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DOCUMENTING HATE

记录仇恨系列

Hate crimes and bias incidents are a national problem, but there’s no reliable data on the nature or prence of the violence. We’re collecting and verifying reports to create a national database for use by journalists, researchers and civil-rights organizations.

仇恨犯罪和偏见事件是全国性问题,但并没有关于自然暴力行为和普遍性暴力行为的可靠的数据。我们正在收集和核查这类报告,准备创建国家数据库,供记者,研究人员和民间人权组织使用。

【作者】A.C. Thompson

【发表日期】2017年2月8日

When the Government Really Did Fear a Bowling Green Massacre — From a White Supremacist

当政府曾真的担忧鲍灵格林大屠杀 - 来自白人至上主义

Assault rifles, body armor, a possible kill list, but not much attention when feds arrested a white man they said was bent on “race war.”

突击步枪,护甲,嫌疑杀人名单,但是,当联邦调查员逮捕了一名白人并声称他要为“种族”而战时,无人在意。

This story was co-published with The New York Times.

本报道和纽约时报联合发布

The year was 2012. The place was Bowling Green, Ohio. A federal raid had uncovered what the authorities feared were the makings of a massacre. There were 18 firearms, among them two AR–15 assault rifles, an AR-10 assault rifle and a Remington Model 700 sniper rifle. There was body armor, too, and the authorities counted some 40,000 rounds of ammunition. An extremist had been arrested, and prosecutors suspected that he had been aiming to carry out a wide assortment of killings.

2012那一年,案发地点是俄亥俄州的鲍灵格林,一次联邦调查局的突袭揭发当局的忧虑-酝酿中的屠杀事件。 本案件发现18支枪械,其中有两架AR-15型突击步枪,一架AR-10型突击步枪和一架雷朋顿700型狙击步枪。 同时还发现防弹衣,四万发弹药。 一名极端分子被捕,检察官怀疑他一直打算进行各种各样的杀人计划。

“This defendant, quite simply, was a well-funded, well-armed and focused one-man army of racial and religious hate,” prosecutors said in a court filing.

检察官在法庭上提出,“这个被告很简单,他是一个资金充足,装备精良和专注于种族和宗教仇恨的一人军队。”

The man arrested and charged was Richard Schmidt, a middleaged owner of a business at a mall in town. Prosecutors would later call him a white supremacist. His planned targets, federal authorities said, had been AfricanAmericans and Jews. They’d found a list with the names and addresses of those to be assassinated, including the leaders of NAACP chapters in Michigan and Ohio.

该名被捕和被控告男子名叫理查德·施密特(Richard Schmidt),是一名在镇上商城里经营运动纪念品生意的中年老板。 检察官稍后会称他为白人至上主义者。 联邦当局说,他的计划目标是非洲裔美国人和犹太人。 他们找到了一份记录将被暗杀的人物和地址的名单,其中包括在密歇根州和俄亥俄州的NAACP分会的领导。

注:NAACP-全国有色人种协进会(National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)是一个由美国白人和黑人组成的旨在促进黑人民权的全国性组织。

But Schmidt wound up being sentenced to less than six years in prison, after a federal judge said prosecutors had failed to adequately establish that he was a political terrorist, and he is scheduled for release in February 2018. The foiling of what the government worried was a credible plan for mass murder gained little national attention.

但是,联邦法官认为,检察官未能充分证明该男子是政治恐怖分子,最终施密特被判处不到六年的监禁,并将于2018年2月被释放。地方政府担心的是什么? 这个证据确凿的大谋杀计划并没能获得国家关注。

For some concerned about America’s vulnerability to terrorism, the very real, mostly forgotten case of Richard Schmidt in Bowling Green, Ohio, deserves an important place in any debate about what is real and what is fake, what gets reported on by the news media and what doesn’t. Those deeply worried about domestic far-right terrorism believe United States authorities, across many administrations, have regularly underplayed the threat, and that the media has repeatedly underreported it. Perhaps we have become trapped in one view of what constitutes the terrorist threat, and as the case of Schmidt shows, that’s a problem.

对于一些担心美国有恐怖主义倾向的人而言,这个非常真实和几乎被遗忘的鲍灵格林理查德·施密特案件,十分值得在这么重要的场合上争论,关于什么是真实?什么是伪造?新闻媒体该报道什么?和 不报道什么? 那些对国内那些极端保守的恐怖主义者感到担忧的人相信美国联邦当局跨越了许多行政机关,经常性地忽视这种威胁,媒体也一再漏报。 也许我们已经陷入了风声鹤唳的状态,正如施密特案件突显的,那是一个大问题。

The notion of a “Bowling Green massacre,” of course, has been in the news recently. Kellyanne Conway, a senior adviser to President Donald Trump, referred to it in justifying the president’s travel ban on people from seven predominantly Muslim countries. Conway had Bowling Green, Kentucky, in mind, but she eventually conceded there had been no massacre there. She meant, she said, to refer to the 2011 case of two Iraqi refugees who had moved to Kentucky and been convicted of trying to aid attacks on American military personnel in Iraq. One was sentenced to 40 years, the other to life in prison.

最近“鲍灵格林大屠杀”又火起来了。 总统唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)的高级顾问凯利安·康威(Kellyanne Conway)提及这个事件,为总统针对七个穆斯林国家旅游的禁令做了辩护。康威当时记错了,说的是肯塔基州的鲍灵格林。最终她承认这个错误,肯塔基州的鲍灵格林实际并没有发生大屠杀。 她说,她之前指的是2011年搬到肯塔基州的两名伊拉克难民的案件,被控告试图援助袭击美国在伊拉克的军事人员。 一人被判处40年有期徒刑,另有一人被判终身监禁。

Her gaffe, accidental or intentional, prompted a mock vigil in New York and a flood of internet memes. The imaginary massacre now even has its own Wikipedia page.

这次康威有意还是无意的出洋相,人们在纽约甚至为那些在这场杜撰的大屠杀死去的人举办了假的守灵会,互联网也掀起了表情包热潮, 现在维基百科上甚至还有了这次虚构出来的屠杀的专页。

On Monday, Trump made the provocative, unsubstantiated claim that the American media intentionally failed to cover acts of terrorism around the globe. “It’s gotten to a point where it’s not even being reported,” he said in a speech to military commanders. “And in many cases the very, very dishonest press doesn’t want to report it. They have their reasons, and you understand that.”

特朗普在星期一充满挑衅却毫无根据的声称:美国媒体故意掩盖了全球性的恐怖主义行动。 他说:“甚至已经到没有报道的地步。”他在面向军事指挥官的演讲中说。 “在许多情况下,这些非常非常不诚实的新闻出版社根本不想报告。 他们有自己的一套说法,你们懂的。“

At the Southern Poverty Law Center, Ryan Lenz tracks racist and extreme-right terrorists. So far, he said, he’s seen little from the Trump administration to suggest it will make a priority of combating political violence carried out by American racist groups.

在南方贫民法律中心,瑞恩·兰茨(Ryan Lenz)从事追踪种族主义和极右翼的恐怖分子相关工作。 他说到目前为止,从特朗普政府那里几乎看不到任何可能性,关于他们将优先打击美国种族主义团体的政治暴力。

“It doesn’t seem at all like they are interested in pursuing extremists inspired by radical right ideologies,” said Lenz, who edits the organization’s HateWatch publication.

Lenz是该组织出版物Hate Watch的小编,说,“似乎他们根本没兴趣追查被激进右翼意识形态激发的极端分子。“

Indeed, Reuters reported last week that the Department of Homeland Security is planning to retool its Countering Violent Extremism program to focus solely on Islamic radicals. Government sources told the news agency the program would be rebranded as “Countering Islamic Extremism” or “Countering Radical Islamic Extremism,” and “would no longer target groups such as white supremacists who have also carried out bombings and shootings in the United States.”

事实上,路透社上周报道说,国土安全部正在计划重新制定反对极端主义暴力计划,但目标仅锁定那些伊斯兰激进分子。 政府消息人士告诉媒体,这项计划将被重新命名为“打击伊斯兰极端主义”或“打击激进的伊斯兰极端主义”,消息称这种暴力计划“不再针对在美国炸弹袭击和枪杀的白人至上主义者”。

It wouldn’t be the first time the Department of Homeland Security chose to look away. In 2009, Daryl Johnson, then an analyst with the department, drafted a study of right-wing radicals in the United States. Johnson saw a confluence of factors that might energize the movement and its threat: the historic election of an African-American president; rising rates of immigration; proposed gun control legislation; and a wave of military veterans returning to civilian life at a time of painful economic recession.

这并不是国土安全部第一次选择性对待。 2009年,该部门分析师达利尔·约翰逊(Daryl Johnson)起草了一份关于美国右翼激进分子的研究报道。 约翰逊看到汇总起来激化矛盾和增大威胁性的可能的各种因素:非裔美国人总统的历史性选举; 移民率上升; 枪支管制立法被提及; 在经济衰退难熬,一批退伍军人返回平民生活。

The report predicted an uptick in extremist activity, particularly within “the white supremacist and militia movements.”

该报告预测,特别是在“白人至上主义和自卫军活动中“,极端主义的活动频率是上升的趋势。

Response to the document was swift and punishing. Conservative news outlets and Republican leaders condemned Johnson’s report as a work of “anti-military bigotry” and an attack on conservative opinion. Janet Napolitano, the head of Homeland Security at the time, retracted the report and closed Johnson’s office, the Extremism and Radicalization Branch.

然而,联邦政府对这份报道的回应十分迅速,而且是惩罚性的。 保守党的新闻媒体和共和党领导人集体谴责约翰逊的报告是“反军事偏执狂"的产物,是针对保守派观点的攻击。 当时国土安全部负责人珍妮特·纳波利塔诺(Janet Napolitano)撤回了该报告,并封掉了约翰逊的办公室-极端和激进主义分支。

Three years later, Richard Schmidt came to the attention of the federal government almost by accident. Schmidt had been suspected of trading in counterfeit NFL jerseys. Searching his home and store for fake goods, FBI agents discovered something far more sinister: a vast arsenal. A secret room attached to Schmidt’s shop “contained nothing but his rifles, ammunition, body armor, his writings and a cot,” wrote prosecutors in a court document.

三年后,理查德·施密特几乎是偶然性地引起了联邦政府的注意。 起因是施密特涉嫌伪造NFL(美国家橄榄球联盟)球衣。 联邦调查局的特工想搜查他的家和假货库存,却发现了一件更加险恶的东西:一个巨大的武器库。 检察官在法庭文件中写道,连着于施密特商店的秘室“除了他的步枪,弹药,装甲,著作和一张小床,别无他物。“



Richard Schmidt (Department of Justice)

理查德·施密特(司法部)

Beefy, thick-necked, standing 6-foot-4 and weighing about 250 pounds, Schmidt had spent years in the Army as an active-duty soldier and a reservist. His military service ended in 1989 when he got into a fight and shot three people, killing one of them, a man named Anthony Torres. As a result, Schmidt spent 13 years in prison on a manslaughter conviction and was legally barred from owning firearms.

壮实,厚颈,站立6尺4,重约250磅,施密特在军队中多年担任过现役士兵和后备役军人。 他于1989年服役结束,原因是他参与一起斗殴事件,持枪打了三人,杀死了一个名叫安东尼·托雷斯(Anthony Torres)的人。 结果,施密特以误杀罪名被判处13年徒刑,并被法律禁止拥有枪支。

After searching his property, the government came to believe he was involved with the National Alliance, a virulent and long-running extremist group, which was once among the nation’s most powerful white supremacist organizations. They also suspected him of an affiliation with the Vinlanders, a neo-Nazi skinhead gang.

在搜查财产后,政府开始相信他加入了全国联盟,一个恶性和常年运作的极端主义团体,曾经是全国最强大的白人至上主义组织之一。 他们也怀疑他是与新纳粹光头党黑帮Vinlanders有联系的。

Founded by William Pierce, who died in 2002, the National Alliance has long been lixed to terrorism. Pierce, who started the group in 1970 and ran it for many years from a compound in West Virginia, wrote “The Turner Diaries,” an apocalyptic novel that basically lays out a blueprint for unleashing a white supremacist insurgency against the government. The novel was described by Timothy J. McVeigh as the inspiration for his bombing in 1995 of a federal office building in Oklahoma City, killing 168 people.

成立了这个团伙的威廉·皮尔斯(William Pierce)于2002年去世,全国联盟长期以来与恐怖主义关系暧昧。 皮埃尔斯于1970年在西弗吉尼亚州的信地创办这个组织和领导该组织多年,写下了“特纳日记”,一本启示录的小说,基本上阐述了向政府发动白种人至上的叛乱蓝图。 这部小说被蒂莫西·詹姆斯·麦克维(Timothy J. McVeigh)称为他1995年轰炸在俄克拉荷马城的联邦办公大楼灵感来源,当时造成168人死亡。(炸毁了十多栋楼,805个人受伤,是911事件之前在美国本土发生的死亡人数最多的恐怖袭击。)

FBI agents came to believe Schmidt had been planning his own string of racially motivated attacks on African-American and Jewish community leaders. The agents spread out across Ohio and Michigan to alx his apparent targets. “They had a notebook of information from Schmidt’s home,” recalled Scott Kaufman, the chief executive of the Jewish Federation of Metropolitan Detroit. “Some of the items related specifically to our organization and staff — people’s names, locations, maps. It was certainly disturbing.”

联邦调查局特工相信,施密特一直基于白种人至上动机在策划自己的一系列攻击非洲裔美国人和犹太社区领袖行动。 特工们扩散到在俄亥俄州和密歇根州,以提醒他的目标人物。 底特律大都会犹太联邦首席执行官斯科特·考夫曼(Scott Kaufman)回忆说:“他们拿着来自施密特的笔记本。 “有些特地圈出了我们的组织的工作人员 - 包括他们的姓名,地点,住址。 这让人毛骨悚然。“

In court, the defense lawyer Edward G. Bryan disputed the government’s portrayal of Schmidt, who was 47 at the time of his arrest. Bryan painted his client as a slightly eccentric survivalist who didn’t intend to “harm anyone, including those listed in written materials found within his property.”

在法庭上,辩护律师爱德华·布赖恩(Edward G. Bryan)就政府对施密特的控告提出异议,施密特在被捕时是47岁。 布莱恩把他的客户描绘成一个稍微怪癖的生存专家,他不打算“伤害任何人,包括在他的所有物被发现的书面资料中列出的那些人”。

The government saw it differently. Schmidt, prosecutors wrote in a sentencing memo filed in court, planned to assassinate “members of religious and cultural groups based only on their race, religion and ethnicity.” His cache of weapons, added prosecutors, had only one purpose: to start a “race war.” Other court documents suggest that he planned to videotape his killing spree and email the video clips to his fellow white supremacists.

政府看起来有所不同。 检察官在法庭上提交的一项判决书中写道,施密特,计划暗杀“按种族,区域划分的宗教和文化团体成员”。他私藏武器的目的只有一个:启动“ 种族战争“。其他法庭文件表明,他计划录像他的杀戮盛宴,并通过电子邮件将视频发送给其他白人至上主义追随者。

After pleading guilty to weapons and counterfeiting charges, Schmidt was sentenced to 71 months in federal prison by Judge Jack Zouhary in December 2013.

在承认私藏武器和假冒产品的指控后,施密特于2013年12月被杰克·祖哈里(Jack Zouhary) 法官判处在联邦监狱禁闭71个月

These days, Kaufman of the Jewish Federation in Detroit doesn’t think much about Schmidt. He’s got plenty of other things to worry about. “In the last two weeks in our community we’ve had two bomb scares,” as well as an incident involving spray-painted swastikas, he said. He’s noted a spike in anti-Semitic incidents over the past year.

这些天,底特律犹太联邦的考夫曼(Scott Kaufman)对施密特并没有闲暇想太多。 他还有很多其他的事情要担心。 他说:我们社区在两周内,发生了两次炸弹恐慌,以及涉及燕麦田被喷漆事件。 考夫曼注意到在过去一年中反犹太人事件概率的飙升。

“This whole thing is trending in the wrong direction,” he said.

他说:“整个事态正走向错误的方向。”