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译文简介:华尔街日报详细介绍了中国电动车产业的优势,包括取得的成绩和存在的不足,网友的点评也时有亮点,令人印象深刻。

China ‘Is the Only One in the Race’ to Make Electric Buses, Taxis and Trucks

在电动公交车、出租车和卡车生产领域,中国是赛道上的的唯一领跑者

Chinese makers produced 99% of electric buses deployed globally from 2014 to 2017

从2014年到2017年,中国制造商生产了99% 的电动公交车



作者: Trefor Moss
Dec. 3, 2018

SHANGHAI—A national project to replace millions of gasoline-fueled taxis, buses and trucks with new electric models is boosting China’s ambitions to lead the global shift to battery-powered transportation.

上海—一个旨在用新型电动车取代数以百万计的汽油燃料出租车、公共汽车和卡车的国家项目,正在提升中国引领全球向电动交通运输转变的雄心。

Signs of progress can already be found on American—and Chinese—roads in the form of electric buses and vans built by Chinese makers.

在美国和中国的道路上已经可以看到进步的迹象,比如中国制造商生产的电动公交车和面包车。

When it comes to the commercial electric-vehicle market, “China is the only one in the race; it’s all Chinese manufacturers,” said Sandra Retzer, the Beijing-based head of sustainable mobility at the German Agency for International Cooperation, which is working with the Chinese government to develop green transportation.

在商用电动车市场上,"中国是唯一参与竞争的国家,它们都是中国制造商。"德国国际合作署(German Agency for International Cooperation)驻北京的可持续性交通负责人桑德拉 · 雷泽(Sandra Retzer)说,该机构正与中国合作,发展绿色交通。

Electric vehicles are at the heart of Beijing’s Made in China 2025 industrial strategy, which calls for manufacturers to achieve dominance at home and success abroad in critical future technologies. Some Chinese auto makers have emphasized development of commercial electric vehicles because they hope an early lead in the segment could eventually translate into success in the larger passenger market—and having almost no foreign competition at home on the commercial side has helped them build early momentum.

电动汽车是北京中国制造2025产业战略的核心,这一战略要求在未来关键技术上,制造商要在国内占据主导地位,并在海外取得成功。 一些中国汽车制造商一直强调发展商用电动车,因为他们希望该领域的早期领先地位能够最终转化为在规模更大的乘用车市场上的成功-在国内商用车领域几乎没有外国汽车制造商的竞争,这帮助他们形成了早期的发展势头。(译者注:乘用车主要指包括驾驶员座位在内最多不超过9个座位的车,商用车则包含了所有的载货汽车和9座以上的客车)

China also is forging ahead in its adoption of electric passenger cars: 746,000 were sold in the country in the January-to-October period, compared with 114,000 commercial electric vehicles. But while adoption of passenger electric vehicles largely depends on consumer demand, in the commercial space, Chinese authorities and state-run transportation firms can drive uptake.

中国在电动乘用车方面也取得了进展: 1月至10月期间,中国售出74.6万辆电动乘用车,而商用电动车售出11.4万辆。 尽管乘用电动车的使用在很大程度上取决于消费者需求,但在商用车领域,中国和国营运输公司可以推动消费者的增长。

In China’s southern tech hub of Shenzhen, for example, all buses and taxis will be electric by the end of this year, with generous subsidies helping drive the switch. An e-bus manufacturer receives up to $25,900 in incentives per vehicle sold. China spent more than $48 billion subsidizing electric vehicles from 2009 to 2017, according to the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a U.S. think tank, though subsidies are set to end in 2020.

例如在中国南方的科技中心深圳,到今年年底,所有的公交车和出租车都将变为电力驱动,政府还将提供丰厚的补贴,帮助推动这一转变。 一家电动公交车制造商每售出一辆车可以获得最高25900美元的补贴。 根据美国智库战略与国际研究中心的数据,从2009年到2017年,中国在补贴电动汽车上花费了超过480亿美元,尽管补贴将在2020年结束。

In November, the northeast city of Dalian became the latest to try to move away from gasoline: By 2020, only electric buses and e-taxis will run in central boroughs, with the restrictions spreading to suburban areas later. Dalian followed other cities already implementing a central-government plan for China’s major cities to switch their public fleets to electrics by 2020.

去年11月,东北的大连成为最新一个试图远离汽油的城市: 到2020年,将只有电动公交车和电动出租车在市中心运行,限制措施稍后将扩展到郊区。 其他城市也纷纷效仿大连,中央政府计划在中国主要城市实施一项计划,到2020年将公共汽车改为电动汽车。

To meet the government-created demand, Chinese makers produced 358,000 e-buses from 2014 to 2017, according to Shanghai research consulting firm Automotive Foresight, equivalent to half the country’s urban bus fleet—and 99% of all electric buses deployed globally. Big urban transit contracts are providing a windfall for local manufacturers which, in contrast with the passenger-car market, face almost no foreign competition. In July, for example, Guangzhou ordered 4,810 electric buses worth $795 million, mostly from BYD Co.

上海研究咨询公司 Automotive Foresight 的数据显示,为了满足政府创造的需求,中国制造商从2014年到2017年生产了35.8万辆电动公交车,相当于中国城市公交车队的一半,占全球所有电动公交车的99% ,大型城市交通合同为当地制造商提供了一笔意外之财。与乘用车市场形成对比的是,当地制造商在商用车领域几乎没有外国竞争者。 例如,今年7月,广州订购了4810辆电动公交车,价值7.95亿美元,其中大部分来自比亚迪公司。

Companies that operate vehicle fleets are making similar purchases. In May, state-owned China Post Group said it would stop procuring gasoline vehicles for its vast urban delivery network and buy only electrics from 2020.

经营车队的公司也在进行类似的采购。 今年5月,国有企业中国邮政集团表示,将停止为其庞大的城市配送网络采购汽油车辆,从2020年起只购买电动车。

The prospect of huge contracts has encouraged some local passenger-car makers to diversify, among them Zhejiang Geely Holding Group Co., which launched commercial-electric-vehicle subsidiary Yuan Cheng in 2016. It has sold 6,000 electric trucks and buses over the past year, a company spokesman said.

巨额合同的前景促使一些当地乘用车制造商进行多样化经营,其中包括浙江吉利汽车公司,该公司于2016年推出了商用电动车子公司远成。 一位公司发言人说,在过去的一年里,公司已经售出了6000辆电动卡车和公交车。

Foreign orders are giving Chinese electric-vehicle makers a critical foothold in international markets, arguably vindicating Beijing’s costly efforts to support them. London’s famous black taxicab is now built by another Geely subsidiary, London EV Co., while the city’s newest red double-decker buses are electric models supplied by BYD.

国外订单使中国电动车制造商在国际市场上获得了关键的立足点,这可以说证明了中国所取得的成效,(虽然)支持它们代价高昂。 伦敦著名的黑色出租车目前由吉利的另一家子公司伦敦电动车公司(London EV co.)制造,而伦敦最新的红色双层公交车则由比亚迪(BYD)提供。

BYD has sold electric buses and taxis in roughly 50 countries. It has an e-bus plant in Lancaster, Calif., and has sold 750 buses to U.S. customers.

比亚迪在大约50个国家销售电动公共汽车和出租车。 该公司在加利福尼亚州兰开斯特有一家电动公交车工厂,已经向美国客户销售了750辆公交车。

Chiefly a maker of passenger cars, BYD views commercial sales as a steppingstone to future sales of passenger electric vehicles. Unlike the cutthroat passenger-car business, “the competition in commercial vehicles in the overseas market is not so strong,” said a company spokeswoman.

作为一家主要的乘用车制造商,比亚迪将商用车销售视为未来乘用电动车销售的跳板。 与竞争激烈的乘用车业务不同,"海外市场的商用车竞争没有那么激烈,"该公司发言人表示。

U.S. companies are also buying Chinese electric vehicles. In November, FedEx Corp. said it would add 1,000 electric delivery trucks built by Hangzhou-based manufacturer FDG Electric Vehicles Ltd. to its fleet in California.

美国公司也在购买中国的电动汽车。 去年11月,联邦快递(FedEx)表示,将在加利福尼亚州的车队中增加1000辆电动货车,这些电动货车由总部位于杭州的制造商FDG电动车公司生产。

The Chinese makers’ early lead might not last, however. Foreign commercial-vehicle brands, such as Volkswagen AG’s Scania AB and Volvo AB, dominate high-value sales of gas-powered trucks and vans in China, and most are developing electric models for sale in the country. Nissan Motor Co. already produces electric trucks with its local partner Dongfeng Motor, while a new joint venture between Renault SA and local auto maker Brilliance China Automotive Holdings Ltd. aims to launch three light commercial-electric-vehicle models by 2020.

然而,中国制造商的早期领先优势可能不会持续太久。 大众(Volkswagen AG)旗下的斯堪尼亚(Scania AB)和沃尔沃(Volvo)等外国商用车品牌,在中国的高价值汽油动力卡车和货车销售市场占据主导地位,而且多数品牌都在开发待售的电动车型。 日产汽车公司(Nissan Motor co.)已经与当地合作伙伴东风汽车公司共同生产电动卡车,而雷诺(Renault SA)与当地汽车制造商华晨中国汽车控股有限公司(brilliancechina Automotive Holdings ltd.)组建的一家新合资公司,计划在2020年前推出3款轻型商用电动车。

Meanwhile, both foreign and local auto makers are lining up to develop next-generation electric taxis for China’s massive ride-sharing sector. Earlier this year, the country’s dominant ride-sharing player Didi Chuxing Technology Co. announced it had signed up 31 partners, including the Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance, Toyota Motor Corp. and Volkswagen to produce purpose-built electric vehicles for its platform.

与此同时,国内外汽车制造商都在争相开发下一代电动出租车,以满足中国庞大的共享出行行业的需求。 今年早些时候,中国共享出行行业的主导者滴滴出行技术有限公司宣布与31家合作伙伴签约,包括雷诺-日产-三菱联盟、丰田汽车公司和大众汽车公司,为其平台生产专用电动汽车。

The foreigners playing catch-up have reputation on their side, said Qian Xu, head of consulting firm AlixPartners’ automotive practice in China. Chinese makers of commercial electric vehicles have been beset with customer complaints about reliability, Mr. Xu said, giving foreign auto makers a chance to overhaul China’s early lead.

咨询公司艾睿铂(AlixPartners)中国汽车业务负责人许谦(音译)表示,这些追赶中国市场的外国公司有自己的口碑。 许先生说,中国的商用电动车制造商一直被消费者对可靠性的抱怨所困扰,这给了外国汽车制造商一个改变中国领先地位的机会。