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Why China’s electric car industry isleaving Detroit, Japan and Germany in the dust.
-China was no good at cars. Then EVs camealong. Now the Chinese government is embracing the shift from combustion toelectric engines in a way no other country can match.
by Jordyn Dahl December 17, 2018

为什么中国的电动汽车行业正在把底特律、日本和德国甩在身后?
——中国本不擅长制造汽车。然后电动汽车出现了。如今,中国政府正在以其他国家无法比拟的方式,拥抱从内燃机到电动机的变革。
作者:乔丁·达尔 2018年12月17日



After the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s and ’70s crippled China’s economy, the country began to open its markets to the outside world. The aim was to bring in technological know-how from abroad that domestic firms could then assimilate. By the early ’80s, foreign automakers were allowed in on the condition that they form a joint venture with a Chinese partner. These Chinese firms, by working with foreign companies, would eventually gain enough knowledge to function independently.

在上世纪六七十年代中国经济重创后,中国开始对外开放市场。目的是从国外引进技术,然后国内公司对其加以吸收。到上世纪80年代初,外国汽车制造商获准进入中国市场,准入条件是与中国合作伙伴组建一家合资企业。通过与外国公司合作,这些中国公司最终将获得足够的知识,进而能够独立运作。

$14,000
Cost of a license plate for an internal-¬combustion car in Shanghai
$0
Cost of an electric-vehicle plate in Shanghai

14000美元——上海一辆内燃汽车牌照的价格

0——上海一辆电动汽车牌照的价格

Or so the theory went. Chinese-produced cars subsequently flooded the market, but they were largely cheap copycats—they looked like foreign-made cars, but the engines weren’t as good. Carmakers in the US and Europe had too much of a head start for China to catch up.

至少理论是这样的。中国制造的汽车随后充斥市场,但它们大多是廉价的仿制品——外观看起来像外国制造的汽车,但引擎却不那么好。对于中国而言,美国和欧洲的汽车制造商拥有太多的领先优势,无法迎头赶上。



487
Number of EV companies that have launched in China since 2013
Source: Bloomberg

自2013年以来在中国成立的电动汽车公司数量——487

For consumers, the government promised one of the most difficult things to obtain in China’s metropolises: a license plate. To combat pollution, the number of license plates issued each year is strictly limited. Beijing awards them through a lottery, but the chance of getting one in any given year is now 0.2%. Shanghai sells them at an auction with prices of over $14,000, more than the price of many domestically produced cars. Electric-vehicle plates are not only faster to get; they’re free.

对于消费者来说,政府承诺了在中国大城市最难获得的东西之一:牌照。为了治理污染,每年发放的车牌数量受到严格限制。北京通过摇号来发放牌照,但是任何牌照发放年的摇号抽中概率现在只有0.2%。上海的牌照拍卖价格超过1.4万美元,超过了许多国产汽车的价格。电动汽车牌照不仅获得更快,而且还是免费的。



Jordyn Dahl, a freelance writer based in San Francisco, lived in Beijing from 2013 to 2018.

乔丁•达尔,自由撰稿人,2013年至2018年生活在北京,现居旧金山。