affair, with their perpetrators seldom being brought to book.
There is little or no transparency or accountability in radical decisions taken by the government, such as demonetisation, about which even the finance minister was supposedly unaware till the last moment.

从印度储备银行到官僚机构,从警察到司法机构,各种各样被认为是独立自主的国家机构都受到越来越大的政治压力和控制。
数百万美元的诈骗案几乎每天都在发生,罪犯却很少被绳之以法。
政府所做的激进决定,如之前的废钞令,几乎或根本就没有透明度或问责制,就在废钞命令即将公布的最后一刻,当时的印度财政部长仍然被蒙在鼓里,毫不知情。



Sundarv ? Chennai
we are losing out to China on many counts.

我们在许多方面输给了中国。

Ashok ? Bombay
A devastating earthquake hit western China a few years ago. Within one hour, the premier was airborne, to supervise relief efforts. When children perished in the Gorakhpur hospital a few months ago, citizens were exhorted a few days later to celebrate Janamashtmi with gay abandon.

几年前,一场毁灭性的地震袭击了中国西部。不到一个小时,中国就视察救灾工作。几个月前,印度的儿童们在戈拉克布尔医院死亡,而印度的公民们在几天后被劝诫要尽情地庆祝节日。

Harsh Bhola ? Vadodara
China has been fortunate that it got extraordinary leaders.

中国人很幸运,他们有杰出的领导人



博客(四)

To match Nasa and ESA, India-China should form ASA

为了与美国航天局和欧洲航天局抗衡,印度和中国应该组建亚洲航天局

This Independence Day, when Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced India’s manned space mission by 2022, among those surprised were Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) scientists.

今年的独立日,印度总理莫迪宣布印度将在2022年之前完成载人航天任务,这让印度空间研究组织的科学家们感到意外。

India should take the initiative to form an Asian Space Agency (ASA) on the lines of European Space Agency. Small European countries have shown what can be done through joint effort, and multiple opportunities await India and China through such a venture. China has done virtually everything that Russia, the pioneer, and the US have done in the field. India’s expertise in low-cost satellite launches and China’s knowledge of mega rocket ventures can make a winning combination. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has quite a few technologies that can add a cutting edge, making this regional cooperation bigger than ESA or even Nasa.

印度应该采取主动措施,效仿欧洲航天局的做法,建立一个亚洲航天局(ASA)。欧洲小国已经向世界展示了,通过共同努力可以做些什么,印度和中国将通过合资企业获得更多的机会。中国在航天领域几乎做到了俄罗斯和美国所做的一切。而印度则在低成本卫星发射方面有所专长,加上中国在大型火箭项目方面的知识,中印可以形成一个双赢的组合。日本航空航天局也拥有不少技术,印度也可以把日本拉进来,以增加领先优势,亚洲航天局的合作规模将超过欧洲航天局甚至美国宇航局。