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Five things you need to know about 5G, the next generation of wireless tech that’s fueling tensions between the US and China.There was a time when the world’s two great superpowers were obsessed with nuclear weapons technology. Today the flashpoint is between the US and China, and it involves the wireless technology that promises to connect your toaster to the web. The two countries are embroiled in a political war over the Chinese telecommunications company Huawei. The Americans have recently stepped up long-standing criticisms, claiming the tech giant has stolen trade secrets and committed fraud, and that it has ties to the Chinese government and its military. The company denies the charges and has sought to defend its record on privacy and security. Meanwhile, US allies including Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia, Canada, Germany, and Japan have all either imposed restrictions on Huawei’s equipment or are considering doing so, citing national security concerns. Behind the headlines, though, the spat is also about the coming wave of networking technology known as 5G, and who owns it.Here are five things you need to know about the technology and its role in the tensions.

5G是下一代无线技术。该技术的发展加剧了美国和中国之间的紧张关系。在历史上的某段时期。世界上两个主要超级大国都痴迷于核武器的研究。如今,美国和中国之间又有了新的矛盾点,这主要涉及到无线技术。使用该技术可以将面包机连接到网络当中去。中国和美国卷入了一场围绕中国华为公司而产生的争执当中。最近,美国加强了对于华为公司的批评力度。美国声称华为公司窃取了美国的商业机密。同时,美国还指控华为公司涉嫌欺诈。长期以来,美国政府一直指责华为公司与中国官方有着非常紧密的联系。华为公司对于这些指控一概否认。华为公司本身生产各种各样的产品,华为公司对于这些产品进行了详尽的说明。与此同时,英国,新西兰,澳大利亚,加拿大,德国,日本等美国盟国也都以安全为由,对华为公司的通信产品进行了限制。不过,在这些热点新闻的背后,中国与美国之间的这场争吵还涉及到未来的5G网络技术浪潮。谁将主导这项技术,两个国家为此进行激烈的较量。如下五件事是你必须要知道的事情。

1. WHAT IS 5G?

1.什么是5G



Since millimeter waves drop off over short distances, 5G will require more transmitters. A lot of them, sometimes just a few dozen meters apart. Connected devices will hop seamlessly between these transmitters as well as older hardware.

当然,在这种模式之下,传输的距离会受到一些限制。由于5G使用的是毫米波,毫米波在短距离上就会衰减,因此,5G需要更多的发射机。有的时候,发射机之间的距离只有几十米。而那些连接的设备将会在这些发射机之间进行频繁的切换。

To increase bandwidth, 5G cells also make use of a technology known as massive MIMO (multiple input, multiple output). This allows hundreds of antennas to work in parallel, which increases speeds and will help lower latency to around a millisecond (from about 30 milliseconds in 4G) while letting more devices connect. Finally, a technology called full duplex will increase data capacity further still by allowing transmitters and devices to send and receive data on the same frequency. This is done using specialized circuits capable of ensuring that incoming and outgoing signals do not interfere with one another.

为了能够增加带宽,5G网络还使用了一种多输入多输出的技术。这使得数百个天线可以并行进行工作。这一方案提高了传输的速度,同时,这一方案将延迟降低到了1毫秒。在4G的通信技术水平之下,其时间延迟约为30毫秒。5G网络对于技术的扩展使得更多的设备可以连接到网络当中。最后,5G采用了全双工的技术,这使得发射设备和接收设备可以相同的频率发送和接收数据。这一做法进一步提高了传输速度。这种传输方式是通过专门的电路来进行的,这样可以使得传入和传出的信号之间互不干扰。



4. CAN 5G BE MADE SECURE?

4.5G可以变得更安全吗?



Stalling the company’s expansion into Western markets could have the convenient side effect of letting competitors catch up. But there are also legitimate security concerns surrounding 5G—and reasons to think it could be problematic for one company to dominate the space.The US government appears to have decided that it’s simply too risky for a Chinese company to control too much 5G infrastructure.The focus on Huawei makes sense given the importance of 5G, the new complexity and security challenges, and the fact that the Chinese company is poised to be such a huge player. And given the way Chinese companies are answerable to the government, Huawei’s apparent connections with the Chinese military and its cyber operations, and the tightening ties between private industry and the state, this seems a legitimate consideration.But the ongoing fight with Huawei also goes to show how vital new technology is to the future of global competition, economic might, and even international security.

如果阻止华为公司向西方进行扩张的话,那么这可能为那些西方的科技公司带来一个迎头赶上的机会。但是,围绕5G技术也存在着一些安全担忧。我们有理由担忧,如果一家公司完全的主导一种技术的话,那么这家公司将会给整个市场带来风险。美国政府认为。如果让一家中国的技术公司控制太多的5G基础设施,这种做法本身会带来巨大的风险。5G技术本身是非常重要的,也是非常复杂的,他的存在带来了很多安全方面的挑战。华为公司即将成为这场巨大技术盛会的参与者,所以,美国对华为持续保持关注,这种做法是有原因的。中国的很多企业与官方都有着非常紧密的联系,很多私营企业也面临这样的问题。所以,美国的担忧有其合理性。但是,美国对华为公司持续地进行斗争。这一做法也表明,新技术对于全球竞争,对于经济实力乃至国际安全是多么的重要。