原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com 翻译:飞雪似炀花 转载请注明出处

These 5 Countries Account for 60% of Plastic Pollution in Oceans

亚洲五国排放了全球60%的海洋塑料污染物



Roughly 8 million tons of plastic is dumped into the world's oceans every year, and according to a new study, the majority of this waste comes from just five countries: China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.

每年大约有八百万吨塑料被倾倒入全世界的海洋中,根据一项最新研究,其中大部分的污染物来自下述五国:中国、印度尼西亚、菲律宾、泰国和越南。

It's projected that by 2025, plastic consumption in Asia will increase by an astonishing 80 percent to surpass 200 million tons. And unless steps are taken to manage this waste properly, in ten short years the ocean could contain one ton of plastic for every three tons of fish, "an unthinkable outcome," the study says.It appears that these five countries are responsible for up to 60 percent of the marine plastic entering our oceans, according to Stemming the Tide, a study released last month by the Ocean Conservancy and McKinsey Center for Business and Environment.

按照预测,至2025年,亚洲的塑料消费将会令人震惊地增加80%,超过2亿吨。除非采取措施对这些垃圾进行合理管理,否则在短短十年内,海洋中塑料和鱼类的重量比将会达到1:3。这项研究指出:"这是一个不可想象的结果。"《阻止浪潮》这份由海洋自然资源管理委员会和麦肯锡商业与环境研究中心在上个月发布的研究表明,这五个国家要对进入我们海洋中的百分之六十的塑料垃圾负责。

Why are these parts of Asia leaking so much plastic? Well, as the study suggests, these emerging countries are experiencing rapid economic growth, reduced poverty and improved quality of life. This development is, of course, fantastic. However, as these economies grow, so does the consumer use of plastic and plastic-intensive goods.

为什么亚洲的这些地区向海洋中倾泻了这么多的垃圾?这份研究猜测,这些新兴国家正在经历经济的快速增长,贫困率的降低和生活质量的改善。当然,这种发展是非常棒的。然而,随着这些经济体的成长,使用塑料或含较多塑料制品的消费者数量也在增加。

The caveat of this increased plastic demand is that these countries do not yet have waste-management infrastructures that can tackle the accompanying excess waste.

日益增加的塑料需求所提出来的警示就是这些国家还没有用于垃圾处理的基础设施,这些基础设施能够解决随之而来的过量垃圾问题。

It makes sense then, as Fast Company observed from the study, that global ocean plastic clean-up efforts should initially be concentrated in these areas.

而《快公司》杂志从这份研究中得出的观察结果就显得比较有道理了,它认为清理全球海洋垃圾的努力应该首先集中于这些区域。

"Specifically, interventions in these five countries could reduce global plastic-waste leakage by approximately 45 percent over the next ten years," the report says.

这份报告提出:"具体来说,在这五个国家进行的干预能够在未来十年将全球的塑料垃圾泄漏量减少大约45%"。

The study's authors came up with the five best approaches (out of 21) to address plastic waste, customized for each country: collection services, closing leakage points in collection facilities, gasification (converting waste into fuel) and MRF-recylcing (diverting plastic from the waste stream).

这份研究的作者(从21种处理方式中)提出了5种最佳的方式,可以适用于每一个国家:垃圾收集服务、关闭收集设施中的泄漏点、气化(将垃圾转变成燃料)和MRF循环(将塑料物质从废水流中分离出来)。

"Coordinated action in just these five countries could significantly reduce the global leakage of plastic waste into the ocean by 2025," the report says.

这份报告指出:"至2025年,这五个国家的协调行动能够大幅度减少全球泄漏到海洋中的塑料垃圾数量。"

"This study outlines a path that can generate considerable benefits to communities, preserve the bio-productivity of the ocean, and reduce risks for industry," the report says. "Concerted action in the form of a $5 billion annual ramp-up in waste-management spending could create a vibrant secondary resource market, trigger investment in packaging and recovery systems, and let the ocean thrive."

这份报告提到:"这项研究勾画出了一条能够对全球社区产生客观有利影响的道路,维持海洋的生物生产力,减少工业生产的风险。通过每年投资50亿美元到垃圾处理设施的量产上的一致行动能够创造出一个活跃的二手资源市场,触发对打包和修复系统的投资,让海洋重现繁荣之景"。

"Of course, extending these interventions to other countries could have even more impact on this global issue," the report points out.

这份报告也指出:"当然,将这些干预措施推广到其他国家去将会对这一全球议题产生更为重大的影响"。

Plastic waste in the Philippines, for instance, is having "drastic consequences on the livelihoods and health of the people of Dagupan," said city mayor Belen Fernandez in a press release for the study.

比如在这份报告的媒体发布会上,达古潘市长Belen Fernandez便提及了:在菲律宾,塑料垃圾已经"对达古潘人民的生活和健康造成了严重的后果。

“Our town has had a dump site on our beach for over 50 years," he continued about the coastal Philippine city. "We're working hard to close the dump, and increase the capacity of waste management in Dagupan. Addressing the problem of ocean plastic will have real benefits for not just the environment, but for our citizens—by improving their quality of life. I hope our city and our work will become a model for what's possible around the world."

他继续谈及这个菲律宾海岸城市:"在过去的五十年里,我们的城市将垃圾场设置在了海滩上。我们非常努力地关闭了这个垃圾场,增加了达古潘的垃圾处理能力。解决海洋塑料的问题不仅对环境有好处,对于我们的人民也有好处——因为这样做可以提高他们的生活质量。我希望我们的城市和我们的城市可以成为全世界的一个典范。

Andreas Merkl, CEO of Ocean Conservancy, said in a statement that the study is the first to outline a specific path forward for the reduction and ultimate elimination of plastic waste in the oceans.

海洋自然资源管理委员会的首席执行官Andreas Merkl在一封声明中宣称,这是第一项勾画出减少和最终消灭海洋塑料垃圾的详细路径的研究。

“The report's findings confirm what many have long thought—that ocean plastic solutions actually begin on land. It will take a coordinated effort of industry, NGOs and government to solve this growing economic and environmental problem," he said.

他说:"这份报告的发现确认了许多人长期以来的想法——海洋垃圾的解决方案事实上在陆地上。工业部门、非政府组织和政府需要采取协调行动以解决日益严重的经济与环境问题"。