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How long would humans survive if the sun disappeared?

如果太阳消失了,人类还能活多久?

回答一:
Craig Weiler, Science is very interesting to me.
If the sun went out, we would all eventually die, but what would kill us and how long would it take?

原始问题:如果太阳熄灭了,我们最终都会死去,但是什么会杀死我们,需要多长时间呢?

First, once the sun is extinguished, the temperature of the earth will eventually drop to somewhere around 10 degrees above absolute zero, give or take. Those who cannot protect themselves from the cold will die first. How fast the earth cools will vary dramatically.

首先,一旦太阳熄灭了,地球的温度最终会下降到比绝对零度高10度左右,其间略有误差。那些不能保护自己不受寒冷影响的人将首先死去。地球冷却的速度有多快在各个地区是非常不同的。

The surface of the earth isn’t going to get super cold immediately, but it will be fast. I would guess that somewhere around the third day it’s going to start to be uncomfortable for anyone without a good heat source. After a week the average earth temperature will be freezing. 0 deg Celsius, 32 deg Fahrenheit. It will vary tremendously depending on where you live.

地球表面不会马上变得超级寒冷,但这个进程还是很快的。我猜,在第三天,如果没有热源,一些地区就会开始变得不舒适了。一周后,地球的平均温度将会达到零点,也就是零摄氏度,32华氏度。这取决于你住的地方,温度在不同地区会有很大的不同。

It will stay warmer longer near the oceans and get colder faster the farther you get from them and obviously what started out cold will just get colder. It will take 1–3 years for them to freeze over.

离海洋较近的地方,温暖的状态会持续更长的时间,离海洋越远,就冷得越快,很明显,一开始就变得寒冷的地区会变得更冷。这些地区需要1到3年的时间才能被完全冻住。

We can get by for months this way, as the earth slowly cools, but after a year the average surface temperature of the earth will be -73 degrees Celsius, -100 Fahrenheit. An awful lot of people will run out of food and water well before then though.

我们可以在这样的环境下支撑几个月的事件,因为地球是在慢慢冷却下来,但一年后地球的平均表面温度将为零下73摄氏度,也就是零下100华氏度。在那之前,很多人就已经耗尽了食物和水。

If you have a heat source you can survive much longer, but you’ll need food and water. Everyone who somehow managed to survive the cold but didn’t have an ongoing source of food and water will die when their food and water run out.

如果有热源的话,你可以活得更久一点,但你需要食物和水。那些设法在寒冷中生存下来,但没有持续的食物和水的来源的人,在他们的食物和水耗尽的时候,就会死去。

If someone lived near geothermal activity in a well insulated structure and managed to get both heat and electricity, (light) from it indefinitely and had a hydroponic farm, they could go on for 10 to 20 years before the oxygen started to get cold enough to turn to liquid and become rain made of oxygen, and then as it got progressively colder it would become snow.

如果有人住附近有地热活动的地区,并且有很好的绝热结构,并设法获得了热量和电力,从而可以无限期的制造出光,拥有一个水培农场,那么在氧气开始液化为液体,天上开始降下氧构成的雨水,然后继续变冷,开始降下氧构成的雪之前,他们还有10年到20年的事件好活。

Imagine going outside to get a pail of air to bring in and put over the fire so that it would warm up and you could breathe. So while earth still has plenty of oxygen, it’s not going to be in a form you can breathe. Let’s say that after about 30 years or so, everyone is dead.

想象一下,到外面去拿一桶空气,把火放进去,这样它就会暖和起来,你就可以呼吸了。所以虽然地球上仍然有大量的氧气,但它不会以你能呼吸的形式存在。估计在大约30年之后,每个人都会死去。

There are microbes and other life at the bottom of the oceans by geothermal vents. They are too deep for the sun to reach them and use other means to survive. They will never notice the sun is missing and continue on as normal.

海洋底部有依赖于地热喷口的微生物和其他生命存在。它们所处的位置太深了,无法接触到阳光,必须通过其他的方法生存下来。它们永远不会注意到太阳的消失,并将继续保持正常状态。